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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919336

ABSTRACT

Stiripentol is an anti-epileptic drug for the treating of refractory status epilepticus. It has been reported that stiripentol can attenuate seizure severity and reduce seizure-induced neuronal damage in animal models of epilepsy. The objective of the present study was to investigate effects of post-treatment with stiripentol on cognitive deficit and neuronal damage in the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) region of the hippocampus proper following transient ischemia in the forebrain of gerbils. To evaluate ischemia-induced cognitive impairments, passive avoidance test and 8-arm radial maze test were performed. It was found that post-treatment with stiripentol at 20 mg/kg, but not 10 or 15 mg/kg, reduced ischemia-induced memory impairment. Transient ischemia-induced neuronal death in the CA1 region was also significantly attenuated only by 20 mg/kg stiripentol treatment after transient ischemia. In addition, 20 mg/kg stiripentol treatment significantly decreased ischemia-induced astrocyte damage and immunoglobulin G leakage. In brief, stiripentol treatment after transient ischemia ameliorated transient ischemia-induced cognitive impairment in gerbils, showing that pyramidal neurons were protected and astrocyte damage and blood brain barrier leakage were significantly attenuated in the hippocampus. Results of this study suggest stiripentol can be developed as a candidate of therapeutic drug for ischemic stroke.

2.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 185-192, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894966

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hypothermic treatment is known to protect organs against cardiac arrest (CA) and improves survival rate. However, few studies have evaluated the effects of hypothermia on CA-induced liver damages. This study was designed to analyzed the possible protective effects of hypothermia on the liver after asphyxial CA (ACA). Rats were randomly subjected to 5 min of ACA followed by return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Body temperature was controlled at 37 ± 0.5 °C (normothermia group) or 33 ± 0.5 °C (hypothermia group) for 4 h after ROSC. Liver tissues were extracted and examined at 6 h, 12 h, 1 day, and 2 days after ROSC. @*Results@#The expression of infiltrated neutrophil marker CD11b and matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP9) was investigated via immunohistochemistry. Morphological damage was assessed via hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) staining. Hypothermic treatment improved the survival rate at 6 h, 12 h, 1 day, and 2 days after ACA. Based on immunohistochemical analysis, the expression of CD11b and MMP9 was significantly increased from 6 h after ACA in the normothermia group. However, the expressions of CD11b and MMP9 was significantly decreased in the hypothermia group compared with that of the normothermia group. In addition, in the results of H & E, sinusoidal dilatation and vacuolization were apparent after ACA; however, these ACA-induced structural changes were reduced by the 4 h-long hypothermia. @*Conclusions@#In conclusion, hypothermic treatment for 4 h inhibited the increases in CD11b and MMP9 expression and reduced the morphological damages in the liver following ACA in rats. This study suggests that hypothermic treatment after ACA reduces liver damages by regulating the expression of CD11b and MMP9.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894944

ABSTRACT

Background@#Aging is one of major causes triggering neurophysiological changes in many brain substructures, including the hippocampus, which has a major role in learning and memory. Thioredoxin (Trx) is a class of small redox proteins. Among the Trx family, Trx2 plays an important role in the regulation of mitochondrial membrane potential and is controlled by TrxR2. Hitherto, age-dependent alterations in Trx2 and TrxR2 in aged hippocampi have been poorly investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine changes in Trx2 and TrxR2 in mouse and rat hippocampi by age and to compare their differences between mice and rats. @*Results@#Trx2 and TrxR2 levels using Western blots in mice were the highest at young age and gradually reduced with time, showing that no significant differences in the levels were found between the two subfields. In rats, however, their expression levels were the lowest at young age and gradually increased with time. Nevertheless, there were no differences in cellular distribution and morphology in their hippocampi when it was observed by cresyl violet staining. In addition, both Trx2 and TrxR2 immunoreactivities in the CA1-3 fields were mainly shown in pyramidal cells (principal cells), showing that their immunoreactivities were altered like changes in their protein levels. @*Conclusions@#Our current findings suggest that Trx2 and TrxR2 expressions in the brain may be different according to brain regions, age and species. Therefore, further studies are needed to examine the reasons of the differences of Trx2 and TrxR2 expressions in the hippocampus between mice and rats.

4.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 185-192, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902670

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hypothermic treatment is known to protect organs against cardiac arrest (CA) and improves survival rate. However, few studies have evaluated the effects of hypothermia on CA-induced liver damages. This study was designed to analyzed the possible protective effects of hypothermia on the liver after asphyxial CA (ACA). Rats were randomly subjected to 5 min of ACA followed by return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Body temperature was controlled at 37 ± 0.5 °C (normothermia group) or 33 ± 0.5 °C (hypothermia group) for 4 h after ROSC. Liver tissues were extracted and examined at 6 h, 12 h, 1 day, and 2 days after ROSC. @*Results@#The expression of infiltrated neutrophil marker CD11b and matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP9) was investigated via immunohistochemistry. Morphological damage was assessed via hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) staining. Hypothermic treatment improved the survival rate at 6 h, 12 h, 1 day, and 2 days after ACA. Based on immunohistochemical analysis, the expression of CD11b and MMP9 was significantly increased from 6 h after ACA in the normothermia group. However, the expressions of CD11b and MMP9 was significantly decreased in the hypothermia group compared with that of the normothermia group. In addition, in the results of H & E, sinusoidal dilatation and vacuolization were apparent after ACA; however, these ACA-induced structural changes were reduced by the 4 h-long hypothermia. @*Conclusions@#In conclusion, hypothermic treatment for 4 h inhibited the increases in CD11b and MMP9 expression and reduced the morphological damages in the liver following ACA in rats. This study suggests that hypothermic treatment after ACA reduces liver damages by regulating the expression of CD11b and MMP9.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902648

ABSTRACT

Background@#Aging is one of major causes triggering neurophysiological changes in many brain substructures, including the hippocampus, which has a major role in learning and memory. Thioredoxin (Trx) is a class of small redox proteins. Among the Trx family, Trx2 plays an important role in the regulation of mitochondrial membrane potential and is controlled by TrxR2. Hitherto, age-dependent alterations in Trx2 and TrxR2 in aged hippocampi have been poorly investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine changes in Trx2 and TrxR2 in mouse and rat hippocampi by age and to compare their differences between mice and rats. @*Results@#Trx2 and TrxR2 levels using Western blots in mice were the highest at young age and gradually reduced with time, showing that no significant differences in the levels were found between the two subfields. In rats, however, their expression levels were the lowest at young age and gradually increased with time. Nevertheless, there were no differences in cellular distribution and morphology in their hippocampi when it was observed by cresyl violet staining. In addition, both Trx2 and TrxR2 immunoreactivities in the CA1-3 fields were mainly shown in pyramidal cells (principal cells), showing that their immunoreactivities were altered like changes in their protein levels. @*Conclusions@#Our current findings suggest that Trx2 and TrxR2 expressions in the brain may be different according to brain regions, age and species. Therefore, further studies are needed to examine the reasons of the differences of Trx2 and TrxR2 expressions in the hippocampus between mice and rats.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901410

ABSTRACT

The present study evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of horse oil in 2, 4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-treated BALB/c mice. After the application of DNCB, the mice showed atopic dermatitis symptoms, including severe erythema, hemorrhage, and erosion, whereas those symptoms were alleviated by treatment with horse oil. To explain the anti-dermatitis effect of horse oil, the gene expression levels in the healing process in dorsal skin were observed using a cDNA microarray. The cDNA microarray analysis revealed that the expression levels of 30 genes related to the inflammation, including Ccr1, Ccr2, Ccl20, Anxa1, and Hc genes, were up-regulated (higher than 2.0-fold) in the DNCB group compared to the levels in the control group, whereas the levels were restored to the control level in the DNCB + horse oil-treated group. In contrast, the gene expression levels of 28 genes related to inflammation, including chemokine genes Ccl5, Ccl7, Ccl8, Cxcl10, and Cxcl13 genes, were down-regulated (lower than 0.5-fold) in the DNCB group compared to the levels in the control group, whereas the levels were restored to the control level in the DNCB + horse oil-treated group. Overall, the results show that horse oil restores the expression levels of genes related to inflammation that were perturbed by DNCB treatment.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900243

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#To report our experience of a patient in her 20s with multiple contiguous osteoporotic compression fractures.Summary of Literature Review: It is uncommon to develop multiple contiguous osteoporotic compression fractures at a young age. @*Materials and Methods@#A 26-year-old woman was admitted with lower back pain. On radiologic examinations, compression fractures of L1, L2 and L5 were observed. Bone mineral density testing indicated severe osteoporosis. Secondary osteoporosis was suspected, and further examinations were performed. The patient was diagnosed with adrenocorticotropic hormone–independent Cushing’s syndrome.On abdominal computed tomography, a tumor suspected to be an adenoma was observed on the left adrenal gland. Tumor resection surgery was then performed. @*Results@#Pathologic findings confirmed that the tumor was an adenoma. The lumbar fractures had healed at 3 months after the fracture. @*Conclusions@#If osteoporotic lumbar compression fracture occurs in a young patient, secondary osteoporosis should be suspected and the underlying cause must be found and treated.

8.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 898-909, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897231

ABSTRACT

Vertebral fractures are the most common type of osteoporotic fracture and can increase morbidity and mortality. To date, the guidelines for managing osteoporotic vertebral fractures (OVFs) are limited in quantity and quality, and there is no gold standard treatment for these fractures. Conservative treatment is considered the primary treatment option for OVFs and includes pain relief through shortterm bed rest, analgesics, antiosteoporotic drugs, exercise, and braces. Studies on vertebral augmentation (VA) including vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty have been widely reported, but there is still debate and controversy regarding the effectiveness of VA when compared with conservative treatment, and the routine use of VA for OVF is not supported by current evidence. Although most OVFs heal well, approximately 15%–35% of patients with unstable fractures, chronic intractable back pain, severely collapsed vertebra (leading to neurological deficits and kyphosis), or chronic pseudarthrosis frequently require surgery. Given that there is no single technique for optimizing surgical outcomes in OVFs, tailored surgical techniques are needed. Surgeons need to pay attention to advances in osteoporotic spinal surgery and should be open to novel thoughts and techniques. Prevention and management of osteoporosis is the key element in reducing the risk of subsequent OVFs. Bisphosphonates and teriparatide are mainstay drugs for improving fracture healing in OVF. The effects of bisphosphonates on fracture healing have not been clinically evaluated. The intermittent administration of teriparatide significantly enhanced spinal fusion and fracture healing and reduced mortality risk. Based on the current literature, there is still a lack of standard management strategies for OVF. There is a need for greater efforts through multimodal approaches including conservative treatment, surgery, osteoporosis treatment, and drugs that promote fracture healing to improve the quality of the guidelines.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893706

ABSTRACT

The present study evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of horse oil in 2, 4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-treated BALB/c mice. After the application of DNCB, the mice showed atopic dermatitis symptoms, including severe erythema, hemorrhage, and erosion, whereas those symptoms were alleviated by treatment with horse oil. To explain the anti-dermatitis effect of horse oil, the gene expression levels in the healing process in dorsal skin were observed using a cDNA microarray. The cDNA microarray analysis revealed that the expression levels of 30 genes related to the inflammation, including Ccr1, Ccr2, Ccl20, Anxa1, and Hc genes, were up-regulated (higher than 2.0-fold) in the DNCB group compared to the levels in the control group, whereas the levels were restored to the control level in the DNCB + horse oil-treated group. In contrast, the gene expression levels of 28 genes related to inflammation, including chemokine genes Ccl5, Ccl7, Ccl8, Cxcl10, and Cxcl13 genes, were down-regulated (lower than 0.5-fold) in the DNCB group compared to the levels in the control group, whereas the levels were restored to the control level in the DNCB + horse oil-treated group. Overall, the results show that horse oil restores the expression levels of genes related to inflammation that were perturbed by DNCB treatment.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892539

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#To report our experience of a patient in her 20s with multiple contiguous osteoporotic compression fractures.Summary of Literature Review: It is uncommon to develop multiple contiguous osteoporotic compression fractures at a young age. @*Materials and Methods@#A 26-year-old woman was admitted with lower back pain. On radiologic examinations, compression fractures of L1, L2 and L5 were observed. Bone mineral density testing indicated severe osteoporosis. Secondary osteoporosis was suspected, and further examinations were performed. The patient was diagnosed with adrenocorticotropic hormone–independent Cushing’s syndrome.On abdominal computed tomography, a tumor suspected to be an adenoma was observed on the left adrenal gland. Tumor resection surgery was then performed. @*Results@#Pathologic findings confirmed that the tumor was an adenoma. The lumbar fractures had healed at 3 months after the fracture. @*Conclusions@#If osteoporotic lumbar compression fracture occurs in a young patient, secondary osteoporosis should be suspected and the underlying cause must be found and treated.

11.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 898-909, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889527

ABSTRACT

Vertebral fractures are the most common type of osteoporotic fracture and can increase morbidity and mortality. To date, the guidelines for managing osteoporotic vertebral fractures (OVFs) are limited in quantity and quality, and there is no gold standard treatment for these fractures. Conservative treatment is considered the primary treatment option for OVFs and includes pain relief through shortterm bed rest, analgesics, antiosteoporotic drugs, exercise, and braces. Studies on vertebral augmentation (VA) including vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty have been widely reported, but there is still debate and controversy regarding the effectiveness of VA when compared with conservative treatment, and the routine use of VA for OVF is not supported by current evidence. Although most OVFs heal well, approximately 15%–35% of patients with unstable fractures, chronic intractable back pain, severely collapsed vertebra (leading to neurological deficits and kyphosis), or chronic pseudarthrosis frequently require surgery. Given that there is no single technique for optimizing surgical outcomes in OVFs, tailored surgical techniques are needed. Surgeons need to pay attention to advances in osteoporotic spinal surgery and should be open to novel thoughts and techniques. Prevention and management of osteoporosis is the key element in reducing the risk of subsequent OVFs. Bisphosphonates and teriparatide are mainstay drugs for improving fracture healing in OVF. The effects of bisphosphonates on fracture healing have not been clinically evaluated. The intermittent administration of teriparatide significantly enhanced spinal fusion and fracture healing and reduced mortality risk. Based on the current literature, there is still a lack of standard management strategies for OVF. There is a need for greater efforts through multimodal approaches including conservative treatment, surgery, osteoporosis treatment, and drugs that promote fracture healing to improve the quality of the guidelines.

13.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 229-238, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836905

ABSTRACT

Obesity has been known as an independent risk factor for stroke. Effects of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity on neuronal damage in the somatosensory cortex of animal models of cerebral ischemia have not been studied yet. In this study, HFD-induced obesity was used to study the impact of obesity on neuronal damage/loss and microgliosis in the somatosensory cortex of a gerbil model of 5-min transient forebrain ischemia. We used gerbils fed normal diet (ND) and HFD and chronologically examined microgliosis (microglial cell activation) by ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba-1) immunohistochemistry. In addition, we examined neuronal damage or death by using neuronal nuclear protein (NeuN, a neuronal marker) immunohistochemistry and Fluoro-Jade B (F-J B, a marker for neuronal degeneration) histofluorescence staining. We found that ischemia-induced microgliosis in ND-fed gerbils was increased from 2 days post-ischemia; however, ischemia-mediated microgliosis in HFD-fed gerbils increased from 1 day post-ischemia and more accelerated with time than that in the ND-fed gerbils. Ischemia-induced neuronal death/loss in the somatosensory cortex in the ND-fed gerbils was apparently found at 5 days post-ischemia. However, in the HFD-fed gerbils, neuronal death/loss was shown from 2 days post-ischemia and progressively exacerbated at 5 days post-ischemia. Our findings indicate that HFD can evoke earlier microgliosis and more detrimental neuronal death/loss in the somatosensory cortex after transient ischemia than ND evokes.

14.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 140-147, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786393

ABSTRACT

P53 and its family member p63 play important roles in cellular senescence and organismal aging. In this study, p53 and p63 immunoreactivity were examined in the hippocampus of young, adult and aged mice by using immunohistochemistry. In addition, neuronal distribution and degeneration was examined by NeuN immunohistochemistry and fluoro-Jade B fluorescence staining. Strong p53 immunoreactivity was mainly expressed in pyramidal and granule cells of the hippocampus in young mice. p53 immunoreactivity in the pyramidal and granule cells was significantly reduced in the adult mice. In the aged mice, p53 immunoreactivity in the pyramidal and granule cells was more significantly decreased. p63 immunoreactivity was strong in the pyramidal and granule cells in the young mice. p63 immunoreactivity in these cells was apparently and gradually decreased with age, showing that p63 immunoreactivity in the aged granule cells was hardly shown. However, numbers of pyramidal neurons and granule cells were not significantly decreased in the aged mice with normal aging. Taken together, this study indicates that there are no degenerative neurons in the hippocampus during normal aging, showing that p53 and p63 immunoreactivity in hippocampal neurons was progressively reduced during normal aging, which might be closely related to the normal aging processes.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aging , Animals , Cellular Senescence , Fluorescence , Hippocampus , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Mice , Neurons , Pyramidal Cells
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-770065

ABSTRACT

The aim of this review was to evaluate minimally invasive lateral lumbar interbody fusion on the latest update. Lumbar interbody fusion was introduced recently. This study performed, a literature review of the indications, clinical outcomes, fusion rate, and complications regarding recently highlighted minimally invasive lateral lumbar interbody fusion. The indications of lateral lumbar interbody fusion are similar to the conventional anterior and posterior interbody fusion in degenerative lumbar diseases. In particular, lateral lumbar interbody fusion is an effective minimally invasive surgery in spinal stenosis, degenerative spondylolisthesis, degenerative adult deformity, degenerative disc disease and adjacent segment disease. In addition, the clinical outcomes and fusion rates of lateral lumbar interbody fusion are similar compared to conventional lumbar fusion. On the other hand, non-specific complications including hip flexor weakness, nerve injury, vascular injury, visceral injury, cage subsidence and pseudohernia have been reported. Lateral lumbar interbody fusion is a very useful minimally invasive surgery because it has advantages over conventional anterior and posterior interbody fusion without many of the disadvantages. Nevertheless, nonspecific complications during lateral lumbar interbody fusion procedure remain a challenge to be improved.


Subject(s)
Adult , Congenital Abnormalities , Hand , Hip , Humans , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures , Spinal Stenosis , Spondylolisthesis , Vascular System Injuries
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765624

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: Prospective pilot study OBJECTIVES: The efficacy and safety of ‘PF-72’ for management of postoperative acute pain through a mixed ‘PF-72’ and 0.75% ropivacaine hydrochloride solution in patients with posterior spine surgery was evaluated as ‘0.75% ropivacaine’ and ‘untreated’ controls. SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW: Postoperative acute pain is major surgical side effect that lead to the deterioration of the quality of life. Traditional pain control results in variable side effects, and multimodal pain management has been recommended as an alternative. Local anesthetics is a short-acting time lower than 12 hours. There is controversy about the efficiency and stability of thermoreactive hydrogel products as a drug delivery system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients scheduled for posterior spine surgery were enrolled by the inclusion criteria. In the treated group, PF-72 and ropivacaine mixture was injected to the surgical wound before closure. In control group 1, only 0.75% ropivacaine hydrochloride was injected. In the control group 2, the surgical site was without injection. Ten patients were randomly assigned to each group and standardized drugs for pain control were applied postoperatively and rescue regimens were applied when necessary. Postoperative pain score and the cumulative area under the curve (AUC) of pain score were compared. The percentage of subjects who were painless (pain score ≤ 3) was examined at each observation point. The first time of injection and the total dose of the rescue regimen were examined. Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) were also evaluated. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in demographic data. The sum AUC of pain scores in the treated group was significantly lower than that in the control group 1 and 2 at all observation times. The proportion of painless patients was significantly higher in the treated group than in the control group 2. There was no significant difference between the first administration time and the total usage of the rescue regimen, and the percentage of patients with PONV at all time points. There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: PF-72 and ropivacaine mixture showed significant effects for pain management up to 72 hours postoperatively for the patients who underwent posterior spinal surgery without fatal complications.


Subject(s)
Acute Pain , Anesthetics, Local , Area Under Curve , Drug Delivery Systems , Humans , Hydrogels , Incidence , Pain Management , Pain, Postoperative , Pilot Projects , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Spine , Wounds and Injuries
17.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 258-264, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762927

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study. PURPOSE: To compare the clinical and radiological outcomes of patients who underwent anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) supplemented with plate fixation using allograft with those who underwent ACDF using tricortical iliac autograft. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: As plate fixation is becoming popular, it is reported that ACDF using allograft may have similar outcomes compared with ACDF using autograft. METHODS: Forty-one patients who underwent ACDF supplemented with plate fixation were included in this study. We evaluated 24 patients who used cortical ring allograft filled with demineralized bone matrix (DBM) (group A) and 17 patients who used tricortical iliac autograft (group B). In radiological evaluations, fusion rate, subsidence of grafted material, cervical lordosis, fused segmental lordosis, and radiological adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) were observed and analyzed with preoperative and postoperative plain radiographs. Clinical outcomes were evaluated using the Neck Disability Index score, Odom criteria, and Visual Analog Scale score of neck and upper extremity pain. Radiological union was determined by dynamic radiographs using cutoff values of 1 mm of interspinous motion as the indication of pseudarthrosis. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the fusion rate, graft subsidence, cervical lordosis, fused segmental lordosis, and ASD incidence between the groups. Operative time was shorter in group A (136 min) than in group B (141 min), but it was not significant (p>0.05). Blood loss was greater in group B (325 mL) than in group A (210 mL, p=0.013). There was no difference in the clinical outcomes before and after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: In ACDF with plate fixation, cortical ring allograft filled with DBM group showed similar radiological and clinical outcomes compared with those of the autograft group. If the metal plate is reinforced, using cortical ring allograft could be a viable alternative to autograft.


Subject(s)
Allografts , Animals , Autografts , Bone Matrix , Cohort Studies , Diskectomy , Humans , Incidence , Lordosis , Neck , Operative Time , Pseudarthrosis , Retrospective Studies , Transplants , Upper Extremity , Visual Analog Scale
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759584

ABSTRACT

We developed a new blood management protocol that allows patients to not undergo transfusion during major orthopaedic surgery. Here, we report the safety of or our protocol. The preoperative pharmacological protocol consisted of the administration of 40 µg of recombinant erythropoietin subcutaneously and 100 mg of iron supplements intravenously. During the operation, reinfusion of drainage blood using a cell saver and plasma expander was used. The cell saver device passed the collected blood through a filter, which washed the blood, removing the hemolyzed cells and other impurities. Intravenous tranexamic acid 1 g is given just before the operation, except high-risk patients for venous thromboembolism. Postoperatively, recombinant erythropoietin and iron supplements were administered in the same manner with the preoperative protocol and continued until a hemoglobin level reached 10 g/dL.


Subject(s)
Drainage , Erythropoietin , Humans , Iron , Orthopedics , Plasma , Tranexamic Acid , Venous Thromboembolism
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776868

ABSTRACT

To examine the effects of Populus tomentiglandulosa (PT) extract on the expressions of antioxidant enzymes and neurotrophic factors in the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) region of the hippocampus at 5 min after inducing transient global cerebral ischemia (TGCI) in gerbils, TGCI was induced by occlusion of common carotid arteries for 5 min. Before ischemic surgery, 200 mg·kg PT extract was orally administrated once daily for 7 d. We performed neuronal nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry and Fluoro-Jade B staining. Furthermore, we determined in situ production of superoxide anion radical, expression levels of SOD1 and SOD2 as antioxidant enzymes and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) as neurotrophic factors. Pretreatment with 200 mg·kg PT extract prevented neuronal death (loss). Furthermore, pretreatment with 200 mg·kg PT extract significantly inhibited the production of superoxide anion radical, increased expressions of SODs and maintained expressions of BDNF and IGF-I. Such increased expressions of SODs were maintained in the neurons after IRI. In summary, pretreated PT extract can significantly increase levels of SODs and protect the neurons against TGCI, suggesting that PT can be a useful natural agent to protect against TGCI.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Genetics , Metabolism , CA1 Region, Hippocampal , Metabolism , Gerbillinae , Humans , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I , Genetics , Metabolism , Male , Neuroprotective Agents , Plant Extracts , Populus , Chemistry , Pyramidal Cells , Metabolism , Reperfusion Injury , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase , Genetics , Metabolism , Up-Regulation
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918395

ABSTRACT

Histone-binding protein RbAp48 has been known to be involved in histone acetylation, and epigenetic alterations of histone modifications are closely associated with the pathogenesis of ischemic reperfusion injury. In the current study, we investigated chronological change of RbAp48 expression in the hippocampus following 5 min of transient ischemia in gerbils. RbAp48 expression was examined 1, 2, 5, and 10 days after transient ischemia using immunohistochemistry. In sham operated gerbils, RbAp48 immunoreactivity was strong in pyramidal and non-pyramidal cells in the hippocampus. After transient ischemia, RbAp48 immunoreactivity was changed in the cornu ammonis 1 subfield (CA1), not in CA2/3. RbAp48 immunoreactivity in CA1 pyramidal neurons was gradually decreased and not detected at 5 and 10 days after ischemia. RbAp48 immunoreactivity in non-pyramidal cells was maintained until 2 days post-ischemia and significantly increased from 5 days post-ischemia. Double immunohistofluorescence staining revealed that RbAp48 immunoreactive non-pyramidal cells were astrocytes. At 5 days post-ischemia, death of pyramidal neurons occurred only in the CA1. These results showed that RbAp48 immunoreactivity was distinctively altered in pyramidal neurons and astrocytes in the hippocampal CA1 following 5 mins of transient ischemia. Ischemia-induced change in RbAp48 expression may be closely associated with neuronal death and astrocyte activation following 5 min of transient ischemia.

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