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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903667

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic that had affected more than 13,000 people in South Korea by July 2020. To prevent spread of COVID-19, tele-prescription was permitted temporarily. This study investigated the impact of tele-prescription on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. @*Methods@#Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) concentrations were retrospectively analyzed in patients with type 2 diabetes who were treated with tele-prescription because of COVID-19 and those who were treated by face-to-face care (non-tele-prescription group) enrolled at the same period of time. Mean HbA1c concentrations and mean change in HbA1c concentration (ΔHbA1c) were compared in these two groups. @*Results@#The mean HbA1c levels of patients were significantly higher after than before the tele-prescription period (7.46% ± 1.24% vs. 7.27% ± 1.13%, p < 0.05). Mean ΔHbA1c was significantly higher in the tele-prescription than in the non-tele-prescription group (0.19% ± 0.68% vs. 0.04% ± 0.95%, p < 0.05). HbA1c was significantly greater in patients taking fewer oral hypoglycemic agents, no insulin, fewer comorbidities (e.g., coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular accident, and diabetic neuropathy), and higher baseline HbA1c. @*Conclusions@#Tele-prescription may worsen glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes during public health crises.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874525

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the impact of social distancing due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on glycemic control in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We retrospectively analyzed the change in glycosylated hemoglobin level (ΔHbA1c) in people with T2DM who undertook social distancing because of COVID-19. We compared the ΔHbA1c between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 cohorts that were enrolled at the same time of year. The ΔHbA1c of the COVID-19 cohort was significantly higher than that of two non-COVID-19 cohorts. Subgroup analysis according to age and baseline HbA1c level showed that social distancing significantly increased the mean HbA1c level of participants of <50 years. The ΔHbA1c of participants of <50 years and with HbA1c <7.0% in the COVID-19 cohort showed larger changes than other subgroups. In adjusted model, adjusted ΔHbA1c levels in the COVID-19 cohort remained significantly higher than those in the two other cohorts. Social distancing negatively impacts blood glucose control in people with T2DM, especially those who are younger and have good blood glucose control.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898196

ABSTRACT

Background@#Based on recent evidence on the importance of the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) index in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mortality, we analyzed whether these factors could additively predict such mortality. @*Methods@#This multicenter observational study included 1,019 adult inpatients admitted to university hospitals in Daegu. The demographic and laboratory findings, mortality, prevalence of severe disease, and duration of quarantine were compared between patients with and without DM and/or a high FIB-4 index. The mortality risk and corresponding hazard ratio (HR) were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard models. @*Results@#The patients with DM (n=217) exhibited significantly higher FIB-4 index and mortality compared to those without DM. Although DM (HR, 2.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.63 to 4.33) and a high FIB-4 index (HR, 4.20; 95% CI, 2.21 to 7.99) were separately identified as risk factors for COVID-19 mortality, the patients with both DM and high FIB-4 index had a significantly higher mortality (HR, 9.54; 95% CI, 4.11 to 22.15). Higher FIB-4 indices were associated with higher mortality regardless of DM. A high FIB-4 index with DM was more significantly associated with a severe clinical course with mortality (odds ratio, 11.24; 95% CI, 5.90 to 21.41) than a low FIB-4 index without DM, followed by a high FIB-4 index alone and DM alone. The duration of quarantine and hospital stay also tended to be longer in those with both DM and high FIB-4 index. @*Conclusion@#Both DM and high FIB-4 index are independent and additive risk factors for COVID-19 mortality.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895963

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic that had affected more than 13,000 people in South Korea by July 2020. To prevent spread of COVID-19, tele-prescription was permitted temporarily. This study investigated the impact of tele-prescription on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. @*Methods@#Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) concentrations were retrospectively analyzed in patients with type 2 diabetes who were treated with tele-prescription because of COVID-19 and those who were treated by face-to-face care (non-tele-prescription group) enrolled at the same period of time. Mean HbA1c concentrations and mean change in HbA1c concentration (ΔHbA1c) were compared in these two groups. @*Results@#The mean HbA1c levels of patients were significantly higher after than before the tele-prescription period (7.46% ± 1.24% vs. 7.27% ± 1.13%, p < 0.05). Mean ΔHbA1c was significantly higher in the tele-prescription than in the non-tele-prescription group (0.19% ± 0.68% vs. 0.04% ± 0.95%, p < 0.05). HbA1c was significantly greater in patients taking fewer oral hypoglycemic agents, no insulin, fewer comorbidities (e.g., coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular accident, and diabetic neuropathy), and higher baseline HbA1c. @*Conclusions@#Tele-prescription may worsen glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes during public health crises.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892613

ABSTRACT

Obesity, which is one of the most important noncommunicable diseases, has become an epidemic. With the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the collision of these two health risks has increased the threat of adverse events and serious threats to public health. In this review, the impact of obesity on COVID-19 severity and mortality is presented. The mechanism by which obesity increases susceptibility and severity is discussed. As a low-grade inflammatory disease, obesity provides a pro-inflammatory milieu by which adipose tissue expressing angiotensin converting enzyme 2, which is known as a receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, works as a viral reservoir. Finally, the role of metabolic and bariatric surgeries during the COVID-19 era will be discussed.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890492

ABSTRACT

Background@#Based on recent evidence on the importance of the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) index in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mortality, we analyzed whether these factors could additively predict such mortality. @*Methods@#This multicenter observational study included 1,019 adult inpatients admitted to university hospitals in Daegu. The demographic and laboratory findings, mortality, prevalence of severe disease, and duration of quarantine were compared between patients with and without DM and/or a high FIB-4 index. The mortality risk and corresponding hazard ratio (HR) were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard models. @*Results@#The patients with DM (n=217) exhibited significantly higher FIB-4 index and mortality compared to those without DM. Although DM (HR, 2.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.63 to 4.33) and a high FIB-4 index (HR, 4.20; 95% CI, 2.21 to 7.99) were separately identified as risk factors for COVID-19 mortality, the patients with both DM and high FIB-4 index had a significantly higher mortality (HR, 9.54; 95% CI, 4.11 to 22.15). Higher FIB-4 indices were associated with higher mortality regardless of DM. A high FIB-4 index with DM was more significantly associated with a severe clinical course with mortality (odds ratio, 11.24; 95% CI, 5.90 to 21.41) than a low FIB-4 index without DM, followed by a high FIB-4 index alone and DM alone. The duration of quarantine and hospital stay also tended to be longer in those with both DM and high FIB-4 index. @*Conclusion@#Both DM and high FIB-4 index are independent and additive risk factors for COVID-19 mortality.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900317

ABSTRACT

Obesity, which is one of the most important noncommunicable diseases, has become an epidemic. With the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the collision of these two health risks has increased the threat of adverse events and serious threats to public health. In this review, the impact of obesity on COVID-19 severity and mortality is presented. The mechanism by which obesity increases susceptibility and severity is discussed. As a low-grade inflammatory disease, obesity provides a pro-inflammatory milieu by which adipose tissue expressing angiotensin converting enzyme 2, which is known as a receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, works as a viral reservoir. Finally, the role of metabolic and bariatric surgeries during the COVID-19 era will be discussed.

8.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 1142-1146, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914256

ABSTRACT

It has been suggested that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a negative impact on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, no study has examined yearly trends in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels after the start of the COVID-19 outbreak. Here, we performed a retrospective analysis of HbA1c concentrations during the early period of the COVID-19 outbreak (COVID-19 cohort) and then compared the yearly trend in the mean HbA1c level, along with fluctuations in HbA1c levels, with those during previous years (non-COVID-19 cohorts). We observed that the mean HbA1c level in patients with T2DM increased during the first 6 months of the COVID-19 outbreak. After 6 months, HbA1c levels in the COVID-19 cohort returned to levels seen in the non-COVID-19 cohorts. The data suggest that vulnerable patients with T2DM should be monitored closely during the early period of a pandemic to ensure they receive appropriate care.

10.
Immune Network ; : e46-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898547

ABSTRACT

Neutrophils are innate immune cells that constitute the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Due to this characteristic, they are exposed to diverse immunological environments wherein sources for nutrients are often limited. Recent advances in the field of immunometabolism revealed that neutrophils utilize diverse metabolic pathways in response to immunological challenges. In particular, neutrophils adopt specific metabolic pathways for modulating their effector functions in contrast to other immune cells, which undergo metabolic reprogramming to ensure differentiation into distinct cell subtypes. Therefore, neutrophils utilize different metabolic pathways not only to fulfill their energy requirements, but also to support specialized effector functions, such as neutrophil extracellular trap formation, ROS generation, chemotaxis, and degranulation. In this review, we discuss the basic metabolic pathways used by neutrophils and how these metabolic alterations play a critical role in their effector functions.

11.
Immune Network ; : e46-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890843

ABSTRACT

Neutrophils are innate immune cells that constitute the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Due to this characteristic, they are exposed to diverse immunological environments wherein sources for nutrients are often limited. Recent advances in the field of immunometabolism revealed that neutrophils utilize diverse metabolic pathways in response to immunological challenges. In particular, neutrophils adopt specific metabolic pathways for modulating their effector functions in contrast to other immune cells, which undergo metabolic reprogramming to ensure differentiation into distinct cell subtypes. Therefore, neutrophils utilize different metabolic pathways not only to fulfill their energy requirements, but also to support specialized effector functions, such as neutrophil extracellular trap formation, ROS generation, chemotaxis, and degranulation. In this review, we discuss the basic metabolic pathways used by neutrophils and how these metabolic alterations play a critical role in their effector functions.

12.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832430

ABSTRACT

Background@#Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic, which prompts a consensus for the necessity to seek risk factors for this critical disease. Risk factors affecting mortality of the disease remain elusive. Diabetes and hyperglycemia are known to negatively affect a host’s antiviral immunity. We evaluated the relationship between a history of diabetes, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels and mortality among severely ill patients with COVID-19. @*Methods@#This was a retrospective cohort study that assessed 106 adult inpatients (aged ≥18 years) from two tertiary hospitals in Daegu, South Korea. The participants were transferred to tertiary hospitals because their medical condition required immediate intensive care. The demographic and laboratory data were compared between COVID-19 patients who survived and those who did not. @*Results@#Compared with the survivor group, age, and the proportions of diabetes, chronic lung disease and FPG were significantly higher in the deceased group. In the Cox proportional hazards regression model for survival analysis, FPG level and age were identified as significant predictors of mortality (P68 years and FPG of 168 mg/dL, respectively. Among those without diabetes, high FPG remained a significant predictor of mortality (P<0.04). @*Conclusion@#High FPG levels significantly predicted mortality in COVID-19, regardless of a known history of diabetes. These results suggest intensive monitoring should be provided to COVID-19 patients who have a high FPG level.

13.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832330

ABSTRACT

Background@#Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic that had affected more than eight million people worldwide by June 2020. Given the importance of the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM) for host immunity, we retrospectively evaluated the clinical characteristics and outcomes of moderate-to-severe COVID-19 in patients with diabetes. @*Methods@#We conducted a multi-center observational study of 1,082 adult inpatients (aged ≥18 years) who were admitted to one of five university hospitals in Daegu because of the severity of their COVID-19-related disease. The demographic, laboratory, and radiologic findings, and the mortality, prevalence of severe disease, and duration of quarantine were compared between patients with and without DM. In addition, 1:1 propensity score (PS)-matching was conducted with the DM group. @*Results@#Compared with the non-DM group (n=847), patients with DM (n=235) were older, exhibited higher mortality, and required more intensive care. Even after PS-matching, patients with DM exhibited more severe disease, and DM remained a prognostic factor for higher mortality (hazard ratio, 2.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.38 to 4.15). Subgroup analysis revealed that the presence of DM was associated with higher mortality, especially in older people (≥70 years old). Prior use of a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor or a renin-angiotensin system inhibitor did not affect mortality or the clinical severity of the disease. @*Conclusion@#DM is a significant risk factor for COVID-19 severity and mortality. Our findings imply that COVID-19 patients with DM, especially if elderly, require special attention and prompt intensive care.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763675

ABSTRACT

Abnormal thyroid function is associated with impaired glucose homeostasis. This study aimed to determine whether free thyroxine (FT4) influences the prevalence of prediabetes in euthyroid subjects using a cross-sectional survey derived from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted between 2013 and 2015. We studied 2,399 male participants of >20 years of age who were euthyroid and non-diabetic. Prediabetic participants had lower FT4 concentrations than those without prediabetes, but their thyrotropin concentrations were similar. We stratified the population into tertiles according to FT4 concentration. After adjusting for multiple confounding factors, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels significantly decreased with increasing FT4 tertile, whereas fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels were not associated with FT4 tertiles (HbA1c, P<0.01 in T3 vs. T1; FPG, P=0.489 in T3 vs. T1). The prevalence of prediabetes was significantly higher in T1 (odds ratio, 1.426; 95% confidence interval, 1.126 to 1.806; P<0.01) than in T3. In conclusion, subjects with low-normal serum FT4 had high HbA1c and were more likely to have prediabetes. These results suggest that low FT4 concentration is a risk factor for prediabetes in male, even when thyroid function is within the normal range.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fasting , Glucose , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Homeostasis , Humans , Korea , Male , Nutrition Surveys , Prediabetic State , Prevalence , Reference Values , Risk Factors , Thyroid Gland , Thyrotropin , Thyroxine
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761480

ABSTRACT

The potential mechanism by which sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) is being widely investigated. Improved insulin resistance, along with decreased body fat mass associated with SGLT2 inhibitor treatment is consistent with previously well-established factors contributing to the prevention of CVD. These factors are responsible for reduction of oxidative stress as well as improvement of systemic inflammation. Because heart failure was one of the most dramatically improved cardiovascular events in various clinical trials and because SGLT2 inhibitors promote osmotic diuresis and natriuresis, hemodynamic changes are considered as a critical mechanism responsible for the cardioprotective effect of SGLT2 inhibitors. Restored tubuloglomerular feedback by SGLT2 inhibitors might play a role in renoprotection, which in turn, leads to fewer CVDs. Finally, blood ketone body increments in response to SGLT2 inhibition might act as a “super-fuel” for salvaging the failing diabetic heart.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus , Diuresis , Heart , Heart Failure , Hemodynamics , Inflammation , Insulin Resistance , Ketones , Natriuresis , Oxidative Stress , Sodium-Glucose Transport Proteins
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739802

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic hyperglycemia has deleterious effects on pancreatic β-cell function and turnover. Recent studies support the view that cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) plays a role in β-cell failure under hyperglycemic conditions. However, little is known about how CDK5 impair β-cell function. Myricetin, a natural flavonoid, has therapeutic potential for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, we examined the effect of myricetin on high glucose (HG)-induced β-cell apoptosis and explored the relationship between myricetin and CDK5. METHODS: To address this question, we subjected INS-1 cells and isolated rat islets to HG conditions (30 mM) in the presence or absence of myricetin. Docking studies were conducted to validate the interaction between myricetin and CDK5. Gene expression and protein levels of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers were measured by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. RESULTS: Activation of CDK5 in response to HG coupled with the induction of ER stress via the down regulation of sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2b (SERCA2b) gene expression and reduced the nuclear accumulation of pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX1) leads to β-cell apoptosis. Docking study predicts that myricetin inhibit CDK5 activation by direct binding in the ATP-binding pocket. Myricetin counteracted the decrease in the levels of PDX1 and SERCA2b by HG. Moreover, myricetin attenuated HG-induced apoptosis in INS-1 cells and rat islets and reduce the mitochondrial dysfunction by decreasing reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) loss. CONCLUSION: Myricetin protects the β-cells against HG-induced apoptosis by inhibiting ER stress, possibly through inactivation of CDK5 and consequent upregulation of PDX1 and SERCA2b.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Blotting, Western , Calcium-Transporting ATPases , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Down-Regulation , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Endoplasmic Reticulum , Gene Expression , Genes, Homeobox , Glucose , Hyperglycemia , Insulin-Secreting Cells , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rats , Reactive Oxygen Species , Reticulum , Reverse Transcription , Up-Regulation
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714785

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 is a recently established therapeutic target for treating metabolic syndromes, which include potential precursors to cardiovascular disease, suggesting a link between FGF21 and atherosclerosis. However, the association between serum FGF21 concentrations and coronary artery disease remain controversial. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between circulating FGF21 concentrations and coronary artery lesions and clinical severity. METHODS: We enrolled 137 subjects who underwent coronary angiography, due to suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS), from December 2009 to July 2012. Serum FGF21 levels were measured. Coronary artery lesions and clinical severities of the subjects were evaluated using the SYNergy between percutaneous coronary intervention with (paclitaxel-eluting) TAXus stent and cardiac surgery (SYNTAX) and Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) scoring system, respectively. RESULTS: After adjusting for established cardiovascular disease risk factors, including age, body mass index, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, patients with coronary artery lesions (n=112 men) had significantly higher levels of FGF21 than individuals without such lesions (n=25; men) (377.1±20.1 pg/mL vs. 267.1±43.5 pg/mL; p=0.026). However, no correlations were found between serum levels of FGF21 and either the calculated STNTAX score (r=0.117; p=0.176) or GRACE risk score, which is a risk prediction tool applicable for ACS subjects (r=0.113; p=0.193). CONCLUSION: Although serum levels of FGF21 were higher in individuals with coronary lesions than in those without such lesions, FGF21 levels were not associated with angiographic severity.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , Atherosclerosis , Body Mass Index , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cholesterol , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Artery Disease , Coronary Vessels , Fibroblast Growth Factors , Humans , Lipoproteins , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Risk Factors , Stents , Taxus , Thoracic Surgery
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716320

ABSTRACT

Mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark of metabolic diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancers. Dysfunction occurs in part because of altered regulation of the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC), which acts as a central metabolic node that mediates pyruvate oxidation after glycolysis and fuels the Krebs cycle to meet energy demands. Fine-tuning of PDC activity has been mainly attributed to post-translational modifications of its subunits, including the extensively studied phosphorylation and de-phosphorylation of the E1α subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), modulated by kinases (pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase [PDK] 1-4) and phosphatases (pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase [PDP] 1-2), respectively. In addition to phosphorylation, other covalent modifications, including acetylation and succinylation, and changes in metabolite levels via metabolic pathways linked to utilization of glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids, have been identified. In this review, we will summarize the roles of PDC in diverse tissues and how regulation of its activity is affected in various metabolic disorders.


Subject(s)
Acetylation , Amino Acids , Citric Acid Cycle , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Fatty Acids , Glucose , Glycolysis , Metabolic Diseases , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Metabolism , Mitochondria , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Obesity , Oxidative Phosphorylation , Oxidoreductases , Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex , Pyruvic Acid
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787053

ABSTRACT

The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance is growing rapidly. Multiple organs including the liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue control insulin sensitivity coordinately, but the mechanism of skeletal muscle insulin resistance has not yet been fully elucidated. However, there is a growing body of evidence that lipotoxicity induced by mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle is an important mediator of insulin resistance. However, some recent findings suggest that skeletal mitochondrial dysfunction generated by genetic manipulation is not always correlated with insulin resistance in animal models. A high fat diet can provoke insulin resistance despite a coordinate increase in skeletal muscle mitochondria, which implies that mitochondrial dysfunction is not mandatory in insulin resistance. Furthermore, incomplete fatty acid oxidation by excessive nutrition supply compared to mitochondrial demand can induce insulin resistance without preceding impairment of mitochondrial function. Taken together we suggested that skeletal muscle mitochondrial overloading, not mitochondrial dysfunction, plays a pivotal role in insulin resistance.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diet, High-Fat , Incidence , Insulin Resistance , Insulin , Liver , Mitochondria , Models, Animal , Muscle, Skeletal , Reactive Oxygen Species
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