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1.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902111

ABSTRACT

Extranodal Natural Killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, is a subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, strongly associated with Epstein-Barr virus. Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma mostly affects the nasal cavity and there has been no report of the disease’s occurrence at the base of tongue. Here we report a case of 43-year-old man who presented with a diffuse ulcerative lesion at the base of tongue. Because the patient had oral bleeding, tracheostomy and lingual artery ligation was performed via a transcervical approach to control bleeding and protect the upper airway. We performed a deep biopsy through the lateral pharyngotomy approach, and finally, the patient was diagnosed with extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type. We report this rare case of extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma at the base of tongue with a literature review.

2.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894407

ABSTRACT

Extranodal Natural Killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, is a subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, strongly associated with Epstein-Barr virus. Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma mostly affects the nasal cavity and there has been no report of the disease’s occurrence at the base of tongue. Here we report a case of 43-year-old man who presented with a diffuse ulcerative lesion at the base of tongue. Because the patient had oral bleeding, tracheostomy and lingual artery ligation was performed via a transcervical approach to control bleeding and protect the upper airway. We performed a deep biopsy through the lateral pharyngotomy approach, and finally, the patient was diagnosed with extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type. We report this rare case of extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma at the base of tongue with a literature review.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763514

ABSTRACT

Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy, also known as Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD), is a rare histiocytic disorder of unknown etiology. Most patients with RDD have spontaneous remission, but in some patients, the disease recurs after complete remission and may not respond to general treatment. Some patients with RDD involving the extranodal system can have serious symptoms such as vital organ dysfunction due to mass effects, neurological symptoms caused by intracranial involvement, and respiratory distress with airway involvement. We report the case of a 7-year-old girl with severe dyspnea due to refractory extranodal RDD that caused progressive upper airway obstruction. She was admitted because of nasal congestion and persistent cervical lymphadenopathy, and diagnosed as having RDD by cervical lymph node incisional biopsy. The initial prednisone treatment did not improve her symptoms. The following contrast-enhanced neck computed tomography revealed a newly developed airway mass protruding in the upper trachea. After 8 weeks of chemotherapy with vinblastine, methotrexate, and prednisone, complete remission was attained. Seven months after chemotherapy cessation, the disease recurred, and chemotherapy with vincristine, cytarabine, and prednisone was resumed. Despite the chemotherapy and emergency radiotherapy, no improvement was observed in the cervical lymph node enlargement and airway obstructive symptom due to the upper tracheal mass. 2-Chlorodeoxyadenosine (cladribine) therapy was initiated, and the patient got complete remission after 6 cycles of the cladribine treatment and maintained no evidence of disease for 2 years. We suggest that cladribine is an effective treatment option for recurrent/refractory RDD.


Subject(s)
Airway Obstruction , Biopsy , Child , Cladribine , Cytarabine , Drug Therapy , Dyspnea , Emergencies , Estrogens, Conjugated (USP) , Female , Histiocytosis, Sinus , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Lymphatic Diseases , Methotrexate , Neck , Prednisone , Radiotherapy , Remission, Spontaneous , Trachea , Vinblastine , Vincristine
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717050

ABSTRACT

The 2016 WHO diagnostic criteria for chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) require both absolute and relative monocytosis (≥1×10⁹/L and ≥10% of white blood cell counts) in peripheral blood. Moreover, myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) features in bone marrow and/or MPN-associated mutations tend to support MPN with monocytosis rather than CMML. We assessed the impact of the 2016 WHO criteria on CMML diagnosis, compared with the 2008 WHO criteria, through a retrospective review of the medical records of 38 CMML patients diagnosed according to the 2008 WHO classification. Application of the 2016 WHO criteria resulted in the exclusion of three (8%) patients who did not fulfill the relative monocytosis criterion and eight (21%) patients with an MPN-associated mutation. These 11 patients formed the 2016 WHO others group; the remaining 27 formed the 2016 WHO CMML group. The significant difference in the platelet count and monocyte percentage between the two groups indicated that the 2016 WHO criteria lead to a more homogenous and improved definition of CMML compared with the 2008 WHO criteria, which may have led to over-diagnosis of CMML. More widespread use of molecular tests and more sophisticated clinical and morphological evaluations are necessary to diagnose CMML accurately.


Subject(s)
Bone Marrow , Classification , Diagnosis , Humans , Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Chronic , Leukocytes , Medical Records , Monocytes , Platelet Count , Retrospective Studies
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715923

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cutaneous drug eruption is very common, and its clinical manifestations are variable. Diagnosis of drug eruption is usually based on clinical findings and medication history. To date, few studies have compared the variable histopathologic findings of drug eruption according to medication. OBJECTIVE: We focused on morbilliform eruption among diverse manifestations of drug eruption and investigated the differences in histopathologic findings between antibiotics- and chemotherapeutic-agent-induced morbilliform drug eruption. METHODS: We reviewed medical charts established from March 1998 to August 2016 at our hospital. Inclusion criteria were histopathologically confirmed drug eruptions, clinical demonstrations of typical morbilliform eruptions obtained from medical photographs, and causative drugs identified as chemotherapeutic agents or antibiotics. Immunohistochemical staining was performed and included CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20, CD56, CD68, langerin, CD138, and c-kit. RESULTS: A total of 40 cases (20 cases, chemotherapeutic group; 20 cases, antibiotics group) were included in this study. The most frequent histologic feature of the epidermis was exocytosis (95%) in the chemotherapeutic group and necrotic keratinocytes (100%) in the antibiotics group. Inflammatory infiltration depths were significantly deeper in the antibiotics group than in the chemotherapeutic group. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of immunohistochemical staining. CONCLUSION: This study suggested that in patients with morbilliform drug eruption, chemotherapeutic agents cause more superficial inflammation compared to antibiotics. These findings may facilitate the differentiation of the culprit agents of morbilliform drug eruption in cancer patients. Further large, well-designed studies are needed to confirm these findings.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Antineoplastic Agents , Diagnosis , Drug Eruptions , Epidermis , Exocytosis , Humans , Inflammation , Keratinocytes
6.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 356-360, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715485

ABSTRACT

Primary or metastatic malignant melanoma can mimic benign blue nevus in rare cases, making the diagnosis challenging. Herein, we report an exceptionally rare case of blue nevus-like melanoma and its blue nevus-like metastasis which was detected by catheterized urine cytology. The patient presented with blue-colored papuloplaques on his temple which were diagnosed as blue nevus-like melanoma on punch biopsies. While he was admitted for administration of chemotherapy, hematuria was detected. Catheterized urine cytology revealed singly scattered oval to spindle-shaped pigmented cells with a moderate degree of variation in shape and size. Many of them had small nuclei with indiscernible to inconspicuous nucleoli while only a few cells showed nuclear enlargement and nuclear hyperchromasia, which could be diagnostic pitfalls. Most of the cells on the smear were positive for HMB45 immunostaining, which confirmed the diagnosis of metastatic blue nevus-like melanoma. To the best of our knowledge, the present case is the first report describing cytomorphologic findings of blue nevus-like metastasis of melanoma in the urine specimen.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Catheters , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Hematuria , Humans , Melanoma , Neoplasm Metastasis , Nevus, Blue
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787043

ABSTRACT

Although Dieulafoy lesion can occur in any part of the gastrointestinal tract, its occurrence in the rectum is rare. Rectal Dieulafoy lesions have been associated with advanced age, renal failure, burns, liver transplantation and cirrhosis. Here, we report on a case of massive bleeding from a rectal Dieulafoy lesion after lung decortication surgery in a 57-year-old male patient with alcoholic cirrhosis. Although rare, a rectal Dieulafoy lesion should be included in the differential diagnosis of massive lower gastrointestinal bleeding in a patient with cirrhosis.


Subject(s)
Alcoholics , Burns , Diagnosis, Differential , Fibrosis , Gastrointestinal Tract , Hemorrhage , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic , Liver Transplantation , Lung , Male , Middle Aged , Rectum , Renal Insufficiency
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-194642

ABSTRACT

Hematoxylin and eosin staining is simple and one of the most important techniques in pathological diagnosis. However, it cannot provide complete information about the disease of a patient. Immunohistochemical staining (IHC) is an important method for demonstrating the distribution of a certain molecule or antigen in tissues using specific antigen-antibody reactions. It is used in routine diagnostic work and research to explore biomarkers. In this review, I aim to provide an adequate interpretation of the results of IHC and pathological diagnosis for clinicians.


Subject(s)
Antigen-Antibody Reactions , Biomarkers , Diagnosis , Eosine Yellowish-(YS) , Hematoxylin , Humans , Methods
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-225045

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT1) expression is linked to glucose metabolism and tissue hypoxia. A recent study reported that GLUT1 was significantly associated with programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) as a therapeutic target in relapsed or refractory classical Hodgkin's lymphoma (cHL). The purpose of this study was to measure the expression of GLUT1 and assess its prognostic significance and potential relationships with PD-L1, programmed death ligand 2 (PD-L2), and programmed death-1 (PD-1) expressions in cHL. METHODS: Diagnostic tissues from 125 patients with cHL treated with doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine were evaluated retrospectively via immunohistochemical analysis of GLUT1, PD-L1, PD-L2, and PD-1 expression. RESULTS: The median follow-up time was 4.83 years (range, 0.08 to 17.33 years). GLUT1, PD-L1, PD-L2, and PD-1 were expressed in 44.8%, 63.2%, 9.6%, and 13.6% of the specimens, respectively. Positive correlations were found between GLUT1 and PD-L1 expression (p = .004) and between GLUT1 and PD-L2 expression (p = .031). GLUT1 expression in Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells was not associated with overall survival or event-free survival (EFS) in the entire cohort (p = .299 and p = .143, respectively). A subgroup analysis according to the Ann Arbor stage illustrated that GLUT1 expression in HRS cells was associated with better EFS in advanced-stage disease (p = .029). A multivariate analysis identified GLUT1 as a marginally significant prognostic factor for EFS (p = .068). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that GLUT1 expression is associated with better clinical outcomes in advanced-stage cHL and is significantly associated with PD-L1 and PD-L2 expressions.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-208880

ABSTRACT

Epstein-Barr virus (human herpesvirus-4) is very common virus that can be detected in more than 95% of the human population. Most people are asymptomatic and live their entire lives in a chronically infected state (IgG positive). However, in some populations, the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been involved in the occurrence of a wide range of B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs), including Burkitt lymphoma, classic Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and immune–deficiency associated LPDs (post-transplant and human immunodeficiency virus–associated LPDs). T-cell LPDs have been reported to be associated with EBV with a subset of peripheral T-cell lymphomas, angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphomas, extranodal nasal natural killer/T-cell lymphomas, and other rare histotypes. This article reviews the current evidence covering EBV-associated LPDs based on the 2016 classification of the World Health Organization. These LPD entities often pose diagnostic challenges, both clinically and pathologically, so it is important to understand their unique pathophysiology for correct diagnoses and optimal management.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes , Burkitt Lymphoma , Classification , Diagnosis , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Humans , Lymphoma , Lymphoma, T-Cell , Lymphoma, T-Cell, Peripheral , Lymphoproliferative Disorders , T-Lymphocytes , World Health Organization
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-174142

ABSTRACT

Although Dieulafoy lesion can occur in any part of the gastrointestinal tract, its occurrence in the rectum is rare. Rectal Dieulafoy lesions have been associated with advanced age, renal failure, burns, liver transplantation and cirrhosis. Here, we report on a case of massive bleeding from a rectal Dieulafoy lesion after lung decortication surgery in a 57-year-old male patient with alcoholic cirrhosis. Although rare, a rectal Dieulafoy lesion should be included in the differential diagnosis of massive lower gastrointestinal bleeding in a patient with cirrhosis.


Subject(s)
Alcoholics , Burns , Diagnosis, Differential , Fibrosis , Gastrointestinal Tract , Hemorrhage , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic , Liver Transplantation , Lung , Male , Middle Aged , Rectum , Renal Insufficiency
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-225230

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recently, VE1, a monoclonal antibody against the BRAFV600E mutant protein, has been investigated in terms of its detection of the BRAFV600E mutation. Although VE1 immunostaining and molecular methods used to assess papillary thyroid carcinoma in surgical specimens are in good agreement, evaluation of VE1 in thyroid cytology samples is rarely performed, and its diagnostic value in cytology has not been well established. In present study, we explored VE1 immunoexpression in cytology samples from ex vivo papillary thyroid carcinoma specimens in order to minimize limitations of low cellularity and sampling/targeting errors originated from thyroid fineneedle aspiration and compared our results with those obtained using the corresponding papillary thyroid carcinoma tissues. METHODS: The VE1 antibody was evaluated in 21 cases of thyroid cytology obtained directly from ex vivo thyroid specimens. VE1 immunostaining was performed using liquid-based cytology, and the results were compared with those obtained using the corresponding tissues. RESULTS: Of 21 cases, 19 classic papillary thyroid carcinomas had BRAFV600E mutations, whereas two follicular variants expressed wild-type BRAF. VE1 immunoexpression varied according to specimen type. In detection of the BRAFV600E mutation, VE1 immunostaining of the surgical specimen exhibited 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity, whereas VE1 immunostaining of the cytology specimen exhibited only 94.7% sensitivity and 0% specificity. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that VE1 immunostaining of a cytology specimen is less specific than that of a surgical specimen for detection of the BRAFV600E mutation, and that VE1 immunostaining of a cytology specimen should be further evaluated and optimized for clinical use.


Subject(s)
Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Immunohistochemistry , Mutant Proteins , Sensitivity and Specificity , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-227314

ABSTRACT

In September 2011, the Korean Society of Hematology Lymphoma Working Party held a nationwide conference to establish a consensus for assessing bone marrow (BM) involvement in patients with lymphoma. At this conference, many clinicians, hematopathologists, and diagnostic hematologists discussed various topics for a uniform consensus in the evaluation process to determine whether the BM is involved. Now that the discussion has matured sufficiently to be published, we herein describe the consensus reached and limitations in current methods for assessing BM involvement in patients with lymphoma.


Subject(s)
Bone Marrow , Consensus , Hematology , Humans , Lymphoma
15.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 542-544, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-77225

ABSTRACT

Rhabdomyolysis results from acute damage to skeletal muscles caused by various conditions, of which hypokalemia is a recognized but rare example. Although primary aldosteronism may cause severe hypokalemia leading to rhabdomyolysis, the potassium level of such patients can be within the normal range. Hypokalemia is most frequently triggered when these patients are exposed to an additional insult, such as diuretic stress. Similarly, overzealous consumption of ionic beverages with osmotic diuretic effects can cause hypokalemia. Here, we describe a patient with an aldosterone-secreting adrenal adenoma, who presented with acute rhabdomyolysis secondary to severe hypokalemia triggered by consumption of a large volume of ionic beverage for 3 weeks.


Subject(s)
Adenoma , Adrenocortical Adenoma , Beverages , Diuresis , Diuretics , Humans , Hyperaldosteronism , Hypokalemia , Muscle, Skeletal , Potassium , Reference Values , Rhabdomyolysis
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-83192

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prevalence of adenoma in males aged 40-49 years in Korea was higher than expected. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of colorectal adenoma in males aged 40-49 years. METHODS: Total 1,902 asymptomatic subjects with a mean age of 47.9±6.7 years, who underwent a screening colonoscopy in a health promotion center of Myongji Hospital from 2010 to 2013 were enrolled in this study. We conducted a case-control study to determine the risk factors for adenoma. The subjects were classified into two groups (adenoma vs. controls). To validate the diagnostic value of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) for adenoma, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was calculated. RESULTS: At least one colorectal adenoma was identified in 385 subjects (20.2%). Among these 385 subjects, 372 subjects were found to have a non-advanced adenoma, 13 subjects had an invasive adenoma. One subject had cancer. Male sex, age, smoking, metabolic syndrome, and elevated CEA level were significantly associated with a colorectal adenoma in univariate analysis. However, metabolic syndrome was not significant in multivariate analysis. In the male group, the AUROC of CEA for colorectal adenoma was 0.600 (0.543 to 0.656) in non-smokers under 50 years of age, and 0.615 (0.540 to 0.690) in smokers under 50 years of age. CONCLUSION: Male sex, smoking, and high levels of CEA seem to be associated with colorectal adenoma. High levels of CEA and smoking may be diagnostic markers for any colorectal adenoma in Korean males aged 40-49 years.


Subject(s)
Adenoma , Carcinoembryonic Antigen , Case-Control Studies , Colonoscopy , Health Promotion , Humans , Korea , Male , Mass Screening , Multivariate Analysis , Prevalence , Risk Factors , ROC Curve , Smoke , Smoking
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-36844

ABSTRACT

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare disorder characterized by fever, pancytopenia, hyperferritinemia, and phagocytosis of hematopoietic cells in bone marrow, liver, or lymph nodes. HLH can occur during the course of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), but can also be a presenting manifestation. Because development of pancytopenia occurs in less than 10 percent of SLE cases, investigation for HLH is necessary when otherwise unexplained pancytopenia persists despite adequate treatment. We experienced three cases of secondary HLH associated with SLE. Among the three patients, two patients developed HLH during the clinical course of SLE. The other patient who presented with pancytopenia was first diagnosed with HLH, and later with SLE. In her case, HLH turned out to be a presenting manifestation of SLE. We report on three successfully treated cases, and discuss the prevalence, characteristics, treatments, and prognosis of secondary HLH associated with SLE.


Subject(s)
Bone Marrow , Fever , Humans , Liver , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Lymph Nodes , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Pancytopenia , Phagocytosis , Prevalence , Prognosis
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-217189

ABSTRACT

It is known that rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients show increased incidence of multiple myeloma (MM), despite its rarity. Only one case of MM with seronegative RA was reported in Korea, thus far. We report a case of MM with seropositive RA. The patient was a 66 year old female who had been diagnosed with seropositive RA 4 years ago. Over the last 1 month, the patient experienced general weakness and weight loss of 10 kg. It was found that her serum creatinine had increased and her urine analysis showed proteinuria. To evaluate renal failure and proteinuria, renal biopsy, bone marrow biopsy and electrophoresis were carried out. A diagnosis of myeloma cast nephropathy was made. We report this rare case of MM represented as acute renal failure during the treatment for RA, and include a review of the literature.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Biopsy , Bone Marrow , Creatinine , Diagnosis , Electrophoresis , Female , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Multiple Myeloma , Proteinuria , Renal Insufficiency , Weight Loss
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