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1.
Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism ; : 37-43, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925478

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To investigate growth response in children with either idiopathic short stature (ISS) or growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD). @*Methods@#The data of prepubertal GHD or ISS children treated using recombinant human GH were obtained from the LG Growth Study database. GHD children were further divided into partial and complete GHD groups. Growth response and factors predicting growth response after 1 and 2 years of GH treatment were investigated. @*Results@#This study included 692 children (98 with ISS, 443 partial GHD, and 151 complete GHD). After 1 year, changes in height standard deviation score (ΔHt-SDS) were 0.78, 0.83, and 0.96 in ISS, partial GHD, and complete GHD, respectively. Height velocity (HV) was 8.72, 9.04, and 9.52 cm/yr in ISS, partial GHD, and complete GHD, respectively. ΔHt-SDS and HV did not differ among the 3 groups. Higher initial body mass index standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) and midparental height standard deviation score (MPH-SDS) were predictors for better growth response after 1 year in ISS and the partial GHD group, respectively. In the complete GHD group, higher Ht-SDS and BMI-SDS predicted better growth response after 1 year. After 2 years of GH treatment, higher BMI-SDS and MPH-SDS predicted a better growth outcome in the partial GHD group, and higher MPH-SDS was a predictor of good growth response in complete GHD. @*Conclusion@#Clinical characteristics and growth response did not differ among groups. Predictors of growth response differed among the 3 groups, and even in the same group, a higher GH dose would be required when poor response is predicted.

2.
Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism ; : 5-14, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925472

ABSTRACT

The Committee on Pediatric Bone Health of the Korean Society of Pediatric Endocrinology has newly developed evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for optimizing bone health in Korean children and adolescents. These guidelines present recommendations based on the Grading of Recommendations, which includes the quality of evidence. In the absence of sufficient evidence, conclusions were based on expert opinion. These guidelines include processes of bone acquisition, definition, and evaluation of low bone mineral density (BMD), causes of osteoporosis, methods for optimizing bone health, and pharmacological treatments for enhancing BMD in children and adolescents. While these guidelines provide current evidence-based recommendations, further research is required to strengthen these guidelines.

3.
Korean Journal of Head and Neck Oncology ; (2): 25-29, 2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938538

ABSTRACT

Parathyroid carcinoma is very rare malignant neoplasm, accounting for less than 0.005% of all cancers. Most parathyroid carcinoma is a functioning tumor that causes hyperparathyroidism, leading to hypercalcemia. We report a parathyroid carcinoma case that was suspicious for spontaneous infarction of cancer, leading to resolution of hypercalcemia. A 29-year-old male visited our hospital presenting with right neck swelling and pain. He has been experiencing frequent urolithiasis for four years but laboratory tests showed normal serum calcium level. Right vocal cord paresis was identified with laryngoscopy. Ultrasonography revealed a 3.7 × 3.5 cm mass in the right thyroid containing a focal cystic portion. Computed tomography confirmed the presence of a low-density right thyroid mass. Right thyroid lobectomy was performed and pathological evaluation revealed parathyroid carcinoma with central necrosis. We report this very rare case with a literature review.

4.
Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism ; : 112-117, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889179

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Transition from pediatric to adult healthcare for adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) increases the risk for poor outcomes. This study aimed to describe the circumstances and clinical practice patterns associated with this transition of care based on a nationwide survey of pediatric endocrinologists in Korea. @*Methods@#An electronic survey regarding the healthcare transition of T1D patients was administered to 143 pediatric endocrinologists registered in the Korean Society of Pediatric Endocrinology. @*Results@#The response rate was 50.2% (n=72). Among responders, 58.3% (n=42) were females, and 70.8% (n=51) worked in academic medical centers. The main reasons for transfer to adult care were request from a patient or family (69.6%) and age ≥18 years (42.0%). Impediments to transition were a long-lasting therapeutic relationship (72.9%) and lack of adult specialists in T1D care (62.9%). Communication between pediatric and adult endocrinologists was via nonstructured patient summary (68.6%) and telephone or email (27.1%). Responders reported that successful transition requires development of transition protocols (79.2%) and a multidisciplinary team approach for transition care (52.8%). @*Conclusion@#Transition care of T1D patients is a challenge to pediatric endocrinologists in Korea. Development of transition care protocols for healthcare providers and improvement of diabetes self-management skills for patients are needed.

5.
Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism ; : 130-133, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889169

ABSTRACT

X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets is an X-linked dominantly inherited disorder characterized by defects in renal phosphate transport leading to phosphate wasting and hypophosphatemia. In this report, we describe a case of X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets in a patient with a rare pathogenic PHEX variant. The 25-year-old female patient came to our clinic for genetic counseling regarding presumed genetic disease and pregnancy. When she was 9 years old, she had been diagnosed with vitamin D-resistant rickets based on laboratory results and symptoms. She had undergone orthopedic surgery due to bowing leg deformities. Since then, she was intermittently self-prescribing oral phosphate and calcium supplements. At 25 years old, she was diagnosed with X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets with a rare pathogenic PHEX variant (c.1483-1G>C) by next-generation sequencing. This is the second report of the c.1483-1G>C variant to date, and her pathogenicity was confirmed based on the most recent guideline. Traditionally, the disease had been diagnosed mostly based on clinical findings. However, with advancements in genetic testing, genetic confirmation has become an imperative part of diagnostic workup. Herein, we report a 25-year-old female Korean patient diagnosed with X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets harboring a rare pathogenic PHEX variant.

6.
Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism ; : 112-117, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896883

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Transition from pediatric to adult healthcare for adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) increases the risk for poor outcomes. This study aimed to describe the circumstances and clinical practice patterns associated with this transition of care based on a nationwide survey of pediatric endocrinologists in Korea. @*Methods@#An electronic survey regarding the healthcare transition of T1D patients was administered to 143 pediatric endocrinologists registered in the Korean Society of Pediatric Endocrinology. @*Results@#The response rate was 50.2% (n=72). Among responders, 58.3% (n=42) were females, and 70.8% (n=51) worked in academic medical centers. The main reasons for transfer to adult care were request from a patient or family (69.6%) and age ≥18 years (42.0%). Impediments to transition were a long-lasting therapeutic relationship (72.9%) and lack of adult specialists in T1D care (62.9%). Communication between pediatric and adult endocrinologists was via nonstructured patient summary (68.6%) and telephone or email (27.1%). Responders reported that successful transition requires development of transition protocols (79.2%) and a multidisciplinary team approach for transition care (52.8%). @*Conclusion@#Transition care of T1D patients is a challenge to pediatric endocrinologists in Korea. Development of transition care protocols for healthcare providers and improvement of diabetes self-management skills for patients are needed.

7.
Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism ; : 130-133, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896873

ABSTRACT

X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets is an X-linked dominantly inherited disorder characterized by defects in renal phosphate transport leading to phosphate wasting and hypophosphatemia. In this report, we describe a case of X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets in a patient with a rare pathogenic PHEX variant. The 25-year-old female patient came to our clinic for genetic counseling regarding presumed genetic disease and pregnancy. When she was 9 years old, she had been diagnosed with vitamin D-resistant rickets based on laboratory results and symptoms. She had undergone orthopedic surgery due to bowing leg deformities. Since then, she was intermittently self-prescribing oral phosphate and calcium supplements. At 25 years old, she was diagnosed with X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets with a rare pathogenic PHEX variant (c.1483-1G>C) by next-generation sequencing. This is the second report of the c.1483-1G>C variant to date, and her pathogenicity was confirmed based on the most recent guideline. Traditionally, the disease had been diagnosed mostly based on clinical findings. However, with advancements in genetic testing, genetic confirmation has become an imperative part of diagnostic workup. Herein, we report a 25-year-old female Korean patient diagnosed with X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets harboring a rare pathogenic PHEX variant.

8.
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry ; : 154-160, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836312

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#It remains unclear whether methylphenidate (MPH) has yadverse effects on growth in children. This study aimed to investigate the association of MPH with serum biological markers of growth in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). @*Methods@#The present study included 103 children with ADHD (64 drug-naive children, 39 MPH-treated children) and 112 control subjects. Children with ADHD were diagnosed on the basis of a semi-structured interview. Levels of biochemical markers of growth, including insulin-like growth factor-I, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free T4, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, vitamin D, hemoglobin, total protein, albumin, total cholesterol, and hematocrit were measured in these individuals. @*Results@#Except in case of TSH, no intergroup differences were found in the levels of the growth markers. The levels of TSH were found to be lower in the MPH-treated boys with ADHD than in the drug-naive and control groups (p<0.05), although the levels of TSH in all the groups were within normal limits. @*Conclusion@#In this cross-sectional study, no significant association was found between MPH and growth markers. This calls for the need to carry out prospective longitudinal research studies in the future that investigate the effect of MPH on the growth trajectory in children.

9.
Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism ; : 199-207, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889163

ABSTRACT

The Committee on Dyslipidemia of Korean Pediatric and Adolescents of the Korean Society of Pediatric Endocrinology has newly developed evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for dyslipidemia in Korean children and adolescents. These guidelines were formulated with the Grading of Recommendations, which include both the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. In the absence of sufficient evidence, conclusions were based on expert opinion. These guidelines are based on the 2011 National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Guidelines, which focus on the prevention of cardiovascular disease in children and draw from a comprehensive review of evidence. These guidelines contain the definition of and screening process for dyslipidemia and introduce new dietary methods: the Cardiovascular Health Integrated Lifestyle Diet (CHILD)-1, the CHILD-2-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and the CHILD-2-triglyceride. Potential drug therapies for dyslipidemia along with their main effects and doses were also included.

10.
Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism ; : 265-271, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889158

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To determine the limitations of current screening methods for lipid disorders and to suggest a new method that is effective for use in Korean adolescents. @*Methods@#Data from the 6th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2013–2015) were analyzed. The diagnostic validity (sensitivity and specificity) of various cardiovascular risk factors currently used for lipid disorder screening was investigated, as was the diagnostic validity of non-HDL-cholesterol ≥145 mg/dL as a screening tool. @*Results@#The prevalence of dyslipidemia and familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) among Korean adolescents was 20.4%±1.0% and 0.8%±0.3%, respectively. The current standard screening methods identified only 5.9%±1.4% and 30.3%±17.2% of the total number of dyslipidemia and FH cases, respectively. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of lipid profile analysis for dyslipidemia among obese adolescents were 19.5%±2.3% and 93.6%±0.8% and for FH were 30.3%±17.2% and 91.1%±0.8%, respectively. When adolescents with obesity, hypertension, or a family history of dyslipidemia or cardiocerebrovascular disease for over 3 generations were included in the screening, diagnostic sensitivity increased to 68.4%±2.8% for dyslipidemia and 83.5%±2.7% for FH. Universal screening of all adolescents based on non-HDL-cholesterol levels had sensitivities of 30.2%±2.7% and 100%, and specificities of 99.2%±0.3% and 94%±0.6% for dyslipidemia and FH, respectively. @*Conclusion@#New screening methods should be considered for early diagnosis and treatment of lipid disorders in Korean adolescents.

11.
Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism ; : 199-207, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896867

ABSTRACT

The Committee on Dyslipidemia of Korean Pediatric and Adolescents of the Korean Society of Pediatric Endocrinology has newly developed evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for dyslipidemia in Korean children and adolescents. These guidelines were formulated with the Grading of Recommendations, which include both the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. In the absence of sufficient evidence, conclusions were based on expert opinion. These guidelines are based on the 2011 National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Guidelines, which focus on the prevention of cardiovascular disease in children and draw from a comprehensive review of evidence. These guidelines contain the definition of and screening process for dyslipidemia and introduce new dietary methods: the Cardiovascular Health Integrated Lifestyle Diet (CHILD)-1, the CHILD-2-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and the CHILD-2-triglyceride. Potential drug therapies for dyslipidemia along with their main effects and doses were also included.

12.
Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism ; : 265-271, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896862

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To determine the limitations of current screening methods for lipid disorders and to suggest a new method that is effective for use in Korean adolescents. @*Methods@#Data from the 6th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2013–2015) were analyzed. The diagnostic validity (sensitivity and specificity) of various cardiovascular risk factors currently used for lipid disorder screening was investigated, as was the diagnostic validity of non-HDL-cholesterol ≥145 mg/dL as a screening tool. @*Results@#The prevalence of dyslipidemia and familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) among Korean adolescents was 20.4%±1.0% and 0.8%±0.3%, respectively. The current standard screening methods identified only 5.9%±1.4% and 30.3%±17.2% of the total number of dyslipidemia and FH cases, respectively. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of lipid profile analysis for dyslipidemia among obese adolescents were 19.5%±2.3% and 93.6%±0.8% and for FH were 30.3%±17.2% and 91.1%±0.8%, respectively. When adolescents with obesity, hypertension, or a family history of dyslipidemia or cardiocerebrovascular disease for over 3 generations were included in the screening, diagnostic sensitivity increased to 68.4%±2.8% for dyslipidemia and 83.5%±2.7% for FH. Universal screening of all adolescents based on non-HDL-cholesterol levels had sensitivities of 30.2%±2.7% and 100%, and specificities of 99.2%±0.3% and 94%±0.6% for dyslipidemia and FH, respectively. @*Conclusion@#New screening methods should be considered for early diagnosis and treatment of lipid disorders in Korean adolescents.

13.
Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism ; : 108-115, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762603

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Iodine is a major component of thyroid hormones. Both deficiency and excess of iodine are major risk factors for thyroid disease, making it important to accurately assess iodine level in the human body. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) is a commonly used measure of iodine status. However, there is little research on iodine status and related characteristics in Korean adolescents. METHODS: Using data from the sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES VI) for the years 2013–2015, we analyzed UIC and thyroid function test results in adolescents aged 10–18 years and their parents. We also investigated the influence of socioeconomic factors and family history of thyroid disease on iodine status. RESULTS: Mean UIC in Korean adolescents was 963.5±55.7 μg/L. Among evaluated subjects, 6.6%±1.0%, 29.8%±1.7%, and 63.9%±1.9% had low (UIC<100 μg/L), adequate (UIC: 100–299.9 μg/L), and excess (UIC≥300 μg/L) iodine concentrations, respectively. Based on regional trends, the incidence of iodine deficiency exceeded 10% in several regions, even though there was a dominance of regions with excess iodine. Parental UIC, female sex, average monthly income, and expenditure were all found to affect the iodine status of Korean adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: Although regional differences exist, the iodine status in Korean adolescents is mainly affected by the eating habits of their families and socioeconomic factors. Therefore, monitoring of iodine status is necessary in this population.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Female , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Eating , Health Expenditures , Human Body , Incidence , Iodine , Korea , Nutrition Surveys , Parents , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Thyroid Diseases , Thyroid Function Tests , Thyroid Hormones
14.
Child Health Nursing Research ; : 449-457, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785562

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of eating disorders in adolescents with type 1 diabetes, with the goal of providing data in support of nursing interventions to improve their health.METHODS: A total of 136 adolescents aged 13–18 years with type 1 diabetes completed the Diabetes Eating Problem Survey-Revised, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Beck Depression Inventory-II, using structured self-reported questionnaires. The collected data were analyzed using the t-test, χ² test, and binominal logistic regression with SPSS version 23.0 for Windows.RESULTS: The prevalence of eating disorders in adolescents with type 1 diabetes was 39%. Four significant predictors of eating disorders were identified; absence of body satisfaction (odds ratio [OR]=3.87, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.55~9.65), depression (OR=2.87, 95% CI=1.13~7.28), female gender (OR=2.67, 95% CI=1.09~6.54), and glycosylated hemoglobin type A1c levels (OR=1.47, 95% CI=1.10~1.97).CONCLUSION: In order to prevent eating disorders among adolescents with type 1 diabetes, programs for managing adolescents' depression and improving their body satisfaction should be developed. Futhermore, more attention should be directed towards programs aiming to prevent eating disorders in female adolescents.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Female , Humans , Body Image , Depression , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Eating , Glycated Hemoglobin , Logistic Models , Nursing , Prevalence
15.
Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism ; : 43-50, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713443

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Regarding recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) use in the pediatric population, no long-term follow-up data are available for Korean patients. To fill in the gap of knowledge, a registry study (LG Growth Study) was initiated to assess the safety and effectiveness of four types of rhGH products in real-life settings. METHODS: A total of 4,000 children will be registered and prospectively followed up at 6-month intervals until 2 years after epiphyseal closure to collect data on treatment and adverse events, with primary interest in malignancies and growth outcomes. RESULTS: As of 22 March 2017, approximately 50% (2,024) of the target number of patients have been included in the analysis set: growth hormone deficiency, 1,297 (64.1%); idiopathic short stature, 315 (15.6%); small for gestational age, 206 (10.2%); Turner syndrome, 197 (9.7%); and chronic renal failure, 9 (0.4%). At baseline, median age (years) was 8 (interquartile range [IQR], 5–11); 52% (1,048) were boys; and the majority were at Tanner stage I (83% based on breast/external genitalia, 97% on pubic hair). Median height standard deviation score was -2.26 (IQR, -2.69 to -2.0), and median bone age delay (years) was -1.46 (IQR, -2.26 to -0.78). CONCLUSIONS: This registry study will provide the opportunity to assess the risk of malignancies as well as the general safety data in Korean pediatric patients receiving rhGH. In addition, the long-term effectiveness of rhGH and comparative data between different disease entities will provide practical insight on the standard rhGH treatment.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Cohort Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Genitalia , Gestational Age , Growth Hormone , Human Growth Hormone , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Prospective Studies , Turner Syndrome
16.
Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism ; : 56-56, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713441

ABSTRACT

The ethical statement was omitted unintentionally.

17.
Clinical Pediatric Hematology-Oncology ; : 31-37, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714201

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a disease prevalent throughout the world. However, there is limited information regarding whether familial factors are associated with the risk of adolescent IDA. METHODS: This study evaluated the association between adolescent IDA and family history of IDA using data from the fifth Korea National Health Nutrition Survey (2010–2012). Data from 10-18-year-old children who underwent laboratory testing were analyzed. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of IDA was 3.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.4−4.1%), with prevalence of 0.5% among boys (95% CI: 0.2−1.3%) and 6.2% among girls (95% CI: 4.6−8.3%). The prevalence of IDA was associated with female sex (odds ratio [OR]: 13.43, 95% CI: 4.92−36.65; P < 0.001) and a family history of IDA (OR: 3.12, 95% CI: 1.11−8.76; P=0.03). Other risk factors for IDA were receiving social welfare support (OR: 3.31, 95% CI: 1.45−7.56; P=0.031), low maternal education (OR: 3.12, 95% CI: 1.39−6.99; P=0.006), receiving charitable food support (OR: 2.27: 95% CI: 0.9−5.44; P=0.04), poor body-image (OR: 2.14, 95% CI: 1.16−3.93; P=0.026), and weight-loss efforts (OR: 2.42, 95% CI: 1.27−4.61; P=0.01). Nutritional supplementation protected against IDA (OR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.19−0.82; P=0.007), although adolescents with awareness of nutritional labels had a high IDA prevalence (OR: 8.06, 95% CI: 1.71−38.05; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: A family history of IDA was an independent risk factor for IDA. Further studies are needed to determine whether family-level educational interventions can reduce the risk of adolescent IDA.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Female , Humans , Anemia , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency , Education , Iron , Korea , Nutrition Surveys , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Social Welfare
18.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 79-84, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-217622

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: High Gleason score (8 to 10) is a poor prognostic factor regardless of treatment. Pathological downgrading sometimes occurs in high grade prostate cancer. The aim of this study is to evaluate treatment outcomes in patients with high grade prostate cancer on biopsy who were pathological downgrading after radical prostatectomy (RP). The impact on outcomes according to changes in the Gleason score after RP was evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Of 3,236 men who underwent RP between September 1995 and December 2014, 541 patients with biopsy Gleason score 8 to 10 were retrospectively reviewed. We analyzed incidence and biochemical recurrence (BCR) free probability in this downgraded group according to the Gleason grade of cancer in the RP specimen. RESULTS: Of 541 patients had a prostate biopsy Gleason score of 8 to 10. Two hundred ten patients showed pathological downgrading after RP (38.8%). Five-year BCR-free probability of patients who had Gleason score of 7 or less after RP was 46.8%. However, 5-year BCR-free probability of patients who remained Gleason scores 8 to 10 after RP was 28.5%. There was a significantly higher BCR-free probability in pathological downgrading group (p<0.001). On multivariate analysis, biopsy Gleason 8, lower PSA, clinical T2 stage was a significant predictor of downgrading. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, 38.8% of patients with high grade prostate cancer had a Gleason score of 7 or less in the RP specimen. Downgraded prostate cancer had more favorable treatment outcome. Serum PSA, clinical stage and biopsy Gleason score were the predictive factors for pathological downgrading.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Biopsy , Incidence , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Grading , Prostate , Prostatectomy , Prostatic Neoplasms , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
19.
Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism ; : 82-89, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-49256

ABSTRACT

The number of childhood cancer survivors is increasing as survival rates improve. However, complications after treatment have not received much attention, particularly metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome comprises central obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance, and cancer survivors have higher risks of cardiovascular events compared with the general population. The mechanism by which cancer treatment induces metabolic syndrome is unclear. However, its pathophysiology can be categorized based on the cancer treatment type administered. Brain surgery or radiotherapy may induce metabolic syndrome by damaging the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, which may induce pituitary hormone deficiencies. Local therapy administered to particular endocrine organs directly damages the organs and causes hormone deficiencies, which induce obesity and dyslipidemia leading to metabolic syndrome. Chemotherapeutic agents interfere with cell generation and growth, damage the vascular endothelial cells, and increase the cardiovascular risk. Moreover, chemotherapeutic agents induce oxidative stress, which also induces metabolic syndrome. Physical inactivity caused by cancer treatment or the cancer itself, dietary restrictions, and the frequent use of antibiotics may also be risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Since childhood cancer survivors with metabolic syndrome have higher risks of cardiovascular events at an earlier age, early interventions should be considered. The optimal timing of interventions and drug use has not been established, but lifestyle modifications and exercise interventions that begin during cancer treatment might be beneficial and tailored education and interventions that account for individual patients' circumstances are needed. This review evaluates the recent literature that describes metabolic syndrome in cancer survivors, with a focus on its pathophysiology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Antineoplastic Protocols , Brain , Dyslipidemias , Early Intervention, Educational , Education , Endothelial Cells , Hypertension , Insulin Resistance , Life Style , Metabolic Syndrome , Obesity , Obesity, Abdominal , Oxidative Stress , Radiotherapy , Risk Factors , Survival Rate , Survivors
20.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 66-71, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-217624

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine the negative predictive value (NPV) of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) for clinically significant cancer (CSC) based on the Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) version 2 in very low-risk or low-risk prostate cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 380 patients with low risk of prostate cancer who underwent mp-MRI before radical prostatectomy (RP) from 2011 to 2013. Of the 380 patients, 142 patients were in the very low risk group. CSC at RP was defined as follows: any T3−4, G3+4 with tumor volume>15%, G4+3 or higher. In the very low risk and low risk groups, we analyzed the rate of CSC according to PI-RADS score and calculated the NPV of mp-MRI for detection of CSC. RESULTS: In the low risk group, 20.8% (n=79) of patients had PI-RADS version 2 score 1–2 and 17.4% (n=66) of patients had PI-RADS version 2 score 3. In the very low risk group, 26.8% (n=38) of patients had PI-RADS version 2 score 1–2 and 17.6% (n=25) of patients had PI-RADS version 2 score 3 in the very low risk group. Rates of CSC were 33.7% (n=128) and 16.9% (n=24) in the low risk and very low risk groups, respectively. The NPV of MRI was 93.7% in the very low risk group and 78.6% in the low risk group. CONCLUSIONS: The NPV of PI-RADS for CSC is high in the very low risk group, but not in the low risk group. Further multicenter studies are needed to investigate the utility of PI-RADS version 2 for NPV.


Subject(s)
Humans , Information Systems , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Prostate , Prostatectomy , Prostatic Neoplasms , Retrospective Studies
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