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1.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 870-878, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966809

ABSTRACT

Background@#Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) is a major transporter protein for thyroid hormones. The serpin family A member 7 (SERPINA7) gene codes for TBG, and mutations of the SERPINA7 gene result in TBG deficiency. Although more than 40 mutations have been reported in several countries, only a few studies of TBG deficiency and SERPINA7 gene mutation have been performed in Korea. The aim of this study is to review the clinical presentations and laboratory findings of patients with TBG deficiency and to investigate the types of SERPINA7 gene mutation. @*Methods@#Five unrelated Korean adults with TBG deficiency attending endocrinology clinic underwent SERPINA7 gene sequencing. Four patients harbored a SERPINA7 gene mutation. Serum thyroid hormones, anti-microsomal antibodies, and TBG were measured. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood. All exons and intron-exon boundaries of the TBG gene were amplified and sequencing was performed. @*Results@#Two patients were heterozygous females, and the other two were hemizygous males. One heterozygous female had coexisting hypothyroidism. The other heterozygous female was erroneously prescribed levothyroxine at a local clinic. One hemizygous male harbored a novel mutation, p.Phe269Cysfs*18, which caused TBG partial deficiency. Three patients had the p.Leu372Phefs*23 mutation, which is known as TBG-complete deficiency Japan (TBG-CDJ) and was also presented in previous mutation analyses in Korea. @*Conclusion@#This study presents four patients diagnosed with TBG deficiency and provides the results of SERPINA7 gene sequencing. One novel mutation, p.Phe269Cysfs*18, causing TBD-partial deficiency and three cases of TBG-CDJ were demonstrated. It is necessary to identify TBG deficiency to prevent improper treatment. Also, sequencing of the SERPINA7 gene would provide valuable information about the TBG variants in Korea.

2.
Ultrasonography ; : 493-501, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939265

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The prevalence of the tall cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (TCVPTC), which has a poor prognosis, has increased as its definition has been modified. We sought to investigate whether TCVPTC is different from the classic type on ultrasonography (US). @*Methods@#This study included 46 consecutive TCVPTC patients and 92 classic papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) patients who were confirmed surgically at the authors’ institution. The US findings and pathologic reports of these patients were retrospectively reviewed. US features based on the Korean Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System, preoperative US suspicion for lymph node metastasis, and the presence of capsular location were evaluated. @*Results@#Univariable and multivariable analyses identified that TCVPTC showed more frequent irregular tumor margin (odds ratio [OR], 6.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46 to 30.09; P=0.014) and capsular location (OR, 4.63; 95% CI, 1.49 to 14.41; P=0.008) than classic PTC. Capsular location was an independent predictor of TCVPTC for tumors less than or equal to 1.5 cm in size (OR, 4.23; 95% CI, 1.12 to 15.92; P=0.033). Irregular margin was an independent predictor of TCVPTC for tumors larger than 1.5 cm (OR, 10.46; 95% CI, 1.16 to 94.48; P=0.037). Extrathyroidal extension was not significantly different between the two groups. @*Conclusion@#The two key features of TCVPTC on US are frequent capsular location for tumors less than or equal to 1.5 cm in size and the higher likelihood of an irregular margin for tumors larger than 1.5 cm.

3.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 506-512, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937433

ABSTRACT

Background@#Bone mineral density (BMD) testing is indicated for women aged 65 years, but screening strategies for osteoporosis are controversial. Currently, there is no study focusing on the BMD testing interval in Asian populations. The current study aimed to evaluate the estimated time interval for screening osteoporosis. @*Methods@#We conducted a study of 6,385 subjects aged 50 years and older who underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry screening more than twice at Samsung Medical Center as participants in a routine health checkup. Subjects were divided based on baseline T-score into mild osteopenia (T-score, –1.5), moderate osteopenia (T-score, ≤–1.5 to >–2.0), and severe osteopenia (T-score, ≤–2.0 to >–2.5). Information about personal medical and social history was collected by a structured questionnaire. @*Results@#The adjusted estimated BMD testing interval for 10% of the subjects to develop osteoporosis was 13.2 years in mild osteopenia, 5.0 years in moderate osteopenia, and 1.5 years in severe osteopenia. @*Conclusion@#Our study provides extended information about BMD screening intervals in Asian female population. Baseline T-score was important for predicting BMD screening interval, and repeat BMD testing within 5 years might not be necessary in mild osteopenia subjects.

4.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 107-114, 2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926797

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To evaluate the performance of combining prostate health index (PHI) and Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System version 2 (PI-RADSv2) for detection of clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa). @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent prostate biopsy for elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≥2.5 ng/mL and/or abnormal digital rectal examination. Serum markers for PSA, free PSA (fPSA), and [-2] proPSA (p2PSA) were measured, and PHI was calculated as ([p2PSA/fPSA]×[PSA]1/2). Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging was performed using a 3.0T scanner and scored using PI-RADSv2. csPCa was defined as either grade group (GG) ≥2 disease or GG1 cancer detected in >2 cores or >50% of positive on biopsy. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression modelling, along with receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to predict the probability of csPCa. @*Results@#Of the total 358 patients, 159 (44.4%) were diagnosed with csPCa. On univariable analysis, age, PSA density (PSAD), PHI and PI-RADSv2 were associated with csPCa. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of baseline model incorporating age and PSAD was 0.663. The AUC of combining PHI and PI-RADSv2 to baseline model was higher than that of PHI alone to baseline model (0.884 vs. 0.807, p<0.0001) and PI-RADSv2 alone to baseline model (0.884 vs. 0.846, p=0.0002), respectively. If biopsy was restricted to patients with PI-RADS 5 as well as PI-RADS 3 or 4 and PHI ≥27, 36.0% of unnecessary biopsy could be avoided at the cost of missing 4.7% of csPCa. @*Conclusions@#The combination of PHI and PI-RADSv2 to baseline model incorporating age and PSAD had higher accuracy for detection of csPCa compared with PHI or PI-RADSv2 alone.

5.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 281-289, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924948

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hyperthyroidism is associated with an increased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in the hyperdynamic state, which is reversible after restoring euthyroidism. However, long-term follow-up of renal dysfunction in patients with hyperthyroidism has not been performed. @*Methods@#This was a retrospective cohort study using the Korean National Health Insurance database and biannual health checkup data. We included 41,778 Graves’ disease (GD) patients and 41,778 healthy controls, matched by age and sex. The incidences of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) were calculated in GD patients and controls. The cumulative dose and duration of antithyroid drugs (ATDs) were calculated for each patient and categorized into the highest, middle, and lowest tertiles. @*Results@#Among 41,778 GD patients, 55 ESRD cases occurred during 268,552 person-years of follow-up. Relative to the controls, regardless of smoking, drinking, or comorbidities, including chronic kidney disease, GD patients had a 47% lower risk of developing ESRD (hazard ratio [HR], 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37 to 0.76). In particular, GD patients with a higher baseline GFR (≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2; HR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.11 to 0.99), longer treatment duration (>33 months; HR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.17 to 0.58) or higher cumulative dose (>16,463 mg; HR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.15 to 0.57) of ATDs had a significantly reduced risk of ESRD. @*Conclusion@#This was the first epidemiological study on the effect of GD on ESRD, and we demonstrated that GD population had a reduced risk for developing ESRD.

6.
International Journal of Thyroidology ; : 28-36, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898748

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Thyroid cancer (TC) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) display more frequent co-occurrence than would be expected by chance. We investigated clinicopathological features of patients with both primary TC and primary RCC (TC/RCC) group to facilitate a greater understanding of the relationship between two cancers. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 53 patients who diagnosed with TC/RCC were enrolled. 13,663 TC-alone and 3279 RCC-alone patients who had undergone surgery at Samsung Medical Center between 1994 and 2014 were included as control groups. The clinicopathological characteristics of these patients were retrospectively reviewed. @*Results@#The median age at the time of TC or RCC diagnosis was 54 years in TC/RCC group and the RCC-alone group, while the patients in TC-alone group were significantly younger (47 years). The TC/RCC group showed a nearly equal sex prevalence (49% male), significantly different than the results of the TC-alone group (80% female) and RCC-alone group (71% male). A higher grade of pathologic stage (56.6% in stage 3) and greater number of patients with multifocality of thyroid tumors (45 vs. 32%), and more family history of cancer (32 vs. 0.4%) were revealed in TC/RCC group than in TC-alone group. In addition, 15.1% of patients in TC/RCC group presented with additional primary cancers such as prostate, colon, stomach, breast, and lung cancers. Conclusion: Patients in the TC/RCC group have a high rate of cancer family history, multifocality of thyroid tumors, and additional cancers. To understand this unique subset group, additional studies for environmental and genetic factors would be helpful for earlier diagnosis of combined cancers.

7.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 491-499, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898220

ABSTRACT

Graves’ disease is associated with thyrotropin (TSH) receptor stimulating antibody, for which there is no therapeutic agent. This disease is currently treated through inhibition of thyroid hormone synthesis or destruction of the thyroid gland. Recurrence after antithyroid drug (ATD) treatment is common. Recent studies have shown that the longer is the duration of use of ATD, the higher is the remission rate. Considering the relationship between clinical outcomes and iodine intake, recurrence of Graves’ disease is more common in iodine-deficient areas than in iodine-sufficient areas. Iodine restriction in an iodine-excessive area does not improve the effectiveness of ATD or increase remission rates. Recently, Danish and Korean nationwide studies noted significantly higher prevalence of birth defects in newborns exposed to ATD during the first trimester compared to that of those who did not have such exposure. The prevalence of birth defects was lowest when propylthiouracil (PTU) was used and decreased by only 0.15% when methimazole was changed to PTU in the first trimester. Therefore, it is best not to use ATD in the first trimester or to change to PTU before pregnancy.

8.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 148-154, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902530

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We investigated the predictive factors for acute urinary retention (AUR) after transperineal template-guided mapping biopsy (TTMB). @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the records of 459 patients who had undergone TTMB between May 2017 and July 2020. Overall complications after TTMB were analyzed and categorized according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. Factors that were likely to affect AUR were analyzed using a logistic regression model. @*Results@#Overall complications after TTMB were observed in 95 of the 459 patients (20.7%), of which AUR was the most commonly reported (17.4%, n=80), followed by hematuria (3.1%, n=14). Hematuria in one patient was categorized as Clavien-Dindo grade IIIa. All remaining complications were Clavien-Dindo grade I. In the multivariate regression model, age ≥65 (odds ratio, 2.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.42–4.17; p=0.001), prostate volume ≥30 mL (odds ratio, 3.72; 95% CI, 1.19–11.62; p<0.02), and number of biopsy cores ≥30 (odds ratio, 2.89; 95% CI, 1.29–6.43; p=0.01) were identified as the predictors for AUR after TTMB. @*Conclusions@#AUR is the most common complication after TTMB. Age ≥65 years, prostate volume ≥30 mL, and number of biopsy cores ≥30 were significant predictors of AUR following TTMB.

9.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 183-192, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902526

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To analyze and compare the results of robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN) at a single center with the previous large-scale studies in terms of perioperative and oncological outcomes. @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively evaluated 1,013 cases of RPN in our center database from December 2008 to August 2018. Total 11 cases were excluded in final analysis. We evaluated perioperative outcomes as the Trifecta achievement, which is defined as no positive surgical margin (PSM), no perioperative complications greater than Clavien-Dindo classification I and a warm ischemia time of <25 minutes. In addition, we analyzed pathological and oncological outcomes; recurrence, metastasis, all-cause deaths, cancer-specific deaths, and 5-year survival rates. @*Results@#In 1,002 cases, the Trifecta achievement was 61.1% (n=612). The postoperative complication was 18.4% (n=184) but most were grade 2 or less (14.9%, n=145). Ninety-three cases (9.28%) had benign and 907 cases (90.5%) had malignant pathologies. A local recurrence were 14 cases (1.54%) and distant metastasis were 20 cases (2.2%) during follow-up periods. Allcause death rate was 1.2% (n=11) and cancer-specific death rate was 0.2% (n=2). The median follow-up period was 39 months. A 5-year recurrence-free survival rate, cancer-specific survival rate, and overall survival rate were 95.2%, 99.7%, and 98.4%. @*Conclusions@#In summary, our data shows comparable perioperative outcomes to other largescale studies of RPN in terms of the Trifecta achievement with similar baseline characteristics. In terms of oncological outcomes, there was lower rate of PSM and similar recurrence free survival rate.

10.
International Journal of Thyroidology ; : 143-151, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914660

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#The lack of known elevated biomarkers in cancer surveillance is a challenge for diagnostics. However, few studies have assessed the proportion of patients with medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) that presented with elevated serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level. @*Materials and Methods@#This was a retrospective study of 115 patients treated for MTC at Samsung Medical Center between 1995 and 2017. Serum calcitonin and CEA levels that were available at one of the following time points were included: (a) within 3 months before the initial surgery, (b) when a structural recurrence was confined to the neck, or (c) when a distant metastasis was identified during follow-up. Considering the high false-positive rate of serum CEA testing, 5 ng/mL was selected as the cut-off threshold. @*Results@#The sensitivity of CEA at the time of diagnosis was 54%, but it significantly increased with anatomical stage, from 20% in stage I to 88% in stage IV (p for trend <0.001). At the time of diagnosis, larger tumor size, more frequent gross extra-thyroidal extension, more frequent N1b, and a higher number of metastatic lymph nodes were significantly observed in CEA-positive patients compared with CEA-negative patients (p<0.05). The sensitivity of CEA at the time of recurrence was 56% for local recurrence and 80% for distant recurrence. @*Conclusion@#The CEA value was associated with anatomical stage as a biomarker for MTC and could be used to predict poor prognosis. However, serum CEA testing plays a limited role in diagnosis and follow-up of MTC because it can show normal values even in advanced disease.

11.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 148-154, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894826

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We investigated the predictive factors for acute urinary retention (AUR) after transperineal template-guided mapping biopsy (TTMB). @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the records of 459 patients who had undergone TTMB between May 2017 and July 2020. Overall complications after TTMB were analyzed and categorized according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. Factors that were likely to affect AUR were analyzed using a logistic regression model. @*Results@#Overall complications after TTMB were observed in 95 of the 459 patients (20.7%), of which AUR was the most commonly reported (17.4%, n=80), followed by hematuria (3.1%, n=14). Hematuria in one patient was categorized as Clavien-Dindo grade IIIa. All remaining complications were Clavien-Dindo grade I. In the multivariate regression model, age ≥65 (odds ratio, 2.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.42–4.17; p=0.001), prostate volume ≥30 mL (odds ratio, 3.72; 95% CI, 1.19–11.62; p<0.02), and number of biopsy cores ≥30 (odds ratio, 2.89; 95% CI, 1.29–6.43; p=0.01) were identified as the predictors for AUR after TTMB. @*Conclusions@#AUR is the most common complication after TTMB. Age ≥65 years, prostate volume ≥30 mL, and number of biopsy cores ≥30 were significant predictors of AUR following TTMB.

12.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 183-192, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894822

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To analyze and compare the results of robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN) at a single center with the previous large-scale studies in terms of perioperative and oncological outcomes. @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively evaluated 1,013 cases of RPN in our center database from December 2008 to August 2018. Total 11 cases were excluded in final analysis. We evaluated perioperative outcomes as the Trifecta achievement, which is defined as no positive surgical margin (PSM), no perioperative complications greater than Clavien-Dindo classification I and a warm ischemia time of <25 minutes. In addition, we analyzed pathological and oncological outcomes; recurrence, metastasis, all-cause deaths, cancer-specific deaths, and 5-year survival rates. @*Results@#In 1,002 cases, the Trifecta achievement was 61.1% (n=612). The postoperative complication was 18.4% (n=184) but most were grade 2 or less (14.9%, n=145). Ninety-three cases (9.28%) had benign and 907 cases (90.5%) had malignant pathologies. A local recurrence were 14 cases (1.54%) and distant metastasis were 20 cases (2.2%) during follow-up periods. Allcause death rate was 1.2% (n=11) and cancer-specific death rate was 0.2% (n=2). The median follow-up period was 39 months. A 5-year recurrence-free survival rate, cancer-specific survival rate, and overall survival rate were 95.2%, 99.7%, and 98.4%. @*Conclusions@#In summary, our data shows comparable perioperative outcomes to other largescale studies of RPN in terms of the Trifecta achievement with similar baseline characteristics. In terms of oncological outcomes, there was lower rate of PSM and similar recurrence free survival rate.

13.
International Journal of Thyroidology ; : 28-36, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891044

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Thyroid cancer (TC) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) display more frequent co-occurrence than would be expected by chance. We investigated clinicopathological features of patients with both primary TC and primary RCC (TC/RCC) group to facilitate a greater understanding of the relationship between two cancers. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 53 patients who diagnosed with TC/RCC were enrolled. 13,663 TC-alone and 3279 RCC-alone patients who had undergone surgery at Samsung Medical Center between 1994 and 2014 were included as control groups. The clinicopathological characteristics of these patients were retrospectively reviewed. @*Results@#The median age at the time of TC or RCC diagnosis was 54 years in TC/RCC group and the RCC-alone group, while the patients in TC-alone group were significantly younger (47 years). The TC/RCC group showed a nearly equal sex prevalence (49% male), significantly different than the results of the TC-alone group (80% female) and RCC-alone group (71% male). A higher grade of pathologic stage (56.6% in stage 3) and greater number of patients with multifocality of thyroid tumors (45 vs. 32%), and more family history of cancer (32 vs. 0.4%) were revealed in TC/RCC group than in TC-alone group. In addition, 15.1% of patients in TC/RCC group presented with additional primary cancers such as prostate, colon, stomach, breast, and lung cancers. Conclusion: Patients in the TC/RCC group have a high rate of cancer family history, multifocality of thyroid tumors, and additional cancers. To understand this unique subset group, additional studies for environmental and genetic factors would be helpful for earlier diagnosis of combined cancers.

14.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 491-499, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890516

ABSTRACT

Graves’ disease is associated with thyrotropin (TSH) receptor stimulating antibody, for which there is no therapeutic agent. This disease is currently treated through inhibition of thyroid hormone synthesis or destruction of the thyroid gland. Recurrence after antithyroid drug (ATD) treatment is common. Recent studies have shown that the longer is the duration of use of ATD, the higher is the remission rate. Considering the relationship between clinical outcomes and iodine intake, recurrence of Graves’ disease is more common in iodine-deficient areas than in iodine-sufficient areas. Iodine restriction in an iodine-excessive area does not improve the effectiveness of ATD or increase remission rates. Recently, Danish and Korean nationwide studies noted significantly higher prevalence of birth defects in newborns exposed to ATD during the first trimester compared to that of those who did not have such exposure. The prevalence of birth defects was lowest when propylthiouracil (PTU) was used and decreased by only 0.15% when methimazole was changed to PTU in the first trimester. Therefore, it is best not to use ATD in the first trimester or to change to PTU before pregnancy.

15.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e342-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831715

ABSTRACT

Background@#To evaluate the strategy for detection of prostate cancer (PCa) with low prostate specific antigen (PSA) level (2.5–4.0 ng/mL), prostate biopsy patients with low PSA were assessed. We evaluated the risk of low PSA PCa and the strategy for screening low-PSA patients. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed the patients who underwent prostate biopsy with low PSA level. Baseline characteristics, PSA level before prostate biopsy, prostate volume, prostate specific antigen density (PSAD), and pathological data were assessed. @*Results@#Among the 1986 patients, 24.97% were diagnosed with PCa. The PSAD was 0.12 ± 0.04 ng/mL2 in the PCa-diagnosed group and 0.10 ± 0.04 ng/mL2 in non-cancer-diagnosed group (P < 0.001). Of the 496 patients diagnosed with PCa, 302 (60.89%) were in the intermediate- or high-risk group. PSAD was 0.13 ± 0.04 ng/mL2 in the intermediate- or highrisk group and 0.11 ± 0.03 ng/mL2 in the very low- and low-risk group (P < 0.001). Of 330 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy, 85.15% were diagnosed as having significant cancer. There was significant correlation between PSAD and PCa (r = 0.294, P < 0.001).PSAD with a specificity of 80.00% of a clinically significant cancer diagnosis was assessed at 0.1226 ng/mL2 . @*Conclusion@#The PCa detection rate in the low-PSA group was not lower than that of previous studies of patients with PSA from 4.0 to 10.0 ng/mL. Further, it may be helpful to define a strategy for PCa detection using PSAD in the low-PSA group.

16.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 124-139, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836783

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The Advanced Prostate Cancer Consensus Conference (APCCC) 2015 was based on topics withcontroversy in the field of advanced prostate cancer. To understand the Korean urologists perspective regardingthe issues, we have conducted a questionnaire named Prostate Cancer Summit (PCAS) 2016, with 9 importantsubtopics. @*Materials and Methods@#Total 9 subtopics have been decided and questions were developed regarding eachsubtopic. The questions were based on that of APCCC 2015 and translated into Korean for better understanding.Total 51 panelists have voted online on 85 different questions. @*Results@#The survey concluded that testosterone should be measured as a diagnostic criterion for castrationresistance prostate cancer (CRPC) and that consensus was reached on issues such as the use of androgenreceptor pathway inhibitors in the treatment of predocetaxel and postdocetaxel in CRPC patients. In addition,76% of the participants agreed that imaging tests were needed before new treatment in CRPC patients, anda majority of participants agreed that periodic imaging tests are necessary regardless of symptoms during treatmentfor CRPC. However, some issues, such as the use of prostate-specific antigen-based triggers for remediationin CRPC patients, the endocrine manipulation in nonmetastatic CRPC patients, and the onset of treatment inasymptomatic metastatic CRPC patients, were not agreed. @*Conclusions@#The results from PCAS 2016 has addressed some of the issues with controversy. Although thevoting results are subjective, it will help guide treatment decisions in topics with less evidence.

17.
International Journal of Thyroidology ; : 85-94, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835519

ABSTRACT

Maternal and fetal complications may occur because of pathologic or immunologic changes during pregnancy. The American Thyroid Association (ATA) suggests an optimal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) reference range of 0.50-4.00 mU/L in pregnant women. Based on Korean data, the same range may be applied to Korean pregnant women. According to the ATA guideline, levothyroxine therapy is recommended for thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb)-positive women with a TSH greater than the pregnancy-specific reference range (approximately >4.0 mU/L in Korea) and TPOAb-negative women with a TSH >10.0 mU/L. The presence of TPOAb may be a sign of hypothyroidism due to damage to the thyroid. Because the titer of TPOAb decreases as gestation progresses, its measurement should be performed as early as possible during pregnancy. Although the mechanism is unknown, the association between thyroid autoimmunity and miscarriage/premature delivery is clear. Selenium may reduce the development of postpartum thyroiditis and permanent hypothyroidism; however, routine prescription of selenium is not recommended as it may increase the risk of type 2 diabetes. According to Korean nationwide data, birth defects in antithyroid drug (ATD)-exposed offspring in early pregnancy increased by 1.1 to 2.2% compared with non-exposed offspring. Avoidance of ATD in early pregnancy is the best option, otherwise, it is preferable to switch to propylthiouracil before pregnancy. When methimazole use is unavoidable in early pregnancy, it is recommended to use less than 5 mg per day.

18.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 7-13, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816634

ABSTRACT

In 2017, the first Korean nationwide data on serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels, serum free thyroxine (fT4) levels, and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) were published based on a population of 7,061 Koreans who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey VI. The mean TSH level was 2.16 mIU/L, with a reference interval of 0.59 to 7.03 mIU/L (men 2.09 mIU/L, women 2.24 mIU/L, P<0.001). A U-shaped association was found between serum TSH levels and age. The mean fT4 level was 1.25 ng/dL, and its reference interval was 0.92 to 1.60 ng/dL (men 1.29 ng/dL, women 1.20 ng/dL, P<0.0001). Serum fT4 levels decreased with age (P for trend <0.0001). Serum thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) was detected in 7.30% of participants (men 4.33%, women 10.62%). TPOAb titers tended to increase with age, and were higher in women than in men. The median UIC was 294 µg/L, and UIC showed a U-shaped relationship with age. According to the World Health Organization recommendations, only 23% of participants were in the adequate range of iodine intake, while 65% were in the above requirements or excessive, and 12% in insufficient. The prevalence of overt hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism in Koreans was 0.34% to 0.54% and 0.73% to 1.43%, respectively.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Hyperthyroidism , Hypothyroidism , Iodide Peroxidase , Iodine , Korea , Nutrition Surveys , Prevalence , Thyroid Gland , Thyrotropin , Thyroxine , World Health Organization
19.
International Neurourology Journal ; : 161-168, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764108

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To identify the association between nocturia and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), we compared results of polysomnography (PSG) with the presence or absence of nocturia in patients with suspected OSA. METHODS: Patients underwent PSG for suspected OSA. The International Prostate Symptom Score and quality of life (IPSS/QoL) questionnaire was evaluated to assess voiding symptoms that may affect sleep quality. The results of PSG were compared between patient groups with or without nocturia. RESULTS: In logistic regression analysis, age (odds ratio [OR], 1.052; P=0.004), diabetes mellitus (OR, 6.675; P<0.001), mean O₂ saturation (OR, 0.650; P=0.017), oxygen desaturation index (ODI) 3 (OR, 1.193; P=0.010), and ODI4 (OR, 1.136; P=0.014) affected nocturia independently among the OSA-suspected patients. CONCLUSIONS: Hypoxia caused by OSA affects the incidence of nocturia. Less desaturated OSA patients with nocturia may require more urological evaluation and treatment for nocturia even after the correction of OSA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hypoxia , Apnea , Diabetes Mellitus , Incidence , Logistic Models , Nocturia , Oxygen , Polysomnography , Prostate , Quality of Life , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive
20.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 96-102, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760332

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The efficacy of nivolumab in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) has been proven. However, the nivolumab experience in Korean patients with mRCC is still poorly reported. We report initial experiences with the efficacy and safety of nivolumab in patients with mRCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed records for 25 patients with mRCC who had failed targeted therapy and were treated by nivolumab (2 mg/kg, every 2 weeks) at a single institution. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR), and secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS), safety profiles, and ORR in a programmed cell death receptor ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression subgroup. RESULTS: The median age was 60 years and 16 patients (64%) were male. Objective responses were achieved in 8 patients (32.0%) (complete response, 1; partial response, 7). Median PFS was 3.0 months (95% confidence interval, 1.46–4.53). Treatment-related adverse events (AEs) of any grade were observed in 19 patients (76.0%) with 6 (24.0%) experiencing grade 3 to 4 treatment-related AEs. In subgroups by PD-L1 expression levels classified as 1% or greater and less than 1%, ORR was 50% and 0%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed the efficacy and safety of initial experiences with nivolumab in Korean patients with mRCC who had failed targeted therapy. Our results were comparable to recent clinical trials on nivolumab in mRCC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , B7-H1 Antigen , Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Cell Death , Disease-Free Survival , Neoplasm Metastasis , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
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