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1.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 338-346, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999588

ABSTRACT

Methods@#We reviewed consecutive patients with Lenke 1 AIS who underwent STF from 2000 to 2017. The patients were divided into two groups based on the surgical strategy used: low-density (LD) construct without DVR of the LIV (LD group) versus HD construct with DVR of the LIV (HD group). We collected data on the patient’s demographic characteristics, skeletal maturity, operative data, and measured radiological parameters in the preoperative and final follow-up radiographs. The occurrence of adding-on (AO) and coronal decompensation was also determined. @*Results@#In this study, 72 patients (five males and 67 females) with a mean age of 14.1±2.3 years were included. No significant differences in the demographics, skeletal maturity, and Lenke type distribution were observed between the two groups; however, the follow-up duration was significantly longer in the LD group (64.3±25.7 months vs. 40.7±22.2 months, p <0.001). The HD group had significantly shorter fusion segments (7.1±1.3 vs. 8.5±1.2, p <0.001) and a more proximal LIV level (12.1±0.9 vs. 12.7±1.0, p =0.009). In the radiological measurements, the improvement of LIV+1 rotation (Nash–Moe scale) was significantly larger in the HD group (0.53±0.51 vs. 0.21±0.41, p =0.008). AO and decompensation occurred in 7 (9.7%) and 4 (5.6%) patients in the HD and LD groups, respectively, without any significant difference between the two groups. @*Conclusions@#In this study, the HD group had a significantly shorter fusion level and a more proximal LIV than the LD group; however, the two groups had similar curve correction and adverse radiological outcome rates.

2.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e141-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976971

ABSTRACT

Background@#Current international guidelines recommend against deep sedation as it is associated with worse outcomes in the intensive care unit (ICU). However, in Korea the prevalence of deep sedation and its impact on patients in the ICU are not well known. @*Methods@#From April 2020 to July 2021, a multicenter, prospective, longitudinal, noninterventional cohort study was performed in 20 Korean ICUs. Sedation depth extent was divided into light and deep using a mean Richmond Agitation–Sedation Scale value within the first 48 hours. Propensity score matching was used to balance covariables; the outcomes were compared between the two groups. @*Results@#Overall, 631 patients (418 [66.2%] and 213 [33.8%] in the deep and light sedation groups, respectively) were included. Mortality rates were 14.1% and 8.4% in the deep and light sedation groups (P = 0.039), respectively. Kaplan-Meier estimates showed that time to extubation (P < 0.001), ICU length of stay (P = 0.005), and death P = 0.041) differed between the groups. After adjusting for confounders, early deep sedation was only associated with delayed time to extubation (hazard ratio [HR], 0.66; 95% confidence inter val [CI], 0.55– 0.80; P < 0.001). In the matched cohort, deep sedation remained significantly associated with delayed time to extubation (HR, 0.68; 95% 0.56–0.83; P < 0.001) but was not associated with ICU length of stay (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.79–1.13; P = 0.500) and in-hospital mortality (HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.65–2.17; P = 0.582). @*Conclusion@#In many Korean ICUs, early deep sedation was highly prevalent in mechanically ventilated patients and was associated with delayed extubation, but not prolonged ICU stay or in-hospital death.

3.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 159-171, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918218

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to investigate the impact of baseline values and temporal changes in body composition parameters, including skeletal muscle index (SMI) and visceral adipose tissue area (VAT), measured using serial computed tomography (CT) imaging on the prognosis of operable breast cancers in Asian patients. @*Materials and Methods@#This study retrospectively included 627 Asian female (mean age ± standard deviation [SD], 53.6 ± 8.3 years) who underwent surgery for stage I–III breast cancer between January 2011 and September 2012. Body composition parameters, including SMI and VAT, were semi-automatically calculated on baseline abdominal CT at the time of diagnosis and follow-up CT for post-treatment surveillance. Serial changes in SMI and VAT were calculated as the delta values. Multivariable Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the association of baseline and delta SMI and VAT values with disease-free survival. @*Results@#Among 627 patients, 56 patients (9.2%) had breast cancer recurrence after a median of 40.5 months. The mean value ± SD of the baseline SMI and baseline VAT were 43.7 ± 5.8 cm2 /m2 and 72.0 ± 46.0 cm2 , respectively. The mean value of the delta SMI was -0.9 cm2 /m2 and the delta VAT was 0.5 cm2 . The baseline SMI and VAT were not significantly associated with disease-free survival (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.983; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.937–1.031; p = 0.475 and adjusted HR, 1.001; 95% CI, 0.995–1.006; p = 0.751, respectively). The delta SMI and VAT were also not significantly associated with disease-free survival (adjusted HR, 0.894; 95% CI, 0.766–1.043; p = 0.155 and adjusted HR, 1.001; 95% CI, 0.989–1.014; p = 0.848, respectively). @*Conclusion@#Our study revealed that baseline and early temporal changes in SMI and VAT were not independent prognostic factors regarding disease-free survival in Asian patients undergoing surgery for breast cancer.

4.
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 129-139, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927064

ABSTRACT

C-arm fluoroscopy is a useful tool for interventional pain management. However, with the increasing use of C-arm fluoroscopy, the risk of accumulated radiation exposure is a significant concern for pain physicians. Therefore, efforts are needed to reduce radiation exposure. There are three types of radiation exposure sources: (1) the primary X-ray beam, (2) scattered radiation, and (3) leakage from the X-ray tube.The major radiation exposure risk for most medical staff members is scattered radiation, the amount of which is affected by many factors. Pain physicians can reduce their radiation exposure by use of several effective methods, which utilize the following main principles: reducing the exposure time, increasing the distance from the radiation source, and radiation shielding. Some methods reduce not only the pain physician’s but also the patient’s radiation exposure. Taking images with collimation and minimal use of magnification are ways to reduce the intensity of the primary X-ray beam and the amount of scattered radiation. It is also important to carefully select the C-arm fluoroscopy mode, such as pulsed mode or low-dose mode, for ensuring the physician’s and patient’s radiation safety. Pain physicians should practice these principles and also be aware of the annual permissible radiation dose as well as checking their radiation exposure. This article aimed to review the literature on radiation safety in relation to C-arm fluoroscopy and provide recommendations to pain physicians during C-arm fluoroscopy-guided interventional pain management.

5.
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 209-223, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927056

ABSTRACT

Background@#The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused significant changes. This study aimed to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on patients with chronic pain. @*Methods@#Patients with chronic pain from 23 university hospitals in South Korea participated in this study. The anonymous survey questionnaire consisted of 25 questions regarding the following: demographic data, diagnosis, hospital visit frequency, exercise duration, time outside, sleep duration, weight change, nervousness and anxiety, depression, interest or pleasure, fatigue, daily life difficulties, and self-harm thoughts. Depression severity was evaluated using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the relationship between increased pain and patient factors. @*Results@#A total of 914 patients completed the survey, 35.9% of whom had decreased their number of visits to the hospital, mostly due to COVID-19. The pain level of 200 patients has worsened since the COVID-19 outbreak, which was more prominent in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Noticeable post-COVID-19 changes such as exercise duration, time spent outside, sleep patterns, mood, and weight affected patients with chronic pain. Depression severity was more significant in patients with CRPS. The total PHQ-9 average score of patients with CRPS was 15.5, corresponding to major depressive orders. The patients’ decreased exercise duration, decreased sleep duration, and increased depression were significantly associated with increased pain. @*Conclusions@#COVID-19 has caused several changes in patients with chronic pain.During the pandemic, decreased exercise and sleep duration and increased depression were associated with patients’ increasing pain.

6.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e349-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967385

ABSTRACT

Background@#The preventable trauma death rate survey is a basic tool for the quality management of trauma treatment because it is a method that can intuitively evaluate the level of national trauma treatment. We conducted this study as a national biennial follow-up survey project and report the results of the review of the 2019 trauma death data in Korea. @*Methods@#From January 1, 2019 to December 31, 2019, of a total of 8,482 trauma deaths throughout the country, 1,692 were sampled from 279 emergency medical institutions in Korea. All cases were evaluated for preventability of death and opportunities for improvement using a multidisciplinary panel review approach. @*Results@#The preventable trauma death rate was estimated to be 15.7%. Of these, 3.1% were judged definitive preventable deaths, and 12.7% were potentially preventable deaths. The odds ratio for preventable traumatic death was 2.56 times higher in transferred patients compared to that of patients who visited the final hospital directly. The group that died 1 hour after the accident had a statistically significantly higher probability of preventable death than that of the group that died within 1 hour after the accident. @*Conclusion@#The preventable trauma death rate for trauma deaths in 2019 was 15.7%, which was 4.2%p lower than that in 2017. To improve the quality of trauma treatment, the transfer of severe trauma patients to trauma centers should be more focused.

7.
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 345-352, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939121

ABSTRACT

Background@#Optimal needle depth in transforaminal epidural injection (TFEI) is determined by body measurements and is influenced by the needle entry angle. Physician can choose the appropriate needle length and perform the procedure more effectively if depth is predicted in advance. @*Methods@#This retrospective study included patients with lumbosacral pain from a single university hospital. The skin depth from the target point was measured using magnetic resonance imaging transverse images. The depth was measured bilaterally for L4 and L5 TFEIs at 15°, 20°, and 25° oblique angles from the spinous process. @*Results@#A total of 4,632 measurements of 386 patients were included. The lengths of the left and right TFEI at the same level and oblique angle were assessed, and no statistical differences were identified. Therefore, linear regression analysis was performed for bilateral L4 and L5 TFEIs. The R-squared values of height and weight combined were higher than the height, weight, and body mass index (BMI). The following equation was established: Depth (mm) = a – b (height, cm) + c (weight, kg).Based on the equation, maximal BMI capable with a 23G, 3.5-inch, Quincke-type point spinal needle was presented for three different angles (15°, 20°, and 25°) at lumbar levels L4 and L5. @*Conclusions@#The maximal BMI that derived from the formulated equation is listed on the table, which can help in preparations for morbid obesity. If a patient has bigger BMI than the one in the table, the clinician should prepare longer needle than the usual spinal needle.

8.
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 288-303, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896114

ABSTRACT

Background@#Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is an intractable pain disease with various symptoms. Here, we investigated the disease status, work life, sleep problems, medical insurance, economic status, psychological problems, and quality of life (QOL) of CRPS patients. @*Methods@#CRPS patients from 37 university hospitals in South Korea were surveyed.The survey questionnaire consisted of 24 questions on the following aspects of CRPS patients: sex, age, occupation, cause of injury, activities of daily living (ADL), pain severity, sleep disturbance, level of education, economic status, therapeutic effect, and suicidal ideation. Additionally, the abbreviated World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire, consisting of 26 questions, was used to identify the status of QOL. @*Results@#A total of 251 patients completed the questionnaire. According to the survey, 54.2% patients could not perform ADL on their own. Over the previous week, the mean pain score was 7.15 ± 1.78 (out of a total of 10 points); 92.1% of patients had sleep disorders and 80.5% had suicidal ideation, with most patients suffering from psychological problems. The average for each domain of WHOQOL-BREF was as follows: 21.74 ± 14.77 for physical, 25.22 ± 17.66 for psychological, 32.02 ± 22.36 for social relationship, and 30.69 ± 15.83 for environmental (out of a total of 100 points each). Occupation, ADL, sleep time, therapeutic effect, and suicidal ideation were statistically correlated with multiple domains. @*Conclusions@#Most patients had moderate to severe pain, economic problems, limitations of their ADL, sleep problems, psychological problems, and a low QOL score.

9.
Journal of the Korean Radiological Society ; : 923-935, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893608

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We aimed to assess the clinical efficacy of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) for treating hemothorax caused by chest trauma. @*Materials and Methods@#Between 2015 and 2019, 68 patients (56 male; mean age, 58.2 years) were transferred to our interventional unit for selective TAE to treat thoracic bleeding. We retrospectively investigated their demographics, angiographic findings, embolization techniques, technical and clinical success rates, and complications. @*Results@#Bleeding occurred mostly from the intercostal arteries (50%) and the internal mammary arteries (29.5%). Except one patient, TAE achieved technical success, defined as the immediate cessation of bleeding, in all the other patients. Four patients successfully underwent repeated TAE for delayed bleeding or increasing hematoma after the initial TAE. The clinical success rate, defined as no need for thoracotomy for hemostasis after TAE, was 92.6%. Five patients underwent post-embolization thoracotomy for hemostasis. No patient developed major TAE-related complications, such as cerebral infarction or quadriplegia. @*Conclusion@#TAE is a safe, effective and minimally invasive method for controlling thoracic wall and intrathoracic systemic arterial hemorrhage after thoracic trauma. TAE may be considered for patients with hemothorax without other concomitant injuries which require emergency sur-gery, or those who undergoing emergency TAE for abdominal or pelvic hemostasis.

10.
Journal of Acute Care Surgery ; (2): 14-21, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891196

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Management options for extraperitoneal bladder injury (EBI) associated with pelvic fracture are variable. Predictive factors of operative management (OM) in patients with EBI associated pelvic fracture have not been previously addressed. This study assessed the current epidemiology of blunt traumatic urinary bladder injury and evaluated relevant clinical findings of patients with EBI associated with pelvic fracture who received OM. @*Methods@#Patients with urinary bladder injury with or without pelvic fracture from blunt trauma from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2019 were identified from the institute trauma registry (n = 12,891). Demographics, mechanism of injury, type of urinary bladder injury, pelvic fracture configuration, and management options were analysed in the study population (n = 9,894). @*Results@#Of the 1,400 patients who had pelvic and/or acetabular fracture, 32 (2.3%) had urinary bladder injury. Of the 8,494 patients without pelvic and/or acetabular fracture, 12 (0.1%) had nonpelvic fracture urinary bladder injury. The total incidence of urinary bladder injuries in the study population was 0.4% (44/9,894). Patients with EBI associated with pelvic fracture who underwent OM, had a higher frequency of high-grade pelvic injury (100% vs 0%, p = 0.015), concomitant pelvic surgery (75.0% vs 0%, p = 0.001), and non-lateral compression type pelvic fracture (62.5% vs 10.0%, p = 0.043) compared with patients who underwent non-operative management of EBI. @*Conclusions@#These data suggest that OM may be considered especially in patients with EBI associated with pelvic fracture with high grade pelvic injury, concomitant pelvic surgery, and nonlateral compression type pelvic fracture.

11.
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 288-303, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903818

ABSTRACT

Background@#Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is an intractable pain disease with various symptoms. Here, we investigated the disease status, work life, sleep problems, medical insurance, economic status, psychological problems, and quality of life (QOL) of CRPS patients. @*Methods@#CRPS patients from 37 university hospitals in South Korea were surveyed.The survey questionnaire consisted of 24 questions on the following aspects of CRPS patients: sex, age, occupation, cause of injury, activities of daily living (ADL), pain severity, sleep disturbance, level of education, economic status, therapeutic effect, and suicidal ideation. Additionally, the abbreviated World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire, consisting of 26 questions, was used to identify the status of QOL. @*Results@#A total of 251 patients completed the questionnaire. According to the survey, 54.2% patients could not perform ADL on their own. Over the previous week, the mean pain score was 7.15 ± 1.78 (out of a total of 10 points); 92.1% of patients had sleep disorders and 80.5% had suicidal ideation, with most patients suffering from psychological problems. The average for each domain of WHOQOL-BREF was as follows: 21.74 ± 14.77 for physical, 25.22 ± 17.66 for psychological, 32.02 ± 22.36 for social relationship, and 30.69 ± 15.83 for environmental (out of a total of 100 points each). Occupation, ADL, sleep time, therapeutic effect, and suicidal ideation were statistically correlated with multiple domains. @*Conclusions@#Most patients had moderate to severe pain, economic problems, limitations of their ADL, sleep problems, psychological problems, and a low QOL score.

12.
Journal of the Korean Radiological Society ; : 923-935, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901312

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We aimed to assess the clinical efficacy of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) for treating hemothorax caused by chest trauma. @*Materials and Methods@#Between 2015 and 2019, 68 patients (56 male; mean age, 58.2 years) were transferred to our interventional unit for selective TAE to treat thoracic bleeding. We retrospectively investigated their demographics, angiographic findings, embolization techniques, technical and clinical success rates, and complications. @*Results@#Bleeding occurred mostly from the intercostal arteries (50%) and the internal mammary arteries (29.5%). Except one patient, TAE achieved technical success, defined as the immediate cessation of bleeding, in all the other patients. Four patients successfully underwent repeated TAE for delayed bleeding or increasing hematoma after the initial TAE. The clinical success rate, defined as no need for thoracotomy for hemostasis after TAE, was 92.6%. Five patients underwent post-embolization thoracotomy for hemostasis. No patient developed major TAE-related complications, such as cerebral infarction or quadriplegia. @*Conclusion@#TAE is a safe, effective and minimally invasive method for controlling thoracic wall and intrathoracic systemic arterial hemorrhage after thoracic trauma. TAE may be considered for patients with hemothorax without other concomitant injuries which require emergency sur-gery, or those who undergoing emergency TAE for abdominal or pelvic hemostasis.

13.
Journal of Acute Care Surgery ; (2): 14-21, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898900

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Management options for extraperitoneal bladder injury (EBI) associated with pelvic fracture are variable. Predictive factors of operative management (OM) in patients with EBI associated pelvic fracture have not been previously addressed. This study assessed the current epidemiology of blunt traumatic urinary bladder injury and evaluated relevant clinical findings of patients with EBI associated with pelvic fracture who received OM. @*Methods@#Patients with urinary bladder injury with or without pelvic fracture from blunt trauma from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2019 were identified from the institute trauma registry (n = 12,891). Demographics, mechanism of injury, type of urinary bladder injury, pelvic fracture configuration, and management options were analysed in the study population (n = 9,894). @*Results@#Of the 1,400 patients who had pelvic and/or acetabular fracture, 32 (2.3%) had urinary bladder injury. Of the 8,494 patients without pelvic and/or acetabular fracture, 12 (0.1%) had nonpelvic fracture urinary bladder injury. The total incidence of urinary bladder injuries in the study population was 0.4% (44/9,894). Patients with EBI associated with pelvic fracture who underwent OM, had a higher frequency of high-grade pelvic injury (100% vs 0%, p = 0.015), concomitant pelvic surgery (75.0% vs 0%, p = 0.001), and non-lateral compression type pelvic fracture (62.5% vs 10.0%, p = 0.043) compared with patients who underwent non-operative management of EBI. @*Conclusions@#These data suggest that OM may be considered especially in patients with EBI associated with pelvic fracture with high grade pelvic injury, concomitant pelvic surgery, and nonlateral compression type pelvic fracture.

14.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 189-197, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875254

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Muscle depletion in patients undergoing liver transplantation affects the recipients’ prognosis and therefore cannot be overlooked. We aimed to evaluate whether changes in muscle and fat mass during the preoperative period are associated with prognosis after deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT). @*Materials and Methods@#This study included 72 patients who underwent DDLT and serial computed tomography (CT) scans.Skeletal muscle index (SMI) and fat mass index (FMI) were calculated using the muscle and fat area in CT performed 1 year prior to surgery (1 yr Pre-LT), just before surgery (Pre-LT), and after transplantation (Post-LT). Simple aspects of serial changes in muscle and fat mass were analyzed during three measurement time points. The rate of preoperative changes in body composition parameters were calculated (preoperative ΔSMI [%] = [SMI at Pre-LT - SMI at 1 yr Pre-LT] / SMI at Pre-LT x 100;preoperative ΔFMI [%] = [FMI at Pre-LT - FMI at 1 yr Pre-LT] / FMI at Pre-LT x 100) and assessed for correlation with patient survival. @*Results@#SMI significantly decreased during the preoperative period (mean preoperative ΔSMI, -13.04%, p < 0.001). In the multivariable analysis, preoperative ΔSMI (p = 0.016) and model for end-stage liver disease score (p = 0.011) were independent prognostic factors for overall survival. The mean survival time for patients with a threshold decrease in the preoperative ΔSMI (≤ -30%) was significantly shorter than for other patients (p = 0.007). Preoperative ΔFMI was not a prognostic factor but FMI increased during the postoperative period (p = 0.009) in all patients. @*Conclusion@#A large reduction in preoperative SMI was significantly associated with reduced survival after DDLT. Therefore, changes in muscle mass during the preoperative period can be considered as a prognostic factor for survival after DDLT.

15.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 299-305, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913511

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#InnoSEAL Plus is an adhesive, coagulant-free hemostatic material that mimics the adhesion mechanism of marine mussels. This study reports on the safety and efficacy of InnoSEAL Plus for patients with hemorrhage after hepatectomy despite first-line hemostasis treatments. @*Methods@#This is a multicenter, prospective, single-blinded, randomized clinical trial involving 96 hepatectomy patients. TachoSil was used as a comparator group. Three-minute and 10-minute hemostatic success rates were monitored. Rebleeding rates were also observed. Safety was assessed by recording all novel undesirable symptoms. @*Results@#InnoSEAL Plus showed a 3-minute hemostasis rate of 100%, while TachoSil had a rate of 98.0% (48 of 49 patients), demonstrating that the 2 had similar hemostatic efficacies. The difference in efficacy between the test and comparator group was 2.04%, and the lower limit of the one-sided 97.5% confidence interval was –1.92%; as this is greater than the noninferiority limit of –23.9%, the 2 treatments were equivalent. Meanwhile, the 10-minute hemostatic success rate was the same in both groups (100%). No rebleeding occurred in either group. In the safety evaluation, 89 patients experienced adverse events (45 in the test group and 44 in the comparator group). The difference between the 2 groups was not significant. No death occurred after application of the test or comparator group product. @*Conclusion@#Given that InnoSEAL Plus is a coagulation factor-free product, the hemostasis results are encouraging, especially considering that TachoSil contains a coagulation factor. InnoSEAL Plus was found to be a safe and effective hemostatic material for control of bleeding in hepatectomy patients.

16.
Anesthesia and Pain Medicine ; : 387-390, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913375

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although spinal cord stimulation (SCS) can be a treatment option for intractable postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), obtaining proper stimulation at the thoracic dermatome is difficult. Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) stimulation may be an effective treatment for patients with insufficient efficacy in SCS only.Case: A 54-year-old man with intractable PHN was referred to our clinic. Pain was localized to the distribution of the T1–3 dermatomes. SCS trial was conducted, and lead was placed within the epidural space over the C6–T1 level; however, the stimulation was inadequate for his pain site. Therefore, another lead was placed within the left T1 and T2 DRG for trial, and T1 DRG stimulation provided adequate stimulation. T1 DRG stimulation and SCS could cover the entire pain site with paresthesia, and his pain was decreased by over 50%. @*Conclusions@#DRG stimulation combined with SCS may be a good treatment option for intractable thoracic PHN.

17.
Journal of Acute Care Surgery ; (2): 112-117, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891176

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Managing patients with hemorrhagic shock is mainly dependent on stopping the bleeding as fast as possible. Emergency Department laparotomy (EDL) is considered one of the approaches to control intra-abdominal bleeding rapidly. This study aims to evaluate the outcomes of EDL in a regional trauma center of Pusan National University Hospital in a 4-year period. @*Methods@#The medical records and data of patients who underwent EDL from January 2016 to December 2019 were analyzed. Patients who underwent preperitoneal pelvic packing only or did not receive surgery immediately after EDL were excluded. @*Results@#Twenty-four patients who underwent EDL were included in the study. 18 patients had sustained blunt trauma, and 6 suffered from penetrating injuries. Small bowel mesentery and liver injuries were the most frequent. Increase of median systolic blood pressure (SBP) after EDL was 55.5 mmHg. Four (16.7%) out of the 24 survived; one of the four survivors received cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). In the nonsurvivor group, Injury Severity Score was significantly higher (p = 0.013), initial pH was lower (p = 0.035) and the amount of packed red blood cells transfusion after EDL was significantly higher (p = 0.013) than those in the survivor group. @*Conclusion@#The mortality rate was very high in trauma patients who were required EDL. Although EDL was not proved to be an effective procedure for resuscitation in trauma patients, it could be considered as one of the treatment options for trauma patients in extremis. Further studies are required to examine the effects of EDL.

18.
Journal of Acute Care Surgery ; (2): 112-117, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898880

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Managing patients with hemorrhagic shock is mainly dependent on stopping the bleeding as fast as possible. Emergency Department laparotomy (EDL) is considered one of the approaches to control intra-abdominal bleeding rapidly. This study aims to evaluate the outcomes of EDL in a regional trauma center of Pusan National University Hospital in a 4-year period. @*Methods@#The medical records and data of patients who underwent EDL from January 2016 to December 2019 were analyzed. Patients who underwent preperitoneal pelvic packing only or did not receive surgery immediately after EDL were excluded. @*Results@#Twenty-four patients who underwent EDL were included in the study. 18 patients had sustained blunt trauma, and 6 suffered from penetrating injuries. Small bowel mesentery and liver injuries were the most frequent. Increase of median systolic blood pressure (SBP) after EDL was 55.5 mmHg. Four (16.7%) out of the 24 survived; one of the four survivors received cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). In the nonsurvivor group, Injury Severity Score was significantly higher (p = 0.013), initial pH was lower (p = 0.035) and the amount of packed red blood cells transfusion after EDL was significantly higher (p = 0.013) than those in the survivor group. @*Conclusion@#The mortality rate was very high in trauma patients who were required EDL. Although EDL was not proved to be an effective procedure for resuscitation in trauma patients, it could be considered as one of the treatment options for trauma patients in extremis. Further studies are required to examine the effects of EDL.

19.
Investigative Magnetic Resonance Imaging ; : 123-131, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835541

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Joint label fusion (JLF) is a popular multi-atlas-based segmentation algorithm, which compensates for dependent errors that may exist between atlases.However, in order to get good segmentation results, it is very important to set the several free parameters of the algorithm to optimal values. In this study, we first investigate the feasibility of a JLF algorithm for prostate segmentation in MR images, and then suggest the optimal set of parameters for the automatic prostate segmentation by validating the results of each parameter combination. @*Materials and Methods@#We acquired T2-weighted prostate MR images from 20 normal heathy volunteers and did a series of cross validations for every set of parameters of JLF. In each case, the atlases were rigidly registered for the target image. Then, we calculated their voting weights for label fusion from each combination of JLF’s parameters (rpxy , rpz , rsxy , rsz , β). We evaluated the segmentation performances by five validation metrics of the Prostate MR Image Segmentation challenge. @*Results@#As the number of voxels participating in the voting weight calculation and the number of referenced atlases is increased, the overall segmentation performance is gradually improved. The JLF algorithm showed the best results for dice similarity coefficient, 0.8495 ± 0.0392; relative volume difference, 15.2353 ± 17.2350; absolute relative volume difference, 18.8710 ± 13.1546; 95% Hausdorff distance, 7.2366 ± 1.8502; and average boundary distance, 2.2107 ± 0.4972; in parameters of rpxy = 10, rpz = 1, rsxy = 3, rsz = 1, and β = 3. @*Conclusion@#The evaluated results showed the feasibility of the JLF algorithm for automatic segmentation of prostate MRI. This empirical analysis of segmentation results by label fusion allows for the appropriate setting of parameters.

20.
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 234-244, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835229

ABSTRACT

Background@#Chronic pain affects approximately 22% of the world’s population. Opioids can be useful in chronic pain management. However, some patients have negative perception of opioids. The purpose of this research was to evaluate patients’ perception about opioids and investigate problems associated with prescribing and taking opioids in South Korea. @*Methods@#Patients who visited a pain clinic in 14 university hospitals of South Korea from September through October 2018 were asked to complete anonymous questionnaires about taking opioids. @*Results@#Of the 368 patients that were surveyed (female 53.3%, male 46.7%), 56.8% were prescribed opioids. In the opioid group, 92.8% patients had heard of opioids from their doctor and 72.6% of them had a positive perception about opioids. The side effects associated with opioid use were constipation (35.4%), dizziness (24.6%), nausea and vomiting (17.4%), dysuria (6.2%), and addiction (2.0%). In the no opioid group, the primary sources of information about opioids were doctors (49.2%), mass media (30.8%), and the internet (16.2%). The main reasons why 39.0% patients did not take opioids were fear of addiction (57.7%) and side effects (38.5%). There were 71.5% and 60.9% patients in the opioid and no opioid group, respectively, who wished to take opioids when their numeric rating scale pain score was ≥ 7. @*Conclusions@#Perception of opioids among patients who take them was either neutral or positive. However, 39.0% patients who have not been prescribed opioids did not want an opioid prescription, citing fear of addiction and side effects as the primary reasons.

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