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1.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 470-483, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000231

ABSTRACT

Patients with diabetes mellitus are highly susceptible to cardiovascular complications, which are directly correlated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In addition to coronary artery disease, there is growing awareness of the risk and prevalence of heart failure (HF) in patients with diabetes. Echocardiography is an essential diagnostic modality commonly performed in patients with symptoms suggestive of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), such as dyspnea or chest pain, to establish or rule out the cause of symptoms. Conventional echocardiographic parameters, such as left ventricular ejection fraction, are helpful not only for diagnosing CVD but also for determining severity, treatment strategy, prognosis, and response to treatment. Echocardiographic myocardial strain, a novel echocardiographic technique, enables the detection of early changes in ventricular dysfunction before HF symptoms develop. This article aims to review the role of echocardiography in evaluating CVD in patients with diabetes mellitus and how to use it in patients with suspected cardiac diseases.

2.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 456-470, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-977383

ABSTRACT

Although pulmonary embolism (PE)-related mortality rate has decreased because of prompt diagnosis and effective therapy use, acute PE remains a potentially lethal disease. Due to its increasing prevalence, clinicians should pay attention to diagnosing and managing patients with acute PE. Echocardiography is the most commonly used method for diagnosing and managing acute PE; it also provides clues about hemodynamic instability in an emergency situation. It has been validated in the early risk stratification and impacts management strategies for treating acute PE. In hemodynamically unstable patients with acute PE, echocardiographic detection of right ventricular dysfunction is an indication for administering thrombolytics. In this review article, we discuss the role of echocardiography in the diagnosis and management of patients with acute PE.

3.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 56-67, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968727

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This study evaluated the long-term cardiovascular complications among Korean patients with hypertension and compared them with that of controls without hypertension. @*Methods@#The Korean Hypertension Cohort (KHC) enrolled 11,043 patients with hypertension and followed them for more than 10 years. Age- and sex-matched controls without hypertension were enrolled at a 1:10 ratio. We compared the incidence of cardiovascular events and death among patients and controls without hypertension. @*Results@#The mean age was 59 years, and 34.8% and 16.5% of the patients belonged to the high and moderate cardiovascular risk groups, respectively. During the 10-year follow-up, 1,591 cardiovascular events (14.4%) with 588 deaths (5.3%) occurred among patients with hypertension and 7,635 cardiovascular events (6.9%) with 4,826 deaths (4.4%) occurred among controls. Even the low-risk population with hypertension showed a higher cardiovascular event rate than the population without hypertension. Although blood pressure measurements in the clinic showed remarkable inaccuracy compared with those measured in the national health examinations, systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥ 150 mmHg was significantly associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular events. @*Conclusions@#This long-term follow-up study confirmed the cardiovascular event rates among Korean hypertensive patients were substantial, reaching 15% in 10 years. SBP levels ≥ 150 mmHg were highly associated with occurrence of cardiovascular event rates.

4.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; : 1-10, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919482

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a condition of increased blood pressure in the pulmonary arteries and is diagnosed with an increased a mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥25 mm Hg. This condition may be associated with multiple clinical situations. Based on pathophysiological mechanisms, clinical presentation, hemodynamic profiles, and treatment strategies, the patients were classified into five clinical groups. Although there have been major advances in the management of PH, it is still associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis and treatment of PH have been performed mainly by following European guidelines, even in Korea because the country lacks localized PH guidelines. European treatment guidelines do not reflect the actual status of Korea. Therefore, the European diagnosis and treatment of PH have not been tailored well to suit the needs of Korean patients with PH. To address this issue, we developed this guideline to facilitate the diagnosis and treatment of PH appropriately in Korea, a country where the consensus for the diagnosis and treatment of PH remains insufficient. This is the first edition of the guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of PH in Korea, and it is primarily based on the ‘2015 ESC/ERS Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary hypertension.’ with the acceptance and adaptation of recent publications of PH.

5.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 205-217, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926532

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#The prognostic value of left atrial (LA) function in terms of long-term clinical outcomes after mitral regurgitation (MR) surgery remains unclear.Therefore, we investigated the impact of preoperative LA global longitudinal strain (LAGLS) on the long-term postoperative clinical outcomes in chronic severe MR patients who underwent mitral valve (MV) repair surgery. @*Methods@#From January 2012 to December 2017, we analyzed 338 patients (mean age, 51.9±12.5 years; 218 males [64.5%]) treated with MV repair surgery for severe MR. The primary outcome was cardiovascular events, defined as the composite of all-cause death, newly developed atrial fibrillation (AF), and re-hospitalization for cardiovascular causes. @*Results@#During a median follow-up of 45 months (interquartile range, 26–65), 30 (8.9%) cardiovascular events, 5 (1.5%) all-cause death, 8 (2.4%) newly developed AF, and 26 (7.7%) re-hospitalizations occurred. On multivariable analysis, baseline LAGLS was an independent predictor of cardiovascular events (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.91; 95% confidential interval [CI], 0.85–0.97; p=0.004) and re-hospitalization (adjusted HR, 0.93; 95% CI,0.86–1.00; p=0.037). According to the optimal cutoff value of LAGLS, patients with low LAGLS (<23.6%) had a significantly higher risk of cardiovascular events (adjusted HR, 2.70;95% CI, 1.04–7.00; p=0.041) than those with high LAGLS (≥23.6%). In a subgroup analysis, patients with high LAGLS had better clinical outcomes regardless of whether the patient had a LA volume index <60 mL/m2 . @*Conclusions@#In patients with chronic severe MR who received successful MV repair surgery, preoperative LAGLS is an independent predictor of long-term postoperative outcomes.

6.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 414-428, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926514

ABSTRACT

Although tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is a general medical issue with growing prevalence and socioeconomic burden, most clinicians have not paid much attention to TR in the past.Several problems of TR have been pointed out in clinical practice, which include: ambiguous clinical manifestations and the difficulty in initial detection, limitations in generally used diagnostic tools, the absence of objective criterion for therapeutic intervention, high operative morbidity and mortality, and lack of long-term clinical data after the intervention for TR. Therefore, patients with TR usually visit clinicians at a much-advanced state, and this delay gives a major dilemma in clinical decision-making in a routine clinical practice.To improve the clinical outcome of TR, we need more knowledge about TR for solving the current problems and making strategies for better clinical practice. With this background, we have discussed in the present article about the pathophysiology of TR and the problems frequently experienced by clinical physicians in the diagnosis and treatment of TR.Furthermore, we have discussed the future strategy to improve the treatment of TR.

7.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 1115-1125, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903726

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Hypertension (HT) has a significant impact on public health and medical expenses. However, HT is a chronic disease that requires the long-term follow-up of a large number of patients. @*Methods@#The Korean Hypertension Cohort (KHC) study aimed to develop a model for calculating cardiovascular risk in HT patients by linking and utilizing the detailed clinical and longitudinal data from hospitals and the national health insurance claim database, respectively. This cohort had a planned sample size of over 11,000 HT patients and 100,000 non-HT controls. Eligible patients were hypertensive patients, who were presenting for the first time and were diagnosed with HT as a main disease from 2006 to 2011. Long-term survival data over a period of approximately 9 years were obtained from the national health insurance claim and national health examination data. @*Results@#This cohort enrolled 11,083 patients with HT. The mean age was 58.87 ± 11.5 years, 50.5% were male, and 31.4% were never-treated HT. Of the enrolled patients, 32.9% and 37.7% belonged to the high and moderate cardiovascular risk groups, respectively. Initial blood pressures were 149.4 ± 18.5/88.5 ± 12.5 mmHg. During the 2 years hospital data follow-up period, blood pressures lowered to 130.8 ± 14.1/78.0 ± 9.7 mmHg with 1.9 ± 1.0 tablet doses of antihypertensive medication. Cardiovascular events occurred in 7.5% of the overall patients; 8.5%, 8.8%, and 4.7% in the high, moderate, and low risk patients, respectively. @*Conclusions@#The KHC study has provided important information on the long-term outcomes of HT patients according to the blood pressure, comorbid diseases, medication, and adherence, as well as health behaviors and health resource use.

8.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 426-438, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901659

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#There is little data about cardiac geometry in highly trained young athletes, especially female specific changes. We investigated gender difference on exercise induced cardiac remodeling (EICR) in highly trained university athletes. @*Methods@#A total of 1,185 university athletes divided into 2 groups; female (n=497, 22.0±2.3 years) vs. male (n=688, 22.6±2.4 years). Remodeling of the left ventricle (LV), left atrium (LA), right ventricle (RV), and any cardiac chamber were compared. @*Results@#LV, LA, RV, and any remodeling was found in 156 (13.2%), 206 (17.4%), 82 (6.9%), and 379 athletes (31.9%), respectively. LV, LA, and any remodeling were more common in male than female athletes (n=53, 12.1% vs. n=103, 15.5%, p=0.065), (n=65, 13.1% vs. n=141, 20.5%, p<0.001), (n=144, 30.0% vs. n=235, 34.2%, p=0.058), respectively, whereas RV remodeling was significantly more common in female than male athletes (n=56, 11.3% vs.n=26, 3.8%, p<0.001). Interestingly, the development of LV, LA, and RV remodeling were not overlapped in many of athletes, suggesting different mechanism of EICR according to cardiac chamber. Various predictors including sports type, heart rate, muscle mass, fat mass, body surface area, and training time were differently involved in cardiac remodeling, and there were gender differences of these predictors for cardiac remodeling. @*Conclusions@#EICR was common in both sex and was independently developed among cardiac chambers in highly trained university athletes. LV and LA remodeling were common in males, whereas RV remodeling was significantly more common in females demonstrating gender difference in EICR. The present study also demonstrated gender difference in the predictors of EICR.

9.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 1115-1125, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896022

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Hypertension (HT) has a significant impact on public health and medical expenses. However, HT is a chronic disease that requires the long-term follow-up of a large number of patients. @*Methods@#The Korean Hypertension Cohort (KHC) study aimed to develop a model for calculating cardiovascular risk in HT patients by linking and utilizing the detailed clinical and longitudinal data from hospitals and the national health insurance claim database, respectively. This cohort had a planned sample size of over 11,000 HT patients and 100,000 non-HT controls. Eligible patients were hypertensive patients, who were presenting for the first time and were diagnosed with HT as a main disease from 2006 to 2011. Long-term survival data over a period of approximately 9 years were obtained from the national health insurance claim and national health examination data. @*Results@#This cohort enrolled 11,083 patients with HT. The mean age was 58.87 ± 11.5 years, 50.5% were male, and 31.4% were never-treated HT. Of the enrolled patients, 32.9% and 37.7% belonged to the high and moderate cardiovascular risk groups, respectively. Initial blood pressures were 149.4 ± 18.5/88.5 ± 12.5 mmHg. During the 2 years hospital data follow-up period, blood pressures lowered to 130.8 ± 14.1/78.0 ± 9.7 mmHg with 1.9 ± 1.0 tablet doses of antihypertensive medication. Cardiovascular events occurred in 7.5% of the overall patients; 8.5%, 8.8%, and 4.7% in the high, moderate, and low risk patients, respectively. @*Conclusions@#The KHC study has provided important information on the long-term outcomes of HT patients according to the blood pressure, comorbid diseases, medication, and adherence, as well as health behaviors and health resource use.

10.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 426-438, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893955

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#There is little data about cardiac geometry in highly trained young athletes, especially female specific changes. We investigated gender difference on exercise induced cardiac remodeling (EICR) in highly trained university athletes. @*Methods@#A total of 1,185 university athletes divided into 2 groups; female (n=497, 22.0±2.3 years) vs. male (n=688, 22.6±2.4 years). Remodeling of the left ventricle (LV), left atrium (LA), right ventricle (RV), and any cardiac chamber were compared. @*Results@#LV, LA, RV, and any remodeling was found in 156 (13.2%), 206 (17.4%), 82 (6.9%), and 379 athletes (31.9%), respectively. LV, LA, and any remodeling were more common in male than female athletes (n=53, 12.1% vs. n=103, 15.5%, p=0.065), (n=65, 13.1% vs. n=141, 20.5%, p<0.001), (n=144, 30.0% vs. n=235, 34.2%, p=0.058), respectively, whereas RV remodeling was significantly more common in female than male athletes (n=56, 11.3% vs.n=26, 3.8%, p<0.001). Interestingly, the development of LV, LA, and RV remodeling were not overlapped in many of athletes, suggesting different mechanism of EICR according to cardiac chamber. Various predictors including sports type, heart rate, muscle mass, fat mass, body surface area, and training time were differently involved in cardiac remodeling, and there were gender differences of these predictors for cardiac remodeling. @*Conclusions@#EICR was common in both sex and was independently developed among cardiac chambers in highly trained university athletes. LV and LA remodeling were common in males, whereas RV remodeling was significantly more common in females demonstrating gender difference in EICR. The present study also demonstrated gender difference in the predictors of EICR.

11.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 328-329, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811368

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Stents
12.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 330-342, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811367

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There is insufficient evidence regarding the optimal treatment for asymptomatic carotid stenosis.METHODS: Bayesian cross-design and network meta-analyses were performed to compare the safety and efficacy among carotid artery stenting (CAS), carotid endarterectomy (CEA), and medical treatment (MT). We identified 18 studies (4 randomized controlled trials [RCTs] and 14 nonrandomized, comparative studies [NRCSs]) comparing CAS with CEA, and 4 RCTs comparing CEA with MT from MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Embase databases.RESULTS: The risk for periprocedural stroke tended to increase in CAS, compared to CEA (odds ratio [OR], 1.86; 95% credible interval [CrI], 0.62–4.54). However, estimates for periprocedural myocardial infarction (MI) were quite heterogeneous in RCTs and NRCSs. Despite a trend of decreased risk with CAS in RCTs (OR, 0.70; 95% CrI, 0.27–1.24), the risk was similar in NRCSs (OR, 1.02; 95% CrI, 0.87–1.18). In indirect comparisons of MT and CAS, MT showed a tendency to have a higher risk for the composite of periprocedural death, stroke, MI, or nonperiprocedural ipsilateral stroke (OR, 1.30; 95% CrI, 0.74–2.73). Analyses of study characteristics showed that CEA-versus-MT studies took place about 10-year earlier than CEA-versus-CAS studies.CONCLUSIONS: A similar risk for periprocedural MI between CEA and CAS in NRCSs suggested that concerns about periprocedural MI accompanied by CEA might not matter in real-world practice when preoperative evaluation and management are working. Maybe the benefits of CAS over MT have been overestimated considering advances in medical therapy within10-year gap between CEA-versus-MT and CEA-versus-CAS studies.


Subject(s)
Carotid Arteries , Carotid Stenosis , Endarterectomy, Carotid , Myocardial Infarction , Stents , Stroke
13.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 822-832, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833085

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Cardiac myxoma is the most frequent benign cardiac tumor that can result in cardiac and systemic symptoms. We investigated clinical and echocardiographic characteristics of patients with cardiac masses suggesting myxoma. @*Methods@#We investigated 265 consecutive patients with an echocardiographic diagnosis of cardiac myxomas in 4 teaching hospitals in Korea. @*Results@#The mean age was 61±16 years and 169 patients (63.8%) were female. The most frequent referral reason for echocardiography was an evaluation of cardiac symptoms (43.4%). Tumors were incidentally detected in 82 patients (30.9%). Left atrium (LA) was the most frequently involved site (84.5%) and 19 patients (7.2%) had non-atrial tumors. The mean tumor size was 38.7×26.0 mm (range, 4–96 mm). Of 186 patients (70.2%) who had pathological diagnosis, 174 (93.5%) were confirmed with myxoma, 8 (4.3%) with other tumors and 4 (2.2%) with thrombi. Compared to myxoma, smaller size (20.4×12.6 mm vs. 41.4×27.6 mm, p<0.01) and non-LA location (87.5% vs. 10.5%, p<0.001) were associated with non-myxoma tumors, and more frequent atrial fibrillation (AF, 75.0% vs. 7.0%, p<0.001) and larger LA diameter (55.0±14.6 mm vs. 41.3±7.7 mm, p=0.001) were related to thrombi. @*Conclusions@#Of 265 patients with an echocardiographic diagnosis with cardiac myxomas, 174 (65.7%) were surgically confirmed with myxomas. Compared with cardiac myxoma, other tumors were smaller and more frequently found in non-atrial sites. Thrombi were associated with AF and larger LA diameter.

14.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 695-705, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832962

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an excessiveaccumulation of fat into the liver as a result of increased inflammation and insulin resistance.Although there can be common pathogenic mechanisms for NAFLD and hypertensionassociated with the development of cardiovascular diseases, little data are showing theassociation between NAFLD and hypertension in a large-scale cohort study. Thus, weevaluated the ability of the fatty liver index (FLI), a surrogate marker of NAFLD, to predict thedevelopment of hypertension in healthy individuals. @*Methods@#We included 334,280 healthy individuals without known comorbidities whounderwent the National Health check-ups in South Korea from 2009 to 2014. Theassociation between the FLI and hypertension was analyzed using multivariate Coxproportional-hazards models. @*Results@#During a median of 5.2 years' follow-up, 24,678 subjects (7.4%) had new-onsethypertension. We categorized total subjects into quartile groups according to FLI (range: Q1,0–4.9; Q2, 5.0–12.5; Q3, 12.6–31.0; and Q4, >31.0). The incidence of hypertension was higherin subjects with the highest FLI than in those with the lowest FLI (Q4, 9,968 [11.9%] vs. Q1,2,277 [2.7%]; p<0.001). There was a significant correlation between the highest FLI and anincreased risk of new-onset hypertension (adjusted hazard ratio between Q4 and Q1, 2.330;95% confidence interval, 2.218–2.448; p<0.001). FLI was significantly associated with anincreased risk of new-onset hypertension regardless of baseline characteristics. @*Conclusions@#Higher FLI was independently associated with increased risk of hypertension ina healthy Korean population.

15.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 330-342, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832949

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES@#There is insufficient evidence regarding the optimal treatment for asymptomatic carotid stenosis.@*METHODS@#Bayesian cross-design and network meta-analyses were performed to compare the safety and efficacy among carotid artery stenting (CAS), carotid endarterectomy (CEA), and medical treatment (MT). We identified 18 studies (4 randomized controlled trials [RCTs] and 14 nonrandomized, comparative studies [NRCSs]) comparing CAS with CEA, and 4 RCTs comparing CEA with MT from MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Embase databases.@*RESULTS@#The risk for periprocedural stroke tended to increase in CAS, compared to CEA (odds ratio [OR], 1.86; 95% credible interval [CrI], 0.62–4.54). However, estimates for periprocedural myocardial infarction (MI) were quite heterogeneous in RCTs and NRCSs. Despite a trend of decreased risk with CAS in RCTs (OR, 0.70; 95% CrI, 0.27–1.24), the risk was similar in NRCSs (OR, 1.02; 95% CrI, 0.87–1.18). In indirect comparisons of MT and CAS, MT showed a tendency to have a higher risk for the composite of periprocedural death, stroke, MI, or nonperiprocedural ipsilateral stroke (OR, 1.30; 95% CrI, 0.74–2.73). Analyses of study characteristics showed that CEA-versus-MT studies took place about 10-year earlier than CEA-versus-CAS studies.@*CONCLUSIONS@#A similar risk for periprocedural MI between CEA and CAS in NRCSs suggested that concerns about periprocedural MI accompanied by CEA might not matter in real-world practice when preoperative evaluation and management are working. Maybe the benefits of CAS over MT have been overestimated considering advances in medical therapy within10-year gap between CEA-versus-MT and CEA-versus-CAS studies.

16.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 351-359, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831835

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGL) are catecholamine-producing tumors that can cause blood pressure (BP) elevation and cardiovascular complications. Clinical presentation of these tumors may be changed through widespread use of imaging studies, which enables detection of PPGLs before onset of symptoms. We investigated clinical profiles of patients with surgically resected PPGLs. @*Methods@#From 2005 to 2017, 111 consecutive patients with surgically resected PPGLs in two tertiary hospitals in Korea were studied. @*Results@#Mean age was 52 ± 16 years, 57 patients (51.4%) were male and 54 (48.6%) were hypertensive. Twenty-nine PPGLs (26.1%) were extra-adrenal paragangliomas. Sixteen (14.4%) and seven patients (6.3%) (Group 1, n = 23) were diagnosed during work-up of hypertension and transient cardiomyopathy respectively, and the remainder (Group 2, n = 88) were incidentalomas detected during routine abdominal imaging. Patients in the Group 1 were younger and more frequently symptomatic, and had higher BPs, heart rates and levels of urinary catecholamines than those in the Group 2. Paragangliomas were less frequent and secretion of epinephrine and metanephrine was more predominant in the Group 1 than in Group 2. After the surgical resections, 18.2% of patients still needed antihypertensive medications. @*Conclusions@#Out of 111 patients with surgically resected PPGLs, 88 (79.3%) were diagnosed as incidentalomas. Seven patients presented with transient cardiomyopathy and 16 with hypertension. Tumor location and secretion of catecholamine may vary depending on the presence of symptoms.

17.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 160-169, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738769

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Aortic valve replacement (AVR) is the treatment of choice in severe symptomatic aortic stenosis (AS) patients. However, a substantial number of elderly patients refuse AVR and treated medically. We investigated their long-term prognosis. METHODS: From January 2005 to December 2016, we analyzed elderly patients with severe symptomatic AS who refused to have AVR. RESULTS: After screening of total 534 patients, we analyzed total 180 severe symptomatic AS patients (78±7 years old, 96 males). Hypertension was the most common cardiovascular risk factor (72%) and the most common symptom was dyspnea (66%). Calculated aortic stenosis area was 0.73±0.20 cm2 and mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 57.8±12.2%. Total 102 patients died during follow-up period (39.1±31.0 months). One-, 3-, and 5-year all-cause mortality rate was 21.1±3.0%, 43.1±3.8%, and 56.5±4.2%, respectively. Of them, 87 died from cardiac causes, and 1-, 3-, and 5-year cardiac mortality rate was 18.0±2.9%, 38.2±3.8%, and 50.7±4.3%, respectively. Their all-cause mortality and cardiac mortality were significantly higher than those of controls. Univariate analysis showed that age, anemia, LVEF, and Log N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) were significant parameters in all-cause mortality (p < 0.001, p=0.001, p=0.039, and p=0.047, respectively) and in cardiac mortality (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p=0.046, and p=0.026, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that age and anemia were significant prognostic factors for cardiac and all-cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In elderly severe symptomatic AS patients who treated medically, their 1-, 3- and 5-year all-cause mortality rate was 21.1±3.0%, 43.1±3.8%, and 56.5±4.2%, respectively. Age and anemia were significant prognostic factors for cardiac and all-cause mortality.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Anemia , Aortic Valve Stenosis , Aortic Valve , Drug Therapy , Dyspnea , Follow-Up Studies , Hypertension , Mass Screening , Mortality , Multivariate Analysis , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Stroke Volume
18.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 829-837, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917356

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES@#Left ventricular (LV) apical thrombi are usually present with LV dilatation, and oral anticoagulants reduce embolic risk in these patients. However, echocardiographic data regarding thrombus resolution remain limited. We studied its echocardiographic features that were associated with early resolution (within 1 month).@*METHODS@#We performed a retrospective observational study by reviewing baseline and follow-up echocardiographic images and medical records in patients with LV apical thrombi.@*RESULTS@#Between January 2005 and December 2017, 77 patients (59 males, mean 61±12 years old) were enrolled. Patients were classified into 2 groups based on duration of thrombus resolution: group 1 showing resolution within 1 month (n=23) and group 2 with persistence after 1 month (n=54). Thrombus size was significantly smaller in group 1 (10.7±4.2 vs. 12.1±5.5 mm, p=0.046). Grade 1 mobility (partially mobile; odds ratio [OR], 7.800; p=0.012) and grade 2 mobility (highly mobile; OR, 14.625; p=0.002) were significantly associated with the early resolution. Round thrombi were associated with early resolution than mural form (OR, 3.187; p=0.026). Multivariate analysis showed that the mobility was the most important parameter, and a highly mobile (grade 2 mobility) LV apical thrombi showed earlier resolution (OR, 12.525; p=0.013). During the follow-up over 62±44 months, 25 patients (32.5%) had ≥1 adverse clinical events. The late resolution of thrombi was associated with poor long-term clinical outcomes (hazard ratio, 5.727; p=0.020).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Mobility of LV apical thrombi was the most important parameter associated with early thrombus resolution. Late resolution of LV apical thrombi was associated with poor long-term clinical outcomes.

19.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 908-931, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917346

ABSTRACT

Echocardiography is the first and is the most-available imaging modality for many cardiovascular diseases, and echocardiographic parameters can give much important information for diagnosis, treatment, and prognostic evaluations. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is the most commonly used echocardiographic parameter for left ventricular (LV) systolic function. Although LVEF is used routinely in daily practice, it is calculated from volumetric change without representing true myocardial properties. Recently, strain echocardiography has been used to objectively measure myocardial deformation. Myocardial strain can give accurate information about intrinsic myocardial function, and it can be used to detect early-stage cardiovascular diseases, monitor myocardial changes with specific therapies, differentiate cardiomyopathies, and predict the prognosis of several cardiovascular diseases. Although strain echocardiography has been applied to measure the right ventricle and left atrium, in addition to analyzing the LV, many cardiologists who are not imaging specialists are unaware of its clinical use and importance. Therefore, this review describes the measurement and clinical utility of 2-dimensional strain analysis in various cardiovascular diseases.

20.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 586-599, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917290

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES@#Impaired recovery from left ventricular (LV) dysfunction is a major prognostic factor after myocardial infarction (MI). Because P2Y12 receptor blockade inhibits myocardial injury, ticagrelor with off-target properties may have myocardial protection over clopidogrel. In animal models, ticagrelor vs. clopidogrel protects myocardium against reperfusion injury and improves remodeling after MI. We aimed to investigate the effect of ticagrelor on sequential myocardial remodeling process after MI.@*METHODS@#High platelet inhibition with ticagrelor to improve LV remodeling in patients with ST-segment elevation MI (HEALING-AMI) is an investigator-initiated, randomized, open-label, assessor-blinded, multi-center trial done at 10 sites in Korea. Patients will be enrolled if they have ST-segment elevation MI (STEMI) treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention and a planned duration of dual antiplatelet treatment of at least 6 months. Screened patients will be randomly assigned (1:1) using an internet-based randomization with a computer-generated blocking with stratification across study sites to either ticagrelor or clopidogrel treatment. The co-primary primary endpoints are LV remodeling index with three-dimensional echocardiography and the level of N-terminal prohormone B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) at 6 months representing post-MI remodeling processes. Changes of LV end-systolic/diastolic volume indices and LV ejection fraction between baseline and 6-month follow-up will be also evaluated. Analysis is per protocol.@*CONCLUSIONS@#HEALING-AMI is testing the effect of ticagrelor in reducing adverse LV remodeling following STEMI. Our trial would show the benefit of ticagrelor vs. clopidogrel related to the recovery of post-MI LV dysfunction beyond potent platelet inhibition.TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02224534

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