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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914214

ABSTRACT

Background@#To compare the efficacy and safety of two insulin self-titration algorithms, Implementing New Strategies with Insulin Glargine for Hyperglycemia Treatment (INSIGHT) and EDITION, for insulin glargine 300 units/mL (Gla-300) in Korean individuals with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). @*Methods@#In a 12-week, randomized, open-label trial, individuals with uncontrolled T2DM requiring basal insulin were randomized to either the INSIGHT (adjusted by 1 unit/day) or EDITION (adjusted by 3 units/week) algorithm to achieve a fasting self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in the range of 4.4 to 5.6 mmol/L. The primary outcome was the proportion of individuals achieving a fasting SMBG ≤5.6 mmol/L without noct urnal hypoglycemia at week 12. @*Results@#Of 129 individuals (age, 64.1±9.5 years; 66 [51.2%] women), 65 and 64 were randomized to the INSIGHT and EDITION algorithms, respectively. The primary outcome of achievement was comparable between the two groups (24.6% vs. 23.4%, P=0.876). Compared with the EDITION group, the INSIGHT group had a greater reduction in 7-point SMBG but a similar decrease in fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin. The increment of total daily insulin dose was significantly higher in the INSIGHT group than in the EDITION group (between-group difference: 5.8±2.7 units/day, P=0.033). However, body weight was significantly increased only in the EDITION group (0.6±2.4 kg, P=0.038). There was no difference in the occurrence of hypoglycemia between the two groups. Patient satisfaction was significantly increased in the INSIGHT group (P=0.014). @*Conclusion@#The self-titration of Gla-300 using the INSIGHT algorithm was effective and safe compared with that using the EDITION algorithm in Korean individuals with uncontrolled T2DM (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT03406663).

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924918

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and management of diabetes mellitus, risk-factor control, and comorbidities among Korean adults. @*Methods@#We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to assess the prevalence, treatment, risk factors, comorbidities, and self-management behaviors of diabetes mellitus from 2019 to 2020. We also analyzed data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service to evaluate the use of antidiabetic medications in people with diabetes mellitus from 2002 through 2018. @*Results@#Among Korean adults aged 30 years or older, the estimated prevalence of diabetes mellitus was 16.7% in 2020. From 2019 through 2020, 65.8% of adults with diabetes mellitus were aware of the disease and treated with antidiabetic medications. The percentage of adults with diabetes mellitus who achieved glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) <6.5% was 24.5% despite the increased use of new antidiabetic medications. We found that adults with diabetes mellitus who achieved all three goals of HbA1c <6.5%, blood pressure (BP) <140/85 mm Hg, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol <100 mg/dL were 9.7%. The percentage of self-management behaviors was lower in men than women. Excess energy intake was observed in 16.7% of adults with diabetes mellitus. @*Conclusion@#The prevalence of diabetes mellitus among Korean adults remained high. Only 9.7% of adults with diabetes mellitus achieved all glycemic, BP, and lipid controls from 2019 to 2020. Continuous evaluation of national diabetes statistics and a national effort to increase awareness of diabetes mellitus and improve comprehensive diabetes care are needed.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874538

ABSTRACT

Background@#Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogues regulate glucose homeostasis and have anti-inflammatory properties, but cause gastrointestinal side effects. The fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a hormonal regulator of lipid and glucose metabolism that has poor pharmacokinetic properties, including a short half-life. To overcome these limitations, we investigated the effect of a low-dose combination of a GLP-1 analogue and FGF21 on atherosclerosis-related molecular pathways. @*Methods@#C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet for 30 weeks followed by an atherogenic diet for 10 weeks and were divided into four groups: control (saline), liraglutide (0.3 mg/kg/day), FGF21 (5 mg/kg/day), and low-dose combination treatment with liraglutide (0.1 mg/kg/day) and FGF21 (2.5 mg/kg/day) (n=6/group) for 6 weeks. The effects of each treatment on various atherogenesisrelated pathways were assessed. @*Results@#Liraglutide, FGF21, and their low-dose combination significantly reduced atheromatous plaque in aorta, decreased weight, glucose, and leptin levels, and increased adiponectin levels. The combination treatment upregulated the hepatic uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) and Akt1 mRNAs compared with controls. Matric mentalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) were downregulated and phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) were upregulated in liver of the liraglutide-alone and combination-treatment groups. The combination therapy also significantly decreased the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Caspase-3 was increased, whereas MMP-9, ICAM-1, p-Akt, and p-ERK1/2 were downregulated in the liraglutide-alone and combination-treatment groups. @*Conclusion@#Administration of a low-dose GLP-1 analogue and FGF21 combination exerts beneficial effects on critical pathways related to atherosclerosis, suggesting the synergism of the two compounds.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890474

ABSTRACT

Background@#To compare the renal effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors and sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors on individual outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. @*Methods@#We searched electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) from inception to June 2019 to identity eligible randomized controlled trials of DPP-4 inhibitors or SGLT2 inhibitors that reported at least one kidney outcome in patients with type 2 diabetes. Outcomes of interest were microalbuminuria, macroalbuminuria, worsening nephropathy, and end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). We performed an arm-based network meta-analysis using Bayesian methods and calculated absolute risks and rank probabilities of each treatment for the outcomes. @*Results@#Seventeen studies with 87,263 patients were included. SGLT2 inhibitors significantly lowered the risks of individual kidney outcomes, including microalbuminuria (odds ratio [OR], 0.64; 95% credible interval [CrI], 0.41 to 0.93), macroalbuminuria (OR, 0.48; 95% CrI, 0.24 to 0.72), worsening nephropathy (OR, 0.65; 95% CrI, 0.44 to 0.91), and ESKD (OR, 0.65; 95% CrI, 0.46 to 0.98) as compared with placebo. However, DPP-4 inhibitors did not lower the risks. SGLT2 inhibitors were considerably associated with higher absolute risk reductions in all kidney outcomes than DPP-4 inhibitors, although the benefits were statistically insignificant. The rank probabilities showed that SGLT2 inhibitors were better treatments for lowering the risk of albuminuria and ESKD than placebo or DPP-4 inhibitors. @*Conclusion@#SGLT2 inhibitors were superior to DPP-4 inhibitors in reducing the risk of albuminuria and ESKD in patients with type 2 diabetes.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890389

ABSTRACT

Background@#To evaluate the association of time to reach the target glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level with long-term durable glycemic control and risk of diabetic complications in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). @*Methods@#In a longitudinal observational cohort, 194 patients with T2DM newly diagnosed between January 2011 and March 2013 were followed up over 6 years. Patients were classified according to the time needed to reach the target HbA1c (<7.0%): <3, 3 to 6 (early achievement group), and ≥6 months (late achievement group). Risks of microvascular complications including diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy as well as macrovascular events including ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, and peripheral arterial disease were assessed by multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis. @*Results@#During a median follow-up of 6.53 years, 66 microvascular and 14 macrovascular events occurred. Maintenance of durable glycemic control over 6 years was more likely in the early achievement groups than in the late achievement group (34.5%, 30.0%, and 16.1% in <3, 3 to 6, and ≥6 months, respectively, P=0.039). Early target HbA1c achievement was associated with lower risk of composite diabetic complications (adjusted hazard ratio [HR, 0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.26 to 0.86 in <3 months group) (adjusted HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.23 to 1.10 in 3 to 6 months group, in reference to ≥6 months group). Similar trends were maintained for risks of microvascular and macrovascular complications, although statistical significance was not reached for macrovascular complications. @*Conclusion@#Early target HbA1c achievement was associated with long-term durable glycemic control and reduced risk of diabetic complications in newly diagnosed T2DM.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890386

ABSTRACT

Background@#Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 facilitates the entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 into the human body. We investigated the association of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitor use with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes in hypertensive patients. @*Methods@#We identified hypertensive patients with confirmed COVID-19 from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service from inception to May 15, 2020. The primary outcome was the composite of intensive care unit (ICU) admission, invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and death from COVID-19. The individual components were evaluated as secondary outcomes. @*Results@#Of 1,374 hypertensive patients with COVID-19, 1,076 (78.3%) and 298 (21.7%) were users and never-users of RAAS inhibitors, respectively. The RAAS inhibitor users were not associated with the risk of the primary outcome (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.46 to 1.10). The risk of ICU admission was significantly lower in the users than the never-users (aOR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.24 to 0.84). The RAAS inhibitors were beneficial only in ICU admissions that did not require IMV (aOR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.14 to 0.58). The risk of death from COVID-19 was comparable between the groups (aOR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.64 to 1.85). We could not evaluate the risks of CRRT and ECMO owing to the small number of events. @*Conclusion@#RAAS inhibitor use was not associated with the composite of severe outcomes in the hypertensive patients with COVID-19 but significantly lowered the risk of ICU admission, particularly in patients who did not require IMV.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898178

ABSTRACT

Background@#To compare the renal effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors and sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors on individual outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. @*Methods@#We searched electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) from inception to June 2019 to identity eligible randomized controlled trials of DPP-4 inhibitors or SGLT2 inhibitors that reported at least one kidney outcome in patients with type 2 diabetes. Outcomes of interest were microalbuminuria, macroalbuminuria, worsening nephropathy, and end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). We performed an arm-based network meta-analysis using Bayesian methods and calculated absolute risks and rank probabilities of each treatment for the outcomes. @*Results@#Seventeen studies with 87,263 patients were included. SGLT2 inhibitors significantly lowered the risks of individual kidney outcomes, including microalbuminuria (odds ratio [OR], 0.64; 95% credible interval [CrI], 0.41 to 0.93), macroalbuminuria (OR, 0.48; 95% CrI, 0.24 to 0.72), worsening nephropathy (OR, 0.65; 95% CrI, 0.44 to 0.91), and ESKD (OR, 0.65; 95% CrI, 0.46 to 0.98) as compared with placebo. However, DPP-4 inhibitors did not lower the risks. SGLT2 inhibitors were considerably associated with higher absolute risk reductions in all kidney outcomes than DPP-4 inhibitors, although the benefits were statistically insignificant. The rank probabilities showed that SGLT2 inhibitors were better treatments for lowering the risk of albuminuria and ESKD than placebo or DPP-4 inhibitors. @*Conclusion@#SGLT2 inhibitors were superior to DPP-4 inhibitors in reducing the risk of albuminuria and ESKD in patients with type 2 diabetes.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898093

ABSTRACT

Background@#To evaluate the association of time to reach the target glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level with long-term durable glycemic control and risk of diabetic complications in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). @*Methods@#In a longitudinal observational cohort, 194 patients with T2DM newly diagnosed between January 2011 and March 2013 were followed up over 6 years. Patients were classified according to the time needed to reach the target HbA1c (<7.0%): <3, 3 to 6 (early achievement group), and ≥6 months (late achievement group). Risks of microvascular complications including diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy as well as macrovascular events including ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, and peripheral arterial disease were assessed by multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis. @*Results@#During a median follow-up of 6.53 years, 66 microvascular and 14 macrovascular events occurred. Maintenance of durable glycemic control over 6 years was more likely in the early achievement groups than in the late achievement group (34.5%, 30.0%, and 16.1% in <3, 3 to 6, and ≥6 months, respectively, P=0.039). Early target HbA1c achievement was associated with lower risk of composite diabetic complications (adjusted hazard ratio [HR, 0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.26 to 0.86 in <3 months group) (adjusted HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.23 to 1.10 in 3 to 6 months group, in reference to ≥6 months group). Similar trends were maintained for risks of microvascular and macrovascular complications, although statistical significance was not reached for macrovascular complications. @*Conclusion@#Early target HbA1c achievement was associated with long-term durable glycemic control and reduced risk of diabetic complications in newly diagnosed T2DM.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898090

ABSTRACT

Background@#Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 facilitates the entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 into the human body. We investigated the association of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitor use with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes in hypertensive patients. @*Methods@#We identified hypertensive patients with confirmed COVID-19 from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service from inception to May 15, 2020. The primary outcome was the composite of intensive care unit (ICU) admission, invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and death from COVID-19. The individual components were evaluated as secondary outcomes. @*Results@#Of 1,374 hypertensive patients with COVID-19, 1,076 (78.3%) and 298 (21.7%) were users and never-users of RAAS inhibitors, respectively. The RAAS inhibitor users were not associated with the risk of the primary outcome (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.46 to 1.10). The risk of ICU admission was significantly lower in the users than the never-users (aOR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.24 to 0.84). The RAAS inhibitors were beneficial only in ICU admissions that did not require IMV (aOR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.14 to 0.58). The risk of death from COVID-19 was comparable between the groups (aOR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.64 to 1.85). We could not evaluate the risks of CRRT and ECMO owing to the small number of events. @*Conclusion@#RAAS inhibitor use was not associated with the composite of severe outcomes in the hypertensive patients with COVID-19 but significantly lowered the risk of ICU admission, particularly in patients who did not require IMV.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914661

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#The clinical implications of the BRAF V600E mutation in papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC), defined as ≤1.0 cm of tumor size, remain controversial. We investigated the association between the BRAFV600E mutation and PTMC recurrence in a retrospective cohort of patients with thyroid cancer. @*Materials and Methods@#This study included 2319 patients with PTMC (median age, 50 years [interquartile range (IQR), 41-57 years]) who underwent thyroid surgery from 2010 to 2019 at a single tertiary medical center. The median follow-up time was 75 months (IQR, 30-98 months). Tumor recurrence was confirmed by histological, cytological, radiographic, and biochemical criteria, combined with persistent and recurrent disease. @*Results@#A total of 60.2% (1395/2319) patients with PTMC had the BRAF V600E mutation. The tumor recurrence rate was 2.1% (19/924) in BRAF mutation-negative patients and 2.9% (41/1395) in BRAF mutation-positive patients, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.05 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61-1.84) after adjusting for clinicopathological risk factors. Similar results were found in patients with high-risk PTMC (adjusted HR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.56-2.11) who had lymph node metastasis (LNM), extrathyroidal extension (ETE), or distant metastasis (DM) at diagnosis and in patients with low-risk PTMC (adjusted HR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.35-2.83) who had no LNM, ETE, or DM. @*Conclusion@#The finding that the BRAF V600E mutation was not associated with tumor recurrence in our cohort of Korean patients with PTMC, especially in patients with low-risk PTMC, suggests that its value in the prediction of disease progression is limited.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834373

ABSTRACT

Special considerations should be made when selecting medications for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in older patients especially those over 65 years old. This review summarizes the relationship between current treatments for LUTS and cognitive impairment. Although the recently reported association between dementia and tamsulosin is debatable, the effects of α-blockers and pharmacokinetics are not reported in this context. Five-alpha reductase inhibitors appear to affect mood. However, the association between the development of dementia and cognitive impairment is unlikely. Anticholinergic agents, other than trospium, fesoterodine, and imdafenacin have a relatively high distribution in the central nervous system. In particular, oxybutynin is reported to cause cognitive impairment. Several animal studies on the blood-brain barrier permeability of oxybutynin support this. Therefore, care must be taken when they are used in older patients (65 years and older). Beta-3 agonists are an alternative to, or may be used in combination with, anticholinergic drugs for patients with an overactive bladder (OAB). Several phase 2 and 3 clinical studies report high tolerability and efficacy, making them relatively safe for OAB treatment. However, there is a possibility that cognitive function may be affected; thus, long-term study data are required. We have reviewed studies investigating the correlation of urologic medications with cognitive dysfunction and have provided an overview of drug selection, as well as other considerations in older patients (65 years and older) with LUTS. This narrative review has focused primarily on articles indexed in PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Embase databases. No formal search strategy was used, and no meta-analysis of data was performed.

12.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832362

ABSTRACT

Background@#To investigate the performance of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Pooled Cohort Equations (PCE) in a large, prospective, community-based cohort in Korea and to compare it with that of the Framingham Global Cardiovascular Disease Risk Score (FRS-CVD) and the Korean Risk Prediction Model (KRPM). @*Methods@#In the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KOGES)-Ansan and Ansung study, we evaluated calibration and discrimination of the PCE for non-Hispanic whites (PCE-WH) and for African Americans (PCE-AA) and compared their predictive abilities with the FRS-CVD and the KRPM. @*Results@#The present study included 7,932 individuals (3,778 men and 4,154 women). The PCE-WH and PCE-AA moderately overestimated the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) for men (6% and 13%, respectively) but underestimated the risk for women (−49% and −25%, respectively). The FRS-CVD overestimated ASCVD risk for men (91%) but provided a good risk prediction for women (3%). The KRPM underestimated ASCVD risk for men (−31%) and women (−31%). All the risk prediction models showed good discrimination in both men (C-statistic 0.730 to 0.735) and women (C-statistic 0.726 to 0.732). Recalibration of the PCE using data from the KOGES-Ansan and Ansung study substantially improved the predictive accuracy in men. @*Conclusion@#In the KOGES-Ansan and Ansung study, the PCE overestimated ASCVD risk for men and underestimated the risk for women. The PCE-WH and the FRS-CVD provided an accurate prediction of ASCVD in men and women, respectively.

13.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832319

ABSTRACT

Background@#To investigate the effects of a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist on functional brain activation in lean and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in response to visual food cues. @*Methods@#In a randomized, single-blinded, crossover study, 15 lean and 14 obese individuals with T2DM were administered lixisenatide or normal saline subcutaneously with a 1-week washout period. We evaluated brain activation in response to pictures of high-calorie food, low-calorie food, and nonfood using functional magnetic resonance imaging and measured appetite and caloric intake in participants who were given access to an ad libitum buffet. @*Results@#Obese individuals with T2DM showed significantly greater activation of the hypothalamus, pineal gland, parietal cortex (high-calorie food vs. low-calorie food, P<0.05), orbitofrontal cortex (high-calorie food vs. nonfood, P<0.05), and visual cortex (food vs. nonfood, P<0.05) than lean individuals with T2DM. Lixisenatide injection significantly reduced the functional activation of the fusiform gyrus and lateral ventricle in obese individuals with T2DM compared with that in lean individuals with T2DM (nonfood vs. high-calorie food, P<0.05). In addition, in individuals who decreased their caloric intake after lixisenatide injection, there were significant interaction effects between group and treatment in the posterior cingulate, medial frontal cortex (high-calorie food vs. low-calorie food, P<0.05), hypothalamus, orbitofrontal cortex, and temporal lobe (food vs. nonfood, P<0.05). @*Conclusion@#Brain responses to visual food cues were different in lean and obese individuals with T2DM. In addition, acute administration of lixisenatide differentially affected functional brain activation in these individuals, especially in those who decreased their caloric intake after lixisenatide injection.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764102

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: There are no established statistical data available for the comparison of different surgical methods adopted for the resection of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). This study investigates the present status related to BPH surgery in Korea for the past 8 years. METHODS: National-level data from the National Health Insurance Service and National Statistical Office were analyzed in this study. From 2010 to 2017, the trends of surgeries for BPH were reviewed according to the procedure code including transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP), or high-power potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP), and this trend also analyzed by age, geographic distribution, and hospital type. RESULTS: Over the past 8 years, there was not much change in the total number of BPH-related surgeries (range, 10,393– 11,072). Although there was not much alteration in the number of conventional TURP (from 6,801 in 2010 to 6,645 in 2017), the number of HoLEP has dramatically increased (from 278 in 2010 to 3,805 in 2017). The number of HoLEP surgeries after 2011 exceeded the number of surgeries using KTP, and the gap is anticipated to rise. The number of surgeries by age group was most common in the 70s and the total number of surgeries is decreasing in all age groups; for HoLEP, the trend is steadily increasing over the age of 60 years. Most of the BPH surgeries were performed in metropolitan areas, such as Seoul, Gyeonggi-do, and Busan, and in larger hospitals compared to smaller hospital settings. CONCLUSIONS: Through the data of the National Health Insurance Service, we could apprehend the present status of BPH-related surgery in Korea. Then, we could know about the trend according to several factors and we think these results will be valuable as academic references as well.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Korea , Lasers, Solid-State , National Health Programs , Potassium , Prostate , Prostatectomy , Prostatic Hyperplasia , Seoul , Transurethral Resection of Prostate
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764099

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To describe our initial experience with a novel method of adenoma retrieval using a pneumovesicum (PNV) after Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP). METHODS: From January 2016 to April 2018, a total of 93 consecutive patients treated with HoLEP were enrolled in this study. For tissue morcellation, we used the PNV morcellation technique for an initial series of 21 patients and the conventional technique (Lumenis VersaCut) for a consecutive series of 72 patients. We compared efficiency and safety between the novel technique and the traditional technique. Subgroup analysis was performed to assess the effectiveness of the current technique in the large prostate (>70 mL). RESULTS: There were significant differences in mean age and prostate volume between the 2 groups. However, there were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics and preoperative parameters in the subgroup analysis of large prostates (>70 mL). The mean morcellation efficiency was higher (8.50±1.94 minutes vs. 1.76±0.45 minutes, P<0.05) and the time of morcellation (7.81±1.25 minutes vs. 34.04±11.14 minutes, P<0.05) was shorter in the PNV group. Moreover, there were no significant differences between groups in hospitalization period (2.62±1.10 days vs. 2.90±1.26 days, P=0.852) and any other postoperative events, including recatheterization, reoperation, clot retention, and urethral stricture (P-value range, 0.194–0.447). In the PNV group, there were some cases of procedure-related complications, including postoperative extravesical leakage (5th case), clot retention (8th case), and recatheterization (9th case). CONCLUSIONS: This method has a higher tissue retrieval efficacy, with the advantage of excellent visibility compared to conventional morcellation. The current method can be applied when a transurethral morcellator is out of order or cannot be used.


Subject(s)
Adenoma , Holmium , Hospitalization , Humans , Lasers, Solid-State , Methods , Morcellation , Prostate , Prostatic Hyperplasia , Reoperation , Urethral Stricture
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763135

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) with cognitive dysfunction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using the National Health Insurance Service database of the entire Korean adult prostate cancer population (n=236,391), data on ADT and cognitive dysfunction between 2008 and 2015 were analyzed. We excluded patients previously diagnosed with cognitive dysfunction, dementia, or a cerebral event history. We tested the effect of ADT on the risk of cognitive dysfunction using propensity score–matched Cox proportional hazards regression models and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Our final cohort comprised of 35,401 individuals with prostate cancer, including 24,567 men (70.6%) who underwent ADT. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up period of 4.1 years, 4,741 patients were newly diagnosed with cognitive dysfunction. A statistically significant association was found between ADT and the risk of cognitive dysfunction (hazard ratio, 1.169; p=0.002). Meanwhile, age (≥ 70 years), diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular history, and peripheral vascular disease were identified as factors that contribute to the increased risk of cognitive dysfunction. In contrast, the use of statins and aspirin was associated with a lower risk of cognitive dysfunction. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that patients aged 70 years or older who underwent ADT had the lowest cumulative probability of remaining cognitive dysfunction-free (log-rank p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Our results revealed an association between the use of ADT for the treatment of prostate cancer and an increased risk of cognitive dysfunction in a nationwide population-based study. This finding should be further evaluated in prospective studies.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aspirin , Cohort Studies , Dementia , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Hypertension , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , National Health Programs , Peripheral Vascular Diseases , Prospective Studies , Prostate , Prostatic Neoplasms
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739216

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To investigate the effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of DPP-4 inhibitors from inception to September 2017. We selected eligible RCTs comparing DPP-4 inhibitors with placebo or other antidiabetic agents and reporting at least one renal outcome. A meta-analysis was conducted to calculate standardized mean differences, weighted mean differences (WMDs), relative risks (RRs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each renal outcome. RESULTS: We included 23 RCTs with 19 publications involving 41,359 patients. Overall changes in urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio were comparable between DPP-4 inhibitors and controls (P=0.150). However, DPP-4 inhibitors were associated with significantly lower risk of incident microalbuminuria (RR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.80 to 0.98; P=0.022) and macroalbuminuria (RR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.97; P=0.027), as well as higher rates of regression of albuminuria (RR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.35; P<0.001) compared with controls. Although DPP-4 inhibitors were associated with small but significantly lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (WMD, −1.11 mL/min/1.73 m2; 95% CI, −1.78 to −0.44; P=0.001), there was no difference in the risk of end-stage renal disease between two groups (RR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.76 to 1.14; P=0.475). CONCLUSION: DPP-4 inhibitors had beneficial renal effects mainly by reducing the risk of development or progression of albuminuria compared with placebo or other antidiabetic agents.


Subject(s)
Albuminuria , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Nephropathies , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents , Kidney Failure, Chronic
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785847

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate seasonal variations of overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms in women who visited hospital clinics.METHODS: Medical records of female patients treated for OAB symptoms from January 2011 to December 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with pyuria at the first visit, those who did not complete the questionnaire, and those with <3 overactive bladder symptom scores (OABSS) were excluded. Uroflowmetric parameters, 3-day micturition diary, and OABSS were analyzed.RESULTS: A total of 582 patients with OAB symptoms who visited the hospital were enrolled in this study. Patients were grouped into 1 of the 3 season groups (cold, intermediate, and hot) depending on the average temperature of the month that the patient first visited the urologic department outpatient clinic. The total OABSS was significantly different between the 3 season groups (cold [7.25±3.20] vs. intermediate [6.24±3.40] vs. hot [5.51±3.20], P=0.001). The proportion of patients who had moderate OAB symptoms (6≤OABSS) was higher in the cold season group (56.2%) than in the other season groups (intermediate, 42.1%; hot, 31.8%; P=0.002). Differences in the number of micturitions (12.12±4.56 vs. 10.95±4.39, P=0.021) and number of urgent urinary incontinence episodes (2.06±0.94 vs. 2.48±0.87, P=0.001) between the cold and hot season groups were also significant. However, differences in the nocturia episode, total daytime voided volume, and mean voided volume between season groups were not significant.CONCLUSIONS: Different urinary symptoms and uroflowmetric parameters were correlated with seasonal variation. OAB symptoms might be worse in cold season than in other seasons.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care Facilities , Female , Humans , Medical Records , Nocturia , Pyuria , Retrospective Studies , Seasons , Urinary Bladder, Overactive , Urinary Incontinence , Urination
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785703

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A premeal load of protein can increase satiety and reduce energy intake. Dietary fiber also conveys metabolic benefits by modulating energy intake. We made a protein-enriched, dietary fiber-fortified bar (PFB) and aimed to investigate its effects on food intake and gut hormone secretion in healthy individuals.METHODS: Twenty subjects with normal glucose tolerance were enrolled. On three separate visits, the subjects received, in a randomized order, one of the following: a PFB containing 73 kcal with 10.7 g of protein and 12.7 g of dietary fiber; a usual bar (UB) containing the same calories as the PFB but only 0.9 g of protein and no dietary fiber; or water (control). After 15 minutes, the subjects had ad libitum intake of a test meal. Food consumption, appetite, and plasma gut hormone levels were measured.RESULTS: Total energy intake, including the bar and the test meal, was significantly reduced with the PFB preload compared to the water (904.4±534.9 kcal vs. 1,075.0±508.0 kcal, P=0.016). With the UB preload, only the intake of the test meal was reduced (P=0.044) but not the total energy intake (P=0.471) than the water. Fullness was also significantly increased after the PFB. In addition, postprandial glucose levels decreased and glucagon-like peptide-1 levels increased with the PFB compared with both the UB and water.CONCLUSION: In healthy individuals, a premeal supplementation of PFB reduced total energy intake and decreased postprandial glucose excursion. This finding necessitates long-term studies regarding clinical use in obesity.


Subject(s)
Appetite , Dietary Fiber , Eating , Energy Intake , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 , Glucose , Meals , Obesity , Peptide YY , Plasma , Water
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