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1.
Kosin Medical Journal ; : 98-106, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002480

ABSTRACT

The gut microbiota comprises a collection of microorganisms residing in the human digestive system, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi. These microbes have critical roles in food breakdown, immune system regulation, and the production of essential nutrients. Several lower gastrointestinal (GI) diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and colorectal cancer, have been associated with dysbiosis, which refers to an imbalance in the gut microbiota. Additionally, the gut microbiome and its microbial compounds affect disease development and the host’s immune response. Alterations in the gut-brain axis microbiome are also implicated in lower GI diseases. Therefore, microbiome-based therapies that regulate the gut microbiota (e.g., fecal microbiota transplantation and probiotics) are essential for the prevention and treatment of these diseases. This review aims to highlight the significance of gut microbiota and microbiome-based therapies in managing lower GI diseases.

2.
Korean Journal of Clinical Pharmacy ; : 51-61, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002115

ABSTRACT

Background@#Mobile applications (apps) on dietary supplements can increase consumers’ access to information. However, it can lead to indiscriminate use of dietary supplements. This study aims to systematically review dietary supplement apps released in English and Korean and evaluate the quality of those apps. @*Methods@#Through the app stores, apps on dietary supplements were systemically searched and examined. Two independent evaluators evaluated the apps and presented a mean score using the Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS). The correlation between MARS scores, user and evaluator ratings, and the number of secondary features of the apps were analyzed. @*Results@#Of the 2,772 dietary supplement apps identified, 17 apps were included according to the selection criteria. The mean MARS score was 3.28 (standard deviation: 0.29) out of 5. Apps had higher scores in aesthetics and functionality dimensions, while engagement and information dimensions had lower scores. There was a positive correlation between the number of app downloads and information among MARS dimensions. The subjective evaluation also correlated with the information dimension. There was a positive correlation between the secondary features of the apps and MARS total score as well as the engagement dimension. @*Conclusion@#The dietary supplement apps need to be managed at a higher level of quality to provide safe and reliable information to consumers. Especially, quality on information and engagement dimensions can be improved. Involvement of healthcare professionals in the app development, management with adequate referencing of information, and use of secondary features for enhanced user engagement can be helpful.

3.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 618-631, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001265

ABSTRACT

The brain houses vital hormonal regulatory structures such as the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, which may confer unique susceptibilities to critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI) in patients with neurological disorders. In addition, the frequent use of steroids for therapeutic purposes in various neurological conditions may lead to the development of steroid insufficiency. This abstract aims to highlight the significance of understanding these relationships in the context of patient care and management for physicians. Neurological disorders may predispose patients to CIRCI due to the role of the brain in hormonal regulation. Early recognition of CIRCI in the context of neurological diseases is essential to ensure prompt and appropriate intervention. Moreover, the frequent use of steroids for treating neurological conditions can contribute to the development of steroid insufficiency, further complicating the clinical picture. Physicians must be aware of these unique interactions and be prepared to evaluate and manage patients with CIRCI and steroid insufficiency in the context of neurological disorders. This includes timely diagnosis, appropriate steroid administration, and careful monitoring for potential adverse effects. A comprehensive understanding of the interplay between neurological disease, CIRCI, and steroid insufficiency is critical for optimizing patient care and outcomes in this complex patient population.

4.
Journal of Bone Metabolism ; : 209-217, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000752

ABSTRACT

As the aging population increases, the number of patients with osteoporosis is gradually rising. Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease characterized by low bone mass and the microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, resulting in reduced bone strength and an increased risk of low-energy or fragility fractures. Thus, the use of anti-resorptive agents, such as bisphosphonates (BPs), to prevent osteoporotic fractures is growing annually. BPs are effective in reducing hip and other fractures. However, the longer a patient takes BPs, the higher the risk of an atypical femoral fracture (AFF). The exact mechanism by which long-term BP use affects the development of AFFs has not yet been clarified. However, several theories have been suggested to explain the pathogenesis of AFFs, such as suppressed bone remodeling, impaired bone healing, altered bone quality, and femoral morphology. The management of AFFs requires both medical and surgical approaches. BPs therapy should be discontinued immediately, and calcium and vitamin D levels should be evaluated and supplemented if insufficient. Teriparatide can be used for AFFs. Intramedullary nailing is the primary treatment for complete AFFs, and prophylactic femoral nailing is recommended if signs of an impending fracture are detected.

5.
Korean Journal of Medical Education ; : 165-174, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-977231

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study identified factors that affect lecture evaluation by analyzing sophomores from Dankook University, examining each cluster’s characteristics, and comparing differences among trajectories. @*Methods@#This study identified factors that affect lecture evaluation by analyzing sophomores from Dankook University, examining each cluster’s characteristics, and comparing differences among trajectories. @*Results@#The lecture evaluation score decreased as the teaching hours per instructor in a year increased by an hour, and the number of instructors per lecture increased by one individual. During trajectory analysis, the first trajectory had lower lecture evaluation scores overall but relatively high appropriateness of the textbook and punctuality of class, whereas the second trajectory had higher lecture evaluation scores overall for all four items. @*Conclusion@#The two trajectories showed differences in teaching methods (understanding of lecture content and usefulness of the lecture) rather than in external factors (appropriateness of the textbook and punctuality of class). Therefore, to improve lecture satisfaction, enhancing instructors’ instructional competencies through lectures and adjusting the teaching hours by assigning an adequate number of instructors per lecture are recommended.

6.
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 306-312, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-977073

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To evaluate the surgical outcomes of a perfluoro-n-octane (PFO)-assisted superior inverted internal limiting membrane (ILM) flap without the peeling-off technique for the treatment of a large macular hole (MH). @*Methods@#This retrospective interventional case series examined 13 eyes with a MH ≥ 400 μm. All eyes underwent 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy. An ILM flap stained with 0.025% brilliant blue G was made in the superior area of the hole. The ILM in the temporal, nasal, and inferior areas around the hole was not peeled off. The hole was gently covered using the inverted ILM flap, which was stabilized using a small amount of PFO. Fluidair exchange was performed slowly. The small amount of residual PFO was removed by evaporation. The patients were instructed to maintain a facedown position for 1 day postoperatively. Anatomical closure of the hole and visual acuity were assessed postoperatively. @*Results@#The average hole size was 605.08 ± 102.41 μm. Nine eyes had an idiopathic MH, two exhibited age-related macular degeneration, and one each had high myopia and a traumatic MH. All eyes achieved type I closure. The foveal contour improved gradually during follow-up: 92.3% of eyes had a U-shaped fovea, and 61.5% exhibited complete recovery of the ellipsoid zone. The visual acuity improved from 0.91 to 0.55 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (p = 0.003). @*Conclusions@#The PFO-assisted superior inverted ILM flap without peeling-off was effective for stabilizing the flap over the hole and consequently achieving good anatomical and visual outcomes in large MHs.

7.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 248-253, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002964

ABSTRACT

Achalasia, a rare motility disorder of the esophagus, is generally accepted as a premalignant disorder. This paper presents the case of a 72-year-old male with achalasia and synchronous superficial esophageal cancer who experienced dysphagia symptoms for five years. As achalasia is associated with an increased risk of esophageal cancer, both can be treated simultaneously if detected at the time of diagnosis. Achalasia and synchronous esophageal cancer are rarely detected and treated endoscopically. This paper reports a case of concurrent successful treatment.

8.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 254-260, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002963

ABSTRACT

Colorectal strictures are uncommon in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). An extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is rarely involved in the colon but may be associated with inflammatory bowel diseases. A 41-year-old female with a six-year history of UC presented with a severe stricture of the sigmoid colon that prevented the passage of a colonoscope. A histological examination revealed non-specific inflammation and fibrosis without dysplasia or cancer.Despite conventional treatment, including mesalazine and azathioprine for one year after that visit, the stricture persisted. In addition, diffuse, edematous exudative inflammation and multiple shallow ulcers were observed in the distal rectum, revealing a MALT lymphoma testing positive for CD20, CD43, CD5, and Bcl-2, but negative for CD3, CD10, CD23, and cyclin-D1. Four weekly doses of rituximab were administered. Follow-up colonoscopy performed one month after treatment revealed slight improvement in the rectal lesion without remnant histological evidence of a MALT lymphoma. In addition, the stricture showed marked improvement, and the colonoscope could pass easily through the stricture site. This is the first case report on an improvement of a severe sigmoid colon stricture in a patient with UC after rituximab treatment for a concomitant rectal MALT lymphoma.

9.
Ultrasonography ; : 265-274, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969229

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study compared two different two-dimensional shear wave elastography techniques—plane wave imaging (PWI) and multi-beam (MB) imaging—from the same vendor to evaluate liver fibrosis. @*Methods@#In this prospective study, 42 patients with chronic liver disease who had recently undergone magnetic resonance elastography (<3 months) were enrolled, and their liver stiffness (LS) values were measured using PWI or MB. The LS values (kPa) were compared using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Inter-technique reproducibility and intra-observer repeatability were assessed using Bland-Altman analysis with 95% limits of agreement (LOA) and coefficients of variation (CVs). The cutoff values for predicting severe fibrosis (≥F3) were estimated using receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis, with magnetic resonance elastography as the reference standard. @*Results@#PWI exhibited technical failure in four patients. Therefore, 38 patients underwent both examinations. The LS values showed moderate agreement between PWI and MB (CV, 22.5%) and 95% LOA of -3.71 to 7.44 kPa. The MB technique showed good intra-observer agreement (CV, 8.1%), while PWI showed moderate agreement (CV, 11.0%). The cutoff values of PWI and MB for diagnosing ≥F3 were 12.3 kPa and 13.8 kPa, respectively, with areas under the ROC curve of 0.89 and 0.95 (sensitivity, 100% and 100%; specificity, 65.6% and 85.7%). @*Conclusion@#The LS values significantly differed between PWI and MB, hindering their interchangeable use in longitudinal follow-up. Considering its low technical failure rate and better repeatability, the MB technique may be preferable for evaluating liver fibrosis in chronic liver disease patients.

10.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 1-16, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968702

ABSTRACT

The introduction of device-assisted enteroscopy (DAE) in the beginning of the 21st century has revolutionized the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the small intestine. In contrast to capsule endoscopy, the other main diagnostic modality of small bowel diseases, DAE has the unique advantages of allowing the observation of the region of interest in detail and enabling tissue acquisition and therapeutic intervention. As DAE becomes an essential procedure in daily clinical practice, there is an increasing need for correct guidelines on when and how it is to be performed and what technical factors should be taken into consideration. In response to these needs, the Korean Association for the Study of Intestinal Diseases has developed an expert consensus statement on the performance of DAE by reviewing current evidence. This expert consensus statement particularly focuses on the indications, choice of insertion route, therapeutic intervention, complications, and relevant technical points.

11.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 39-50, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968264

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To assess the contrast-enhanced CT and ultrasonography (US) findings of intracholecystic papillary neoplasm (ICPN) and determine the imaging features predicting ICPN associated with invasive carcinoma (ICPN-IC). @*Materials and Methods@#In this retrospective study, we enrolled 119 consecutive patients, including 60 male and 59 female, with a mean age ± standard deviation of 63.3 ± 12.1 years, who had pathologically confirmed ICPN (low-grade dysplasia [DP] = 34, high-grade DP = 35, IC = 50) and underwent preoperative CT or US. Two radiologists independently assessed the CT and US findings, focusing on wall and polypoid lesion characteristics. The likelihood of ICPN-IC was graded on a 5-point scale. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify significant predictors of ICPN-IC separately for wall and polypoid lesion findings. The performances of CT and US in distinguishing ICPN-IC from ICPN with dysplasia (ICPN-DP) was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). @*Results@#For wall characteristics, the maximum wall thickness (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1–1.9) and mucosal discontinuity (aOR = 5.6; 95% CI: 1.3–23.4) on CT were independently associated with ICPN-IC.Among 119 ICPNs, 110 (92.4%) showed polypoid lesions. Regarding polypoid lesion findings, multiplicity (aOR = 4.0; 95% CI: 1.6–10.4), lesion base wall thickening (aOR = 6.0; 95% CI: 2.3–15.8) on CT, and polyp size (aOR = 1.1; 95% CI: 1.0–1.2) on US were independently associated with ICPN-IC. CT showed a higher diagnostic performance than US in predicting ICPN-IC (AUC = 0.793 vs. 0.676; p = 0.002). @*Conclusion@#ICPN showed polypoid lesions and/or wall thickening on CT or US. A thick wall, multiplicity, presence of wall thickening in the polypoid lesion base, and large polyp size are imaging findings independently associated with invasive cancer and may be useful for differentiating ICPN-IC from ICPN-DP

12.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 86-94, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968263

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To compare Octopus multipurpose (MP) electrodes, which are capable of saline instillation and direct tissue temperature measurement, and conventional electrodes for radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in porcine livers in vivo. @*Materials and Methods@#Sixteen pigs were used in this study. In the first experiment, RFA was performed in the liver for 6 minutes using Octopus MP electrodes (n = 15 ablation zones) and conventional electrodes (n = 12 ablation zones) to investigate the effect of saline instillation. The ablation energy, electrical impedance, and ablation volume of the two electrodes were compared. In the second experiment, RFA was performed near the gallbladder (GB) and colon using Octopus MP electrodes (n = 12 ablation zones for each) with direct tissue temperature monitoring and conventional electrodes (n = 11 ablation zones for each). RFA was discontinued when the temperature increased to > 60°C in the Octopus MP electrode group, whereas RFA was performed for a total of 6 minutes in the conventional electrode group. Thermal injury was assessed and compared between the two groups by pathological examination. @*Results@#In the first experiment, the ablation volume and total energy delivered in the Octopus MP electrode group were significantly larger than those in the conventional electrode group (15.7 ± 4.26 cm3 vs. 12.5 ± 2.14 cm3 , p = 0.027; 5.48 ± 0.49 Kcal vs. 5.04 ± 0.49 Kcal, p = 0.029). In the second experiment, thermal injury to the GB and colon was less frequently noted in the Octopus MP electrode group than that in the conventional electrode group (16.7% [2/12] vs. 90.9% [10/11] for GB and 8.3% [1/12] vs. 90.9% [10/11] for colon, p < 0.001 for all). The total energy delivered around the GB (2.65 ± 1.07 Kcal vs. 5.04 ± 0.66 Kcal) and colon (2.58 ± 0.57 Kcal vs. 5.17 ± 0.90 Kcal) were significantly lower in the Octopus MP electrode group than that in the conventional electrode group (p < 0.001 for all). @*Conclusion@#RFA using the Octopus MP electrodes induced a larger ablation volume and resulted in less thermal injury to the adjacent organs compared with conventional electrodes.

13.
Journal of Bone Metabolism ; : 69-75, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967051

ABSTRACT

Background@#We evaluated the protective effects of melatonin against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced deterioration of bone microarchitecture using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT). @*Methods@#Four-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were divided into control (chow diet group), HFD, and HFD + melatonin-administered groups. Mice were sacrificed after 14 weeks, and the right femur was extracted. The microskeletal structure of the femur was analyzed using SkyScan1173 (version 1.6). A 3-dimensional image was reconstructed using the Nrecon (version 1.7.0.4) program. @*Results@#Bone volume (BV) was significantly increased in the HFD group compared with that in the normal diet group, and that of the melatonin group also increased significantly compared with BV of the normal diet group (p<0.05). Percent BV/total volume [TV] and bone surface/BV were significantly higher in both the HFD and melatonin groups than in the normal diet group (p<0.05), and the melatonin group had the highest BV/total volume (TV). BMD was lower in the HFD than in the normal diet group and was the highest in the melatonin group. @*Conclusions@#This study shows that melatonin inhibited the deterioration of microarchitecture induced by a HFD. A better understanding of the protective effect of melatonin on bone microarchitecture and mechanisms could provide fracture prevention for people who are obese.

14.
Intestinal Research ; : 3-19, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967001

ABSTRACT

The introduction of device-assisted enteroscopy (DAE) in the beginning of 21st century has revolutionized the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the small intestine. In contrast to capsule endoscopy, the other main diagnostic modality of the small bowel diseases, DAE has the unique advantages of observing the region of interest in detail and enabling tissue acquisition and therapeutic intervention. As DAE becomes an essential procedure in daily clinical practice, there is an increasing need for correct guidelines on when and how to perform it and what technical factors should be considered. In response to these needs, the Korean Association for the Study of Intestinal Diseases developed an expert consensus statement on the performance of DAE by reviewing the current evidence. This expert consensus statement particularly focuses on the indications, choice of insertion route, therapeutic intervention, complications, and relevant technical points.

15.
Kosin Medical Journal ; : 320-341, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968292

ABSTRACT

Background@#Radiotherapy improves overall survival in patients with abdominopelvic malignancies. However, the toxic effects of radiation restrict the maximum dose that can be given, and there are no well-established preventive or therapeutic strategies. This study was conducted to evaluate whether rebamipide, sucralfate, and rifaximin have a suppressive effect on acute ionizing radiation (IR)-induced inflammation in the intestines of mice. @*Methods@#Thirty-six ICR mice were divided into a vehicle-treated group with sham irradiation; a vehicle-treated group with irradiation; rebamipide, sucralfate, or rifaximin-treated groups with irradiation; and a rebamipide-treated group with sham irradiation. The expression of proinflammatory, anti-inflammatory, proapoptotic, and antiapoptotic factors was investigated. @*Results@#The downregulated expression of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase by IR was attenuated by all drugs (p<0.05). All drugs suppressed the IR-induced activation of NF-κB and phosphorylation of MAPKs (p<0.05) and attenuated the production of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in response to IR (p<0.05). The administration of all drugs markedly attenuated IR-induced increases in iNOS, COX-2, and PGE2 (p<0.05), as well as [Ca2+] oscillations that were increased by IR. The expression of proapoptotic genes and antiapoptotic genes was suppressed and induced, respectively, by all drugs. IR treatment increased the release of cytochrome C, which was attenuated by all drugs (p<0.05). All drug treatments resulted in a significant decrease in the expression of caspase-3 and caspase-7 (p<0.05), which were both upregulated following IR treatment. @*Conclusions@#The administration of rebamipide, sucralfate, or rifaximin prior to radiation therapy may prevent or attenuate acute radiation-induced enterocolitis.

16.
Korean Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery ; : 362-365, 2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938737

ABSTRACT

Synovial chondromatosis (SC) is a rare disease involving long bones, rarely affecting the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). It can manifest as preauricular swelling, pain, and joint dysfunction. This report represents the case of acquired atresia of external auditory canal in association with SC of TMJ. Active evaluation and treatment of TMJ pathology seem essential when addressing the acquired atresia of external auditory canal.

17.
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 566-570, 2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938304

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To report two cases of malignant glaucoma after Ahmed valve implantation.Case summary: (Case 1) A 76-year-old female with angle closure glaucoma in the right eye underwent Ahmed valve implantation. To reduce the risk of corneal endothelial failure, the tube tip was located in the sulcus. Eight days after surgery, surgical iridectomy was performed due to intraocular pressure elevation and a shallow anterior chamber. Three weeks later, vitrectomy was performed due to intraocular pressure elevation with a shallow anterior chamber. Recurrent intraocular pressure elevation was resolved after tip reposition into the vitreous cavity. (Case 2) A 93-year-old female with pseudoexfoliation glaucoma underwent Ahmed valve implantation in the left eye. Five days after surgery, the intraocular pressure increased with a shallow anterior chamber; the remnant cortex and prolapsed vitreous body were present in the anterior chamber. She underwent anterior chamber washing and surgical iridectomy; however, the increase in intraocular pressure with a shallow anterior chamber worsened after 1 month; thus, anterior vitrectomy was performed. @*Conclusions@#Malignant glaucoma after Ahmed valve implantation is considered very rare. However, if risk factors such as short axial length, zonular weakness, old age, or female gender are present, as in these cases, there may be an increased risk of malignant glaucoma developing after Ahmed valve implantation.

18.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 475-486, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937425

ABSTRACT

Background@#Current evidence support that the gut microbiota plays a potential role in obesity. Bariatric surgery can reduce excess weight and decrease the risk of life-threatening weight-related health problems and may also influence gut microbiota. In this study, we aimed to investigate the changes in gut microbiota before and after bariatric surgery and evaluate the association of the gut microbial shift and altered body mass index (BMI) after bariatric surgery. @*Methods@#Between January 2019 and July 2020, stools from 58 patients scheduled for bariatric surgery were collected. Six months after bariatric surgery, stools from 22 of these patients were re-collected, and the changes in gut microbiota before and after bariatric surgery were evaluated. In addition, the differences in gut microbiota between patients with severe obesity (BMI >35 kg/m2, n=42) and healthy volunteers with normal BMI (18.8 to 22.8 kg/m2, n=41) were investigated. @*Results@#The gut microbiota of patients who underwent bariatric surgery showed increased α-diversity and differed β-diversity compared with those before surgery. Interestingly, Blautia was decreased and Bacteriodes was increased at the genus level after bariatric surgery. Further, the Blautia/Bacteroides ratio showed a positive correlation with BMI. To validate these results, we compared the gut microbiota from severely obese patients with high BMI with those from healthy volunteers and demonstrated that the Blautia/Bacteroides ratio correlated positively with BMI. @*Conclusion@#In the gut microbial analysis of patients who underwent bariatric surgery, we presented that the Blautia/Bacteroides ratio had changed after bariatric surgery and showed a positive correlation with BMI.

19.
Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism ; : 134-141, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937166

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Metabolically healthy overweight/obesity (MHO) and metabolically unhealthy overweight/obesity (MUO) are distinct clinical phenotypes classified by the presence of cardiometabolic risk factors in an individual. In the present study, we investigated temporal trends in the prevalence of MHO in Korean adolescents using nationally representative data. @*Methods@#Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011–2019 were used in this study. A total of 5,667 adolescents (3,014 boys, 53.2%) aged 10–18 years was included in this study. MHO was defined as a body mass index ≥85th percentile for the corresponding age and sex and absence of any cardiometabolic risk factors. @*Results@#The prevalence of overweight/obesity showed an increasing trend from 18.8% (boys 17.3% and girls 20.6%) in 2011 to 23.7% (boys 24.0% and girls 23.5%) in 2019 (p for trend=0.045). The overall prevalence of MHO during 2011–2019 was 39.2%, which was higher in girls than in boys (boys 33.5%, girls 46.2%, p<0.001), and the change in prevalence of MHO from 2011 to 2019 (from 34.8% to 35.7%) was not significant. Among MUO, the most prevalent cardiometabolic risk factor was dysglycemia (48.8%), followed by elevated blood pressure (41.5%), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (35.0%), and high triglycerides (29.7%). @*Conclusion@#We observed a high prevalence of MHO in Korean youth with overweight/obesity. Although the prevalence of overweight/obesity increased, the prevalence of MHO was stable during 2011-2019. A risk-stratified approach based on metabolic health status can help reducing the medical and socioeconomic costs associated with obesity treatment.

20.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 304-312, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926999

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Helicobacter pylori infection is presumably associated with iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia (IDA). This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between H. pylori infection and the decline in iron stores in non-elderly adults during their health check-ups. @*Methods@#We identified a total of 1,069 subjects who were tested for iron, ferritin, and total iron-binding capacity during their health check-ups, from January 2016 to May 2017. Of these, subjects who underwent endoscopy via rapid urease test and those aged 65 years or below were finally enrolled. @*Results@#Overall, 281 subjects were enrolled, and 187 patients (66.5%) tested positive for H. pylori. The mean age was 36.1 years (range, 22 to 65), and 176 subjects (62.6%) were male. The mean levels of hemoglobin (14.1 ± 1.7 g/dL vs. 14.6 ± 1.4 g/dL, p = 0.019) and ferritin (121.7 ± 106.9 ng/mL vs. 151.8 ± 107.8 ng/mL, p = 0.027) in the H. pylori-positive group were significantly lower than those in the H. pylori-negative group. Iron deficiency (ferritin < 30 ng/mL) was more common in patients with H. pylori infection (p = 0.002). There was no significant difference in anemia (hemoglobin < 13 g/dL in men, < 12 g/dL in women) or IDA (anemia, ferritin < 10 ng/mL, and transferrin saturation < 16%) with H. pylori. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that female sex (odds ratio, 197.559; 95% confidence interval, 26.461 to 1,475.015) and H. pylori infection (odds ratio, 3.033; 95% confidence interval, 1.216 to 7.567) were factors associated with iron deficiency. @*Conclusions@#H. pylori infection is associated with iron deficiency, suggesting a decline in iron stores among infected non-elderly adults.

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