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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900141

ABSTRACT

Objective@#: The widely accepted treatment option of a traumatic carotid cavernous fistula (TCCF) has been detachable balloon or coils based fistula occlusion. Recently, covered stent implantation has been proving an excellent results. The purpose of this study is to investigate our experiences with first line choice of covered stent implantation for TCCF at level 1 regional trauma center. @*Methods@#: From November 2004 to February 2020, 19 covered stents were used for treatment of 19 TCCF patients. Among them, 15 cases were first line treatment using covered stents. Clinical and angiographic data were retrospectively reviewed. @*Results@#: Procedures were technically successful in all 15 cases (100%). Immediate angiographic results after procedure were total occlusion in 12 patients (80%). All patients except two expired patients had image follow-up (mean 15 months). Recurred symptomatic three patients underwent additional treatments and achieved complete occlusion. Mean clinical follow-up duration was 32 months and results were modified Rankin Scale 1–2 in five, 3–4 in five, and 5 in three patients. @*Conclusion@#: The covered stent could be considered as fist line treatment option for treating TCCF patients especially in unstable vital sign. Larger samples and expanded follow-up are required to further develop their specifications and indications.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892437

ABSTRACT

Objective@#: The widely accepted treatment option of a traumatic carotid cavernous fistula (TCCF) has been detachable balloon or coils based fistula occlusion. Recently, covered stent implantation has been proving an excellent results. The purpose of this study is to investigate our experiences with first line choice of covered stent implantation for TCCF at level 1 regional trauma center. @*Methods@#: From November 2004 to February 2020, 19 covered stents were used for treatment of 19 TCCF patients. Among them, 15 cases were first line treatment using covered stents. Clinical and angiographic data were retrospectively reviewed. @*Results@#: Procedures were technically successful in all 15 cases (100%). Immediate angiographic results after procedure were total occlusion in 12 patients (80%). All patients except two expired patients had image follow-up (mean 15 months). Recurred symptomatic three patients underwent additional treatments and achieved complete occlusion. Mean clinical follow-up duration was 32 months and results were modified Rankin Scale 1–2 in five, 3–4 in five, and 5 in three patients. @*Conclusion@#: The covered stent could be considered as fist line treatment option for treating TCCF patients especially in unstable vital sign. Larger samples and expanded follow-up are required to further develop their specifications and indications.

3.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834700

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Leiomyosarcoma is a malignant neoplasm that affects smooth muscle tissue and it is very rare in the field of oral and maxillofcial surgery.The purpose of this study was to obtain information on diagnosis of and treatment methods for leiomyosarcoma by retrospectively reviewing of the cases. @*Patients and Methods@#The study included nine patients who were diagnosed with leiomyosarcoma in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at Seoul National University Dental Hospital. The subjects were analyzed with respect to sex, age, clinical features, primary site of disease, treatment method, recurrence, and metastasis. @*Results@#Particular clinical features included pain, edema, mouth-opening limitations, dysesthesia, and enlarged lymph nodes. All cases except one were surgically treated, and recurrence was found in two cases. Four of nine patients were followed up without recurrence and one patient underwent additional surgery due to recurrence. @*Conclusion@#In our case series, notable symptoms included pain, edema, mouth-opening limitations, and dysesthesia; however, it was difficult to label these as specific symptoms of leiomyosarcoma. Considering the aggressive characteristics of the disease and poor prognosis, surgical treatment is necessary with careful consideration of postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

4.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833817

ABSTRACT

A survey of rodents and chiggers associated with Orientia tsutsugamushi was conducted in a rural region of the Republic of Korea (Korea) between 2014 and 2018. Overall Apodemus agrarius 15.2% had the highest seropisitive for O. tsutsugamushi, followed by Myodes regulus 11.4%. Monthly risk factors using logistic regression analysis were not associated with O. tsutsugamushi infections in rodents. The overall prevalence rate of O. tsutsugamushi among chiggers was 0.3%. The chigger (Leptotrombidium scutellare) and monthly (October) risk factors were associated with O. tsutsugamushi human infections (P<0.05). Orientia tsutsugamushi infections are endemic in rodents in Korea and people, for example, soldiers who are active outdoors, must employ preventive measures, especially during October (P<0.05). When there are many reports of O. tsutsugamushi infections in Korea. The Boryong strain 85.7% (2/14) was the most common strain detected in chiggers, followed by the Shimokoshi 7.1% (1/14) and Karp 7.1% strains.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917974

ABSTRACT

Traumatic retropharyngeal hematoma is a potentially life-threatening complication of cervical spine injury due to possible airway obstruction. Treatment by securing airway and subsequent conservative care is often adequate. However, a rapidly expanding large hematoma requires surgical evacuation. We present a case of 55-year-old man with a retropharyngeal hematoma secondary to cervical vascular injury without associated cervical fracture. The patient was successfully treated with endovascular arterial embolization and subsequent percutaneous drainage under fluoroscopic guidance without any sequelae.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785928

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Endovascular coiling of ruptured tiny aneurysms (RTAs) in the brain has been known to be technically challenging owing to the higher rate of adverse events, such as thromboembolism and intraoperative rupture. The aim of this study was to report our ex-periences of endovascular treatment of RTAs (size, ≤3 mm).METHODS: From January 2006 to December 2017, 35 RTAs in 35 patients were treated at our institution with an endosaccular coiling. Procedural data and clinical and angiographic results were retrospectively reviewed.RESULTS: The mean size of the RTAs was 2.53 mm (SD: 0.38). The neck remodeling technique was applied to 14 aneurysms, including stent-assisted coiling (n=7) and balloon-assisted coiling (n=7). Procedure-related complications included intraprocedural rupture (n=2), thromboembolic event (n=1), and early rebleeding (n=2), which needed recoiling. Regarding immediate angiographic control, complete occlusion was achieved in 25 aneurysms (71.4%), small neck remnant in 5 (14.3%), and definite remnant in 5 (14.3%). At the end of follow-up, 31 of the 35 patients (88.6%) were able to function independently. Twenty-two of the 35 patients underwent follow-up conventional angiography (mean, 468 days). Stable occlusion was achieved in 20 of the 22 patients (90.9%), minor recanalization in 1 (4.5%), and major recanalization, which required recoiling, in 1 (4.5%).CONCLUSION: Our experiences demonstrate that endovascular treatment for RTAs is both feasible and effective. However, periprocedural rebleedings were found to occur more often (11.4%) than what is generally suspected.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Angiography , Brain , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Intracranial Aneurysm , Neck , Retrospective Studies , Rupture , Thromboembolism
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785329

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The anatomy of middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms has been noted to be unfavorable for endovascular treatment. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and efficacy of coiling for MCA aneurysms.METHODS: From January 2004 to December 2015, 72 MCA aneurysms (38 unruptured and 34 ruptured) in 67 patients were treated with coils. Treatment-related complications, clinical outcomes, and immediate and follow-up angiographic outcomes were retrospectively analyzed.RESULTS: Aneurysms were located at the MCA bifurcation (n=60), 1st segment (M1, n=8), and 2nd segment (M2, n=4). Sixty-nine aneurysms (95.8%) were treated by neck remodeling techniques using multi-catheter (n=44), balloon (n=14), stent (n=8), or combination of these (n=3). Only 3 aneurysms were treated by single-catheter technique. Angiographic results were 66 (91.7%) complete, 5 (6.9%) remnant neck, and 1 (1.4%) incomplete occlusion. Procedural complications included aneurysm rupture (n=1), asymptomatic coil migration to the distal vessel (n=1), and acute thromboembolism (n=10) consisting of 8 asymptomatic and 2 symptomatic events. Treatment-related permanent morbidity and mortality rates were 4.5% and 3.0%, respectively. There was no bleeding on clinical follow-up (mean, 29 months; range, 6-108 months). Follow-up angiographic results (mean, 26 months; range, 6-96 months) in patients included 1 major and 3 minor recanalizations.CONCLUSION: Coiling of MCA aneurysms could be a technically feasible and clinically effective treatment strategy with acceptable angiographic and clinical outcomes. However, the safety and efficacy of this technique as compared to surgical clipping remains to be ascertained.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Embolization, Therapeutic , Follow-Up Studies , Hemorrhage , Humans , Intracranial Aneurysm , Middle Cerebral Artery , Mortality , Neck , Retrospective Studies , Rupture , Stents , Surgical Instruments , Thromboembolism
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788794

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Recently, three-dimensional (3D) printed models of the intracranial vascular have served as useful tools in simulation and training for cerebral aneurysm clipping surgery. Precise and realistic 3D printed aneurysm models may improve patients’ understanding of the 3D cerebral aneurysm structure. Therefore, we created patient-specific 3D printed aneurysm models as an educational and clinical tool for patients undergoing aneurysm clipping surgery. Herein, we describe how these 3D models can be created and the effects of applying them for patient education purpose.METHODS: Twenty patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysm were randomly divided into two groups. We explained and received informed consent from patients in whom 3D printed models-(group I) or computed tomography angiography-(group II) was used to explain aneurysm clipping surgery. The 3D printed intracranial aneurysm models were created based on time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography using a 3D printer with acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene resin as the model material. After describing the model to the patients, they completed a questionnaire about their understanding and satisfaction with aneurysm clipping surgery.RESULTS: The 3D printed models were successfully made, and they precisely replicated the actual intracranial aneurysm structure of the corresponding patients. The use of the 3D model was associated with a higher understanding and satisfaction of preoperative patient education and consultation. On a 5-point Likert scale, the average level of understanding was scored as 4.7 (range, 3.0–5.0) in group I. In group II, the average response was 2.5 (range, 2.0–3.0).CONCLUSION: The 3D printed models were accurate and useful for understanding the intracranial aneurysm structure. In this study, 3D printed intracranial aneurysm models were proven to be helpful in preoperative patient consultation.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Humans , Informed Consent , Intracranial Aneurysm , Magnetic Resonance Angiography , Patient Education as Topic , Printing, Three-Dimensional
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788789

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Bone mineral density (BMD) is an important consideration during fusion surgery. Although dual X-ray absorptiometry is considered as the gold standard for assessing BMD, quantitative computed tomography (QCT) provides more accurate data in spine osteoporosis. However, QCT has the disadvantage of additional radiation hazard and cost. The present study was to demonstrate the utility of artificial intelligence and machine learning algorithm for assessing osteoporosis using Hounsfield units (HU) of preoperative lumbar CT coupling with data of QCT.METHODS: We reviewed 70 patients undergoing both QCT and conventional lumbar CT for spine surgery. The T-scores of 198 lumbar vertebra was assessed in QCT and the HU of vertebral body at the same level were measured in conventional CT by the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) system. A multiple regression algorithm was applied to predict the T-score using three independent variables (age, sex, and HU of vertebral body on conventional CT) coupling with T-score of QCT. Next, a logistic regression algorithm was applied to predict osteoporotic or non-osteoporotic vertebra. The Tensor flow and Python were used as the machine learning tools. The Tensor flow user interface developed in our institute was used for easy code generation.RESULTS: The predictive model with multiple regression algorithm estimated similar T-scores with data of QCT. HU demonstrates the similar results as QCT without the discordance in only one non-osteoporotic vertebra that indicated osteoporosis. From the training set, the predictive model classified the lumbar vertebra into two groups (osteoporotic vs. non-osteoporotic spine) with 88.0% accuracy. In a test set of 40 vertebrae, classification accuracy was 92.5% when the learning rate was 0.0001 (precision, 0.939; recall, 0.969; F1 score, 0.954; area under the curve, 0.900).CONCLUSION: This study is a simple machine learning model applicable in the spine research field. The machine learning model can predict the T-score and osteoporotic vertebrae solely by measuring the HU of conventional CT, and this would help spine surgeons not to under-estimate the osteoporotic spine preoperatively. If applied to a bigger data set, we believe the predictive accuracy of our model will further increase. We propose that machine learning is an important modality of the medical research field.


Subject(s)
Absorptiometry, Photon , Artificial Intelligence , Boidae , Bone Density , Classification , Dataset , Humans , Learning , Logistic Models , Machine Learning , Osteoporosis , Spine , Surgeons
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765367

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Recently, three-dimensional (3D) printed models of the intracranial vascular have served as useful tools in simulation and training for cerebral aneurysm clipping surgery. Precise and realistic 3D printed aneurysm models may improve patients’ understanding of the 3D cerebral aneurysm structure. Therefore, we created patient-specific 3D printed aneurysm models as an educational and clinical tool for patients undergoing aneurysm clipping surgery. Herein, we describe how these 3D models can be created and the effects of applying them for patient education purpose. METHODS: Twenty patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysm were randomly divided into two groups. We explained and received informed consent from patients in whom 3D printed models-(group I) or computed tomography angiography-(group II) was used to explain aneurysm clipping surgery. The 3D printed intracranial aneurysm models were created based on time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography using a 3D printer with acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene resin as the model material. After describing the model to the patients, they completed a questionnaire about their understanding and satisfaction with aneurysm clipping surgery. RESULTS: The 3D printed models were successfully made, and they precisely replicated the actual intracranial aneurysm structure of the corresponding patients. The use of the 3D model was associated with a higher understanding and satisfaction of preoperative patient education and consultation. On a 5-point Likert scale, the average level of understanding was scored as 4.7 (range, 3.0–5.0) in group I. In group II, the average response was 2.5 (range, 2.0–3.0). CONCLUSION: The 3D printed models were accurate and useful for understanding the intracranial aneurysm structure. In this study, 3D printed intracranial aneurysm models were proven to be helpful in preoperative patient consultation.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Humans , Informed Consent , Intracranial Aneurysm , Magnetic Resonance Angiography , Patient Education as Topic , Printing, Three-Dimensional
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765362

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Bone mineral density (BMD) is an important consideration during fusion surgery. Although dual X-ray absorptiometry is considered as the gold standard for assessing BMD, quantitative computed tomography (QCT) provides more accurate data in spine osteoporosis. However, QCT has the disadvantage of additional radiation hazard and cost. The present study was to demonstrate the utility of artificial intelligence and machine learning algorithm for assessing osteoporosis using Hounsfield units (HU) of preoperative lumbar CT coupling with data of QCT. METHODS: We reviewed 70 patients undergoing both QCT and conventional lumbar CT for spine surgery. The T-scores of 198 lumbar vertebra was assessed in QCT and the HU of vertebral body at the same level were measured in conventional CT by the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) system. A multiple regression algorithm was applied to predict the T-score using three independent variables (age, sex, and HU of vertebral body on conventional CT) coupling with T-score of QCT. Next, a logistic regression algorithm was applied to predict osteoporotic or non-osteoporotic vertebra. The Tensor flow and Python were used as the machine learning tools. The Tensor flow user interface developed in our institute was used for easy code generation. RESULTS: The predictive model with multiple regression algorithm estimated similar T-scores with data of QCT. HU demonstrates the similar results as QCT without the discordance in only one non-osteoporotic vertebra that indicated osteoporosis. From the training set, the predictive model classified the lumbar vertebra into two groups (osteoporotic vs. non-osteoporotic spine) with 88.0% accuracy. In a test set of 40 vertebrae, classification accuracy was 92.5% when the learning rate was 0.0001 (precision, 0.939; recall, 0.969; F1 score, 0.954; area under the curve, 0.900). CONCLUSION: This study is a simple machine learning model applicable in the spine research field. The machine learning model can predict the T-score and osteoporotic vertebrae solely by measuring the HU of conventional CT, and this would help spine surgeons not to under-estimate the osteoporotic spine preoperatively. If applied to a bigger data set, we believe the predictive accuracy of our model will further increase. We propose that machine learning is an important modality of the medical research field.


Subject(s)
Absorptiometry, Photon , Artificial Intelligence , Boidae , Bone Density , Classification , Dataset , Humans , Learning , Logistic Models , Machine Learning , Osteoporosis , Spine , Surgeons
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717708

ABSTRACT

Posterior fossa epidural hematoma (EDH) is uncommon, but the related clinical deterioration can occur suddenly. Accompanying venous sinus injury and lacerations are associated with 40% to 80% mortality. The authors present one clinical case of a patient with posterior fossa EDH from transverse sinus bleeding. A 57-year-old male was injured after falling while working. He was taken to the hospital, where computed tomography scans of his brain revealed a right posterior temporal and cerebellar EDH with a right temporo-occipital fracture. He underwent a right parieto-occipital craniotomy, incorporating the fracture line. Longitudinal laceration of the right transverse sinus extending to the sigmoid sinus with profuse bleeding was identified. Four gauzes were inserted in the epidural space for tamponade of the injured sinus. Conventional angiography and coil embolization for the injured sinus were immediately performed. Subsequently, the patient was transferred to the operating room, wherein staff members removed the gauzes and remnant hematoma. Based on this experience, the authors recommend that for posterior fossa EDH from transverse sinus bleeding, bleeding control should be performed by gauze packing and endovascular treatment.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls , Angiography , Brain , Colon, Sigmoid , Cranial Fossa, Posterior , Craniotomy , Embolization, Therapeutic , Epidural Space , Hematoma , Hematoma, Epidural, Cranial , Hemorrhage , Humans , Lacerations , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Operating Rooms
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788706

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Very large (20–25 mm) and giant (≥25 mm) intracranial aneurysms have an extremely poor natural course, and treatment of these aneurysms remains a challenge for endovascular and surgical strategies. This study was undertaken to describe our experiences of endosaccular treatment of very large and giant intracranial aneurysms with parent artery preservation.METHODS: From January 2005 to October 2016, twenty-four very large or giant aneurysms in 24 patients were treated by endosaccular coil embolization with parent artery preservation. Nine (37.5%) aneurysms were ruptured and 15 were unruptured, and of these 15, 11 were symptomatic cases and 4 were incidentally discovered. The cohort comprised 17 women and 7 men of mean age 58.5 years (range, 26–82). Mean aneurysm size was 26.0 mm (range, 20–39) and 13 of the 24 aneurysms were giant.RESULTS: Immediate angiographic results were complete occlusion in nine (37.5%) cases, remnant neck in six (25.0%), and remnant sac in nine (37.5%). Overall procedural related morbidity and mortality rates were 12.5% and 4.2%, respectively. Angiographic follow-up was available in 16 patients (66.7%). Mean and median follow-up periods were 27.2 (range, 2–77) and 10.5 months, respectively. In 12 cases (12/16, 75%) stable occlusion was achieved, four cases (4/16, 25%) had recanalized, and two of these were retreated with additional coiling. At clinical follow-up of the nine ruptured cases, three patients (33.3%) achieved a good clinical outcome (Glasgow outcome scale [GOS] score of 4 or 5), two (22.2%) a poor outcome (GOS score of 2 or 3), and four patients (44.4%) expired (GOS 1). On the other hand, of the 15 unruptured cases, 13 patients (86.7%) achieved a good clinical outcome (GOS 4 or 5), one patient a poor outcome (GOS score of 2 or 3), and one patient expired (GOS 1).CONCLUSION: The present study shows endosaccular treatment of very large or giant intracranial aneurysms with parent artery preservation is both feasible and effective with acceptable morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Arteries , Cohort Studies , Embolization, Therapeutic , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hand , Humans , Intracranial Aneurysm , Male , Mortality , Neck , Parents
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765276

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Very large (20–25 mm) and giant (≥25 mm) intracranial aneurysms have an extremely poor natural course, and treatment of these aneurysms remains a challenge for endovascular and surgical strategies. This study was undertaken to describe our experiences of endosaccular treatment of very large and giant intracranial aneurysms with parent artery preservation. METHODS: From January 2005 to October 2016, twenty-four very large or giant aneurysms in 24 patients were treated by endosaccular coil embolization with parent artery preservation. Nine (37.5%) aneurysms were ruptured and 15 were unruptured, and of these 15, 11 were symptomatic cases and 4 were incidentally discovered. The cohort comprised 17 women and 7 men of mean age 58.5 years (range, 26–82). Mean aneurysm size was 26.0 mm (range, 20–39) and 13 of the 24 aneurysms were giant. RESULTS: Immediate angiographic results were complete occlusion in nine (37.5%) cases, remnant neck in six (25.0%), and remnant sac in nine (37.5%). Overall procedural related morbidity and mortality rates were 12.5% and 4.2%, respectively. Angiographic follow-up was available in 16 patients (66.7%). Mean and median follow-up periods were 27.2 (range, 2–77) and 10.5 months, respectively. In 12 cases (12/16, 75%) stable occlusion was achieved, four cases (4/16, 25%) had recanalized, and two of these were retreated with additional coiling. At clinical follow-up of the nine ruptured cases, three patients (33.3%) achieved a good clinical outcome (Glasgow outcome scale [GOS] score of 4 or 5), two (22.2%) a poor outcome (GOS score of 2 or 3), and four patients (44.4%) expired (GOS 1). On the other hand, of the 15 unruptured cases, 13 patients (86.7%) achieved a good clinical outcome (GOS 4 or 5), one patient a poor outcome (GOS score of 2 or 3), and one patient expired (GOS 1). CONCLUSION: The present study shows endosaccular treatment of very large or giant intracranial aneurysms with parent artery preservation is both feasible and effective with acceptable morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Arteries , Cohort Studies , Embolization, Therapeutic , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hand , Humans , Intracranial Aneurysm , Male , Mortality , Neck , Parents
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-34431

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by a neoplastic proliferation of plasma cells primarily in the bone marrow. Bisphosphonates (BP) are used as supportive therapy in the management of MM. This study aimed to analyze the incidence, risk factors, and clinical outcomes of medication-related necrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) in MM patients. METHODS: One hundred thirty MM patients who had previous dental evaluations were retrospectively reviewed. Based on several findings, we applied the staging and treatment strategies on MRONJ. We analyzed gender, age, type of BP, incidence, and local etiological factors and assessed the relationship between these factors and the clinical findings at the first oral examination. RESULTS: MRONJ was found in nine male patients (6.9%). The mean patient age was 62.2 years. The median BP administration time was 19 months. Seven patients were treated with a combination of IV zoledronate and pamidronate, and two patients received single-agent therapy. The lesions were predominantly located in the mandible (n = 8), and the most common predisposing dental factor was a history of prior extraction (n = 6). Half of the MRONJ were related to diseases found on the initial dental screen. Patients with MRONJ were treated with infection control and antibiotic therapy. When comparing between the MRONJ stage and each factor (sign, location, etiologic factor, BP type, treatment, and outcome), there were no significant differences between stages, except for between the stage and sign (with or without purulence). CONCLUSIONS: For prevention of MRONJ, we recommend routine dental examinations and treatment prior to starting BP therapy.


Subject(s)
Bone Marrow , Diagnosis, Oral , Diphosphonates , Humans , Incidence , Infection Control , Jaw , Male , Mandible , Multiple Myeloma , Necrosis , Osteonecrosis , Plasma Cells , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-80643

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Recently, the number of patients who fell or jumped from bridges over Han River has rapidly increased. However, the injury patterns and outcomes of these patients have been poorly characterized. The aim of this study was to determine the injury characteristics of these patients. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of all patients who were transferred to the Emergency Room due to jumping or falling from bridges over Han River between 2011 and 2015. RESULTS: A total of 203 patients were included. Among them, 14 (6.9%) patients were dead on arrival, 51 (25.1%) patients were expired in the hospital, and 138 (70%) patients were discharged alive, including a patient who had severe neurologic sequelae after resuscitation. Skeletal and internal organ injuries were identified based on radiologic images. The most injured organ was thorax (58.1%), followed by spine (23.1%), abdomen (11.1%), extremity (7.7%), and cranium (5.2%). Chest tubing for pneumothorax or hemothorax was performed in four (2.9%) patients. Surgical intervention was needed for four patients (2.9%). CONCLUSION: Trauma patterns were concentrating on the thorax and spine regions. Therefore, complete radiographic evaluation should be performed for these patients.


Subject(s)
Abdomen , Accidental Falls , Drowning , Emergency Service, Hospital , Extremities , Hemothorax , Humans , Medical Records , Pneumothorax , Resuscitation , Rivers , Skull , Spinal Fractures , Spine , Thoracic Injuries , Thorax , Trauma Severity Indices
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-21721

ABSTRACT

Performing rhinoplasty using filler injections, which improve facial wrinkles or soft tissues, is relatively inexpensive. However, intravascular filler injections can cause severe complications, such as skin necrosis and visual loss. We describe a case of blepharoptosis and skin necrosis caused by augmentation rhinoplasty and we discuss the patient's clinical progress. We describe the case of a 25-year-old female patient who experienced severe pain, blepharoptosis, and decreased visual acuity immediately after receiving a filler injection. Our case suggests that surgeons should be aware of nasal vascularity before performing an operation, and that they should avoid injecting fillers at a high pressure and/or in excessive amounts. Additionally, filler injections should be stopped if the patient complains of severe pain, and appropriate measures should be taken to prevent complications caused by intravascular filler injections.


Subject(s)
Adult , Blepharoptosis , Dermal Fillers , Female , Humans , Hyaluronic Acid , Necrosis , Oculomotor Nerve Diseases , Oculomotor Nerve , Rhinoplasty , Skin , Surgeons , Visual Acuity
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759267

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To analyze the thickness of cement mantle at the bone cement interface in knees with closed and open box designs in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty cases of TKA were performed from October 2013 to March 2014. The average age of the patients was 68.4 years. All patients were women and they were divided into two groups: group I with a closed box implant (PS150 RP, n=40) and group II with an open box implant (LPS-Flex, n=40). We measured the cement mantle thickness at the bone cement interface from the distal femur and proximal tibia. If the thickness was >1 mm, it was considered an outlier. RESULTS: The mean cement mantle thickness at the interface was 1.4 mm in the distal femur and 0.8 mm in the proximal tibia. The value exceed 1 mm in 40 cases (50%) in the distal femur and in 6 cases (7.5%) in the proximal tibia (p<0.001). The mean cement mantle thickness measured in the distal femur was 1.7 mm in group I and 1.0 mm in group II. The value exceed 1 mm in 32 cases (80%) in group I and in 8 cases (20%) in group II (p<0.000). CONCLUSIONS: The cement mantle at the interface was thicker in the knees with the closed box implant than those with the open box implant in TKA, especially in the distal femoral area. A thick cement mantle at the interface should be avoided because it affects the gap balance. In case of using a closed box implant in TKA, cementing should be performed with extra care.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , Female , Femur , Humans , Knee , Tibia
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-71418

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the endometrial pathologic lesions in premenopausal breast cancer patients with a history of tamoxifen (TMX) use. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 120 premenopausal breast cancer patients with a history of TMX use that had undergone a gynecological examination. RESULTS: Among 120 patients, 44.2% (n=53) were asymptomatic with an endometrial thickness ≥5 mm, as assessed by transvaginal ultrasonography. Of the patients that reported abnormal uterine bleeding, 5% (n=6) had an endometrial thickness <5 mm and 20% (n=24) had an endometrial thickness ≥5 mm by transvaginal ultrasonography. The final group of patients were asymptomatic, but showed an abnormal endometrial lesion, such as an endometrial polyp, by transvaginal ultrasonography (30.8%, n=37). Of the 56 benign lesions that were histologically reviewed, 50 (41.7%) were endometrial polyps, 3 (2.5%) were submucosal myomas, 2 (1.7%) were endometrial hyperplasias, and 1 (0.8%) was chronic endometritis. There were 64 (53.3%) other non-pathologic conditions, including secreting, proliferative, and atrophic endometrium, or in some cases, there was insufficient material for diagnosis. In our data, only one case was reported as a complex hyperplasia without atypia arising from an endometrial polyp, and one patient was diagnosed with endometrioid adenocarcinoma. CONCLUSION: For premenopausal breast cancer patients with a history of TMX use, the majority of the patients were asymptomatic, and endometrial polyps were the most common endometrial pathology observed. Therefore, we believe that endometrial assessment before starting TMX treatment, and regular endometrial screening throughout TMX treatment, are reasonable suggestions for premenopausal breast cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Carcinoma, Endometrioid , Diagnosis , Endometrial Hyperplasia , Endometritis , Endometrium , Female , Gynecological Examination , Humans , Hyperplasia , Hysteroscopy , Mass Screening , Medical Records , Myoma , Pathology , Polyps , Retrospective Studies , Tamoxifen , Ultrasonography , Uterine Hemorrhage
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