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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900018

ABSTRACT

Background@#Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has a negative impact on growth and development in children and is a risk factor for neurocognitive impairment; however, there is limited research on the cognitive function of children and adolescents with CKD. This study therefore aimed to investigate the mean intelligence and risk factors for low intelligence in children and adolescents with CKD. @*Methods@#Eighty-one patients with CKD under 18 years old were included in the KoreaN cohort study for Outcomes in patients With Pediatric Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-Ped CKD). Participants completed either the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (6–16 years), or Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (> 16 years). @*Results@#The mean full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) was 91 ± 19; 24.7% of participants scored a full-scale IQ below 80. Participants with a short stature (height Z scores < −1.88), failure to thrive (weight Z scores < −1.65), more severe CKD stage (≥ IIIb), longer duration of CKD (≥ 5 years), and those who were Medicare or Medicaid beneficiaries, had significantly lower mean full-scale IQs. @*Conclusion@#On linear regression analysis, the association between the full-scale IQ, and longer duration of CKD and growth failure, remained significant after controlling for demographic and clinical variables. It is therefore necessary to investigate cognitive impairment in pediatric patients with CKD who exhibit growth failure or for a longer postmorbid period. It is believed that early interventions, such as kidney transplantation, will have a positive effect on IQ in children with CKD, as the disease negatively affects IQ due to poor glomerular filtration rate over time.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892314

ABSTRACT

Background@#Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has a negative impact on growth and development in children and is a risk factor for neurocognitive impairment; however, there is limited research on the cognitive function of children and adolescents with CKD. This study therefore aimed to investigate the mean intelligence and risk factors for low intelligence in children and adolescents with CKD. @*Methods@#Eighty-one patients with CKD under 18 years old were included in the KoreaN cohort study for Outcomes in patients With Pediatric Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-Ped CKD). Participants completed either the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (6–16 years), or Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (> 16 years). @*Results@#The mean full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) was 91 ± 19; 24.7% of participants scored a full-scale IQ below 80. Participants with a short stature (height Z scores < −1.88), failure to thrive (weight Z scores < −1.65), more severe CKD stage (≥ IIIb), longer duration of CKD (≥ 5 years), and those who were Medicare or Medicaid beneficiaries, had significantly lower mean full-scale IQs. @*Conclusion@#On linear regression analysis, the association between the full-scale IQ, and longer duration of CKD and growth failure, remained significant after controlling for demographic and clinical variables. It is therefore necessary to investigate cognitive impairment in pediatric patients with CKD who exhibit growth failure or for a longer postmorbid period. It is believed that early interventions, such as kidney transplantation, will have a positive effect on IQ in children with CKD, as the disease negatively affects IQ due to poor glomerular filtration rate over time.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921342

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Previous studies have shown that meteorological factors may increase COVID-19 mortality, likely due to the increased transmission of the virus. However, this could also be related to an increased infection fatality rate (IFR). We investigated the association between meteorological factors (temperature, humidity, solar irradiance, pressure, wind, precipitation, cloud coverage) and IFR across Spanish provinces ( @*Methods@#We estimated IFR as excess deaths (the gap between observed and expected deaths, considering COVID-19-unrelated deaths prevented by lockdown measures) divided by the number of infections (SARS-CoV-2 seropositive individuals plus excess deaths) and conducted Spearman correlations between meteorological factors and IFR across the provinces.@*Results@#We estimated 2,418,250 infections and 43,237 deaths. The IFR was 0.03% in < 50-year-old, 0.22% in 50-59-year-old, 0.9% in 60-69-year-old, 3.3% in 70-79-year-old, 12.6% in 80-89-year-old, and 26.5% in ≥ 90-year-old. We did not find statistically significant relationships between meteorological factors and adjusted IFR. However, we found strong relationships between low temperature and unadjusted IFR, likely due to Spain's colder provinces' aging population.@*Conclusion@#The association between meteorological factors and adjusted COVID-19 IFR is unclear. Neglecting age differences or ignoring COVID-19-unrelated deaths may severely bias COVID-19 epidemiological analyses.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Meteorological Concepts , Middle Aged , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spain/epidemiology , Weather , Young Adult
4.
Korean Medical Education Review ; (3): 168-175, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918369

ABSTRACT

To analyze medical professors’ evaluation of their online education experiences in an attempt to support faculty members and indicate the future direction of medical education. Faculty members who taught online in the first semester of 2020 at Yonsei University College of Medicine in South Korea were surveyed. The results of the survey were analyzed in June 2020. There were 88 respondents (35.1% of 251): 59 professors (67.0%), 16 associate professors (18.2%), and 13 assistant professors (14.8%). Their specialties lay in basic medicine (25.0%), clinical medicine (65.9%), and research and special purposes (9.1%). Sixteen participants (18.2%) had previous experience in online lectures; 23 (26.1%) reported that preparation time for online lectures was the same as before; 65 (73.9%) reported that the preparation time had increased; 38 (43.2%) faced difficulties in preparation and lecturing online, and among them 16 (42.1%) indicated inadequate interaction with students; 11 (28.9%) needed extra preparation time; and 11 (28.9%) attributed their difficulties to technical issues with the online platform. Participants’ satisfaction with online lectures was low (p<0.001). In the free response question on overall experience with online education, 38.3% mentioned the need for an instructional design that allows students to actively participate and interact with professors, 29.5% mentioned the need for the establishment of an information & communications technology system, and 17.0% mentioned the necessity of faculty development. To prepare for the current pandemic and more in the long term, an appropriate educational support system must be constructed, and a learner-centered instructional design that enables wider interactions and active learning is needed.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917048

ABSTRACT

Background@#The clinical features of pediatric rhabdomyolysis differ from those of the adults with rhabdomyolysis; however, multicenter studies are lacking. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of pediatric rhabdomyolysis and reveal the risk factors for acute kidney injury (AKI) in such cases. @*Methods@#This retrospective study analyzed the medical records of children and adolescents diagnosed with rhabdomyolysis at 23 hospitals in South Korea between January 2007 and December 2016. @*Results@#Among 880 patients, those aged 3 to 5 years old composed the largest subgroup (19.4%), and all age subgroups were predominantly male. The incidence of AKI was 11.3%. Neurological disorders (53%) and infection (44%) were the most common underlying disorder and cause of rhabdomyolysis, respectively. The median age at diagnosis in the AKI subgroup was older than that in the non-AKI subgroup (12.2 years vs. 8.0 years). There were no significant differences in body mass index, myalgia, dark-colored urine, or the number of causal factors between the two AKI-status subgroups. The multivariate logistic regression model indicated that the following factors were independently associated with AKI: multiorgan failure, presence of an underlying disorder, strong positive urine occult blood, increased aspartate aminotransferase and uric acid levels, and reduced calcium levels. @*Conclusions@#Our study revealed characteristic clinical and laboratory features of rhabdomyolysis in a Korean pediatric population and highlighted the risk factors for AKI in these cases. Our findings will contribute to a greater understanding of pediatric rhabdomyolysis and may enable early intervention against rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915485

ABSTRACT

Background@#Evidence for the association between underlying non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the risk of testing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV-2) positive, and the clinical consequences of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is controversial and scarce. We aimed to investigate the association between the presence of NAFLD and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infectivity and COVID-19-related outcomes. @*Methods@#We used the population-based, nationwide cohort in South Korea linked with the general health examination records between January 1, 2018 and July 30, 2020. Data for 212,768 adults older than 20 years who underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing from January 1 to May 30, 2020, were obtained. The presence of NAFLDs was defined using three definitions, namely hepatic steatosis index (HSI), fatty liver index (FLI), and claims-based definition. The outcomes were SARS-CoV-2 test positive, COVID-19 severe illness, and related death. @*Results@#Among 74,244 adults who completed the general health examination, there were 2,251 (3.0%) who were SARS-CoV-2 positive, 438 (0.6%) with severe COVID-19 illness, and 45 (0.06%) COVID-19-related deaths. After exposure-driven propensity score matching, patients with pre-existing HSI-NAFLD, FLI-NAFLD, or claims-based NAFLD had an 11–23% increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection (HSI-NAFLD 95% confidence interval [CI], 1–28%; FLI-NAFLD 95% CI, 2–27%; and claims-based NAFLD 95% CI, 2–31%) and a 35–41% increased risk of severe COVID-19 illness (HSI-NAFLD 95% CI, 8–83%; FLI-NAFLD 95% CI, 5–71%; and claims-based NAFLD 95% CI, 1–92%). These associations are more evident as liver fibrosis advanced (based on the BARD scoring system). Similar patterns were observed in several sensitivity analyses including the full-unmatched cohort. @*Conclusion@#Patients with pre-existing NAFLDs have a higher likelihood of testing SARSCoV-2 positive and severe COVID-19 illness; this association was more evident in patients with NAFLD with advanced fibrosis. Our results suggest that extra attention should be given to the management of patients with NAFLD during the COVID-19 pandemic.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913888

ABSTRACT

Childhood hypertension (HTN) has become a significant public health issue because of the increased risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. However, childhood HTN is underrecognized and underdiagnosed in clinical practice. The European Society of Hypertension in 2016 and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) in 2017 published updated guidelines for the screening, prevention, and management of pediatric HTN. There were notable differences between the two guidelines as well as many similarities. The updated AAP guidelines have clarified and simplified the recommendations for screening, diagnosis, and treatment of childhood HTN based on current evidence. This review highlights the important developments in both guidelines, focusing on recent advances in the classification and treatment of childhood HTN.

8.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1-11, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875608

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has caused a worldwide pandemic. The first reports of patients with COVID-19 were provided to World Health Organization on December 21, 2019 and were presumably associated with seafood markets in Wuhan, China. As of October 25, 2020, more than 42 million cases have been confirmed worldwide, with more than 1.1 million deaths. Asymptomatic transmission contributes significantly to transmission, and clinical features are non-specific to the disease. Thus, the diagnosis of COVID-19 requires specific viral RNA testing. The disease demonstrates extensive human-to-human transmissibility and has infected healthcare workers at high rates. Clinical awareness of the epidemiology and the risk factors for nosocomial transmission of COVID-19 is essential to preventing infection. Moreover, effective control measures should be further identified by comprehensive evaluation of hospital and community responses. In this review, we provide a comprehensive update on the epidemiology, presentation, transmission, risk factors, and public health measures associated with COVID-19. We also review past insights from previous coronavirus epidemics [i.e., severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)] to suggest measures to reduce transmission.

9.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 349-358, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833377

ABSTRACT

Globally and in Africa specifically, female sex workers (FSWs) are at an extraordinarily high risk of contracting human immunodeficiencyvirus (HIV). Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has emerged as an effective and ethical method with which to preventHIV infection among FSWs. PrEP efficacy is, however, closely linked to adherence, and adherence to PrEP among FSWs is a complexand interrelated process that has been shown to be of importance to public health policies and HIV control and interventionprograms. This comprehensive review categorizes barriers to and facilitators of adherence to HIV PrEP for FSWs, and describes fivestrategies for promoting PrEP adherence among FSWs. These strategies encompass 1) a long-term educational effort to decreasethe stigma associated with sex work and PrEP use, 2) education on how PrEP works, 3) lifestyle modification, 4) research on nextgenerationPrEP products to address the inconvenience of taking daily pills, and 5) integration of PrEP into existing services, suchas social services and routine primary care visits, to reduce the economic burden of seeking the medication. Our review is expectedto be useful for the design of future PrEP intervention programs. Multidisciplinary intervention should be considered to promotePrEP adherence among FSWs in order to help control the HIV epidemic.

10.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831200

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is among etiologies of secondarymembranousnephropathy (MN) in pediatric patients. We evaluated expressionof phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R), a specific target antigen of primary MN, inpediatric HBV-related MN. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed patients with biopsy-proven HBV-relatedMN from the renal biopsy registry and electronic medical records of SeveranceHospital, Seoul, Korea, from 1993 to 2004. Paraffin-embedded human kidneytissues were retrieved and immunohistochemically stained for PLA2R. @*Results@#Ten pediatric patients with 13 biopsied specimens were reviewed. Thepredominant pathological stage was stage II–III, and second was stage II. Theintensity of staining for IgG was greatest, with less intense staining for IgM, IgA,C3, C4, and C1q. All the patients had angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitorcombined with glucocorticoid, and four patients converted to cyclosporine treatmentfrom glucocorticoid monotherapy. Urinalysis of all the patients normalizedafter variable period. PLA2R staining was demonstrated in the outer glomerulus in3 out of 13 biopsies, 2 of which were obtained from the same patient over a 5-yearinterval. @*Conclusions@#PLA2R was expressed in a small number of cases diagnosed aspediatricHBV-related MN, indicating that some HBV-related MN cases may beprimary MN concurrent with HBV infection.

11.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 1167-1180, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759422

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hypertension is becoming one of the most common health conditions in children and adolescents due to increasing childhood obesity. We aimed to provide the auscultatory blood pressure (BP) normative reference values for Korean non-overweight children and adolescents. METHODS: BP measurements in children and adolescents aged 10 to 18 years were performed in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 1998 to 2016. BP was measured using a mercury sphygmomanometer. Sex-, age- and height-specific systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) percentiles were calculated in the non-overweight children (n=10,442). We used the General Additive Model for Location Scale and Shape method to calculate BP percentiles. RESULTS: The 50th, 90th, 95th, and 99th percentiles of SBP and DBP tables and graphs of non-overweight children and adolescents aged 10 to 18 years were presented by age and height percentiles. We found that the SBP and DBP at the 95th percentile were well correlated with height. The BP tables presented by height contained BP values from 124 cm to 190 cm for boys and from 120 cm to 178 cm for girls. Boys had higher SBP and DBP. CONCLUSIONS: We provided the sex-, age- and height-specific auscultatory BP values using the KNHANES big data. These may be useful in diagnosis and treatment of hypertension in Korean children and adolescents.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Auscultation , Blood Pressure , Child , Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Hypertension , Korea , Methods , Nutrition Surveys , Pediatric Obesity , Reference Values , Sphygmomanometers
12.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 1167-1180, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917254

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES@#Hypertension is becoming one of the most common health conditions in children and adolescents due to increasing childhood obesity. We aimed to provide the auscultatory blood pressure (BP) normative reference values for Korean non-overweight children and adolescents.@*METHODS@#BP measurements in children and adolescents aged 10 to 18 years were performed in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 1998 to 2016. BP was measured using a mercury sphygmomanometer. Sex-, age- and height-specific systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) percentiles were calculated in the non-overweight children (n=10,442). We used the General Additive Model for Location Scale and Shape method to calculate BP percentiles.@*RESULTS@#The 50th, 90th, 95th, and 99th percentiles of SBP and DBP tables and graphs of non-overweight children and adolescents aged 10 to 18 years were presented by age and height percentiles. We found that the SBP and DBP at the 95th percentile were well correlated with height. The BP tables presented by height contained BP values from 124 cm to 190 cm for boys and from 120 cm to 178 cm for girls. Boys had higher SBP and DBP.@*CONCLUSIONS@#We provided the sex-, age- and height-specific auscultatory BP values using the KNHANES big data. These may be useful in diagnosis and treatment of hypertension in Korean children and adolescents.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739187

ABSTRACT

Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is an interleukin-7-like cytokine that is an important trigger and initiator of many allergic diseases. TSLP promotes a T-helper type 2 (Th2) cytokine response that can be pathological. A relationship is formed both at the induction phase of the Th2 response through polarization of dendritic cells to drive Th2 cell differentiation and at the effector phase of the response, by promoting the expansion of activated T cells and their secretion of Th2 cytokines and TSLP. In transgenic mice with TSLP overexpression, it has been reported that TSLP leads to the development of mixed cryoglobulinemic membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. In addition, TSLP can play an important role in the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy and systemic lupus erythematosus-related nephritis. From our knowledge of the role of TSLP in the kidney, further studies including the discovery of new therapies need to be considered based on the relationship between TSLP and glomerulonephritis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cytokines , Dendritic Cells , Glomerulonephritis , Glomerulonephritis, IGA , Glomerulonephritis, Membranoproliferative , Kidney , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Nephritis , T-Lymphocytes , Th2 Cells
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739186

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Podocytes are important architectures that maintain the crucial roles of glomerular filtration barrier functions. Despite this structural importance, however, the mechanisms of the changes in podocytes that can be an important pathogenesis of minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) are not clear yet. The aim of this study was to investigate whether apoptosis is induced by interleukin (IL)-13 in cultured human podocytes. METHODS: Human podocytes were treated with different IL-13 doses and apoptotic cells were analyzed using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL assay) and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). RESULTS: The IL-13 increased the number of TUNEL-positive cells in a dose-dependent manner at 6 and 18 hours (P<0.05 and P<0.05, respectively). The apoptosis rate was appeared to be increased slightly in the IL-13-stimulated podocytes (8.63%, 13.02%, and 14.46%; 3, 10 and 30 ng/mL, respectively) than in the control cells (7.66%) at 12 hours by FACS assay. CONCLUSION: Our study revealed that IL-13 expression may increase podocyte apoptosis. Blocking the IL-13 signal pathway can potentially play an important role in regulating the apoptosis of podocytes.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , DNA Nucleotidylexotransferase , Flow Cytometry , Glomerular Filtration Barrier , Humans , Interleukin-13 , Interleukins , Nephrosis, Lipoid , Podocytes , Signal Transduction
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-136738

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The American Society for Apheresis provides clinical guidelines for therapeutic apheresis in adults, but there are no guidelines for children. This study aimed to analyze the effect of therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) in pediatric patients with various kidney diseases in Korea. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the data of 16 children (up to 18 years of age) who were admitted to Severance Children's Hospital with refractory kidney disease. All patients received TPE between 1994 and 2016. Clinical and laboratory characteristics such as age, weight, sex, change in blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine level before and after TPE, and complications after TPE were analyzed. RESULTS: The mean age and weight of the 16 patients at the time of TPE was 11.3±4.0 years and 34.6±17.5 kg, respectively. The BUN level was 35.4 mg/dL before TPE and significantly decreased to 21.5 mg/dL (P=0.025) at 1 week and 20.5 mg/dL (P=0.01) at 1 month after TPE. The creatinine level significantly decreased from 1.20 mg/dL before TPE to 0.90 mg/dL (P=0.02) at 1 week after TPE. Four complications (hypovolemia, anemia, hypocalcemia, and thrombocytopenia) were reported, but were not fatal. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that TPE is an effective therapeutic modality in children with refractory kidney disease and can be indicated for the treatment of various kidney diseases.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anemia , Blood Component Removal , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Child , Creatinine , Humans , Hypocalcemia , Kidney Diseases , Kidney , Korea , Pediatrics , Plasma Exchange , Plasma , Retrospective Studies
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-136735

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The American Society for Apheresis provides clinical guidelines for therapeutic apheresis in adults, but there are no guidelines for children. This study aimed to analyze the effect of therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) in pediatric patients with various kidney diseases in Korea. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the data of 16 children (up to 18 years of age) who were admitted to Severance Children's Hospital with refractory kidney disease. All patients received TPE between 1994 and 2016. Clinical and laboratory characteristics such as age, weight, sex, change in blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine level before and after TPE, and complications after TPE were analyzed. RESULTS: The mean age and weight of the 16 patients at the time of TPE was 11.3±4.0 years and 34.6±17.5 kg, respectively. The BUN level was 35.4 mg/dL before TPE and significantly decreased to 21.5 mg/dL (P=0.025) at 1 week and 20.5 mg/dL (P=0.01) at 1 month after TPE. The creatinine level significantly decreased from 1.20 mg/dL before TPE to 0.90 mg/dL (P=0.02) at 1 week after TPE. Four complications (hypovolemia, anemia, hypocalcemia, and thrombocytopenia) were reported, but were not fatal. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that TPE is an effective therapeutic modality in children with refractory kidney disease and can be indicated for the treatment of various kidney diseases.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anemia , Blood Component Removal , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Child , Creatinine , Humans , Hypocalcemia , Kidney Diseases , Kidney , Korea , Pediatrics , Plasma Exchange , Plasma , Retrospective Studies
17.
Childhood Kidney Diseases ; : 165-168, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-220621

ABSTRACT

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) in children, which is a kind of nephrotic syndrome showing steroid resistance, usually progresses to a substantial number of end stage renal disease (ESRD). Although the pathogenesis of primary FSGS is unclear, several recent studies have reported that FSGS is associated with circulating immune factors such as soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) or anti-CD40 autoantibody. We report a successfully treated case of a 19-year-old female patient who experienced a recurrence of primary FSGS. After the diagnosis of FSGS, the patient progressed to ESRD and received a kidney transplantation (KT). Three days later, recurrence was suspected through proteinuria and hypoalbuminemia. She has been performed plasmapheresis and high dose methylprednisolone pulse therapy and shown remission status without increasing proteinuria for four years after KT. In conclusion, strong immunosuppressive therapy may be helpful for a good prognosis of recurrent FSGS, suppressing several immunologic circulating factors related disease pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Child , Diagnosis , Female , Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental , Humans , Hypoalbuminemia , Immunologic Factors , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Kidney Transplantation , Methylprednisolone , Nephrotic Syndrome , Plasmapheresis , Prognosis , Proteinuria , Recurrence , Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator , Young Adult
18.
Korean Journal of Pediatrics ; : S99-S102, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-201850

ABSTRACT

Tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis (TINU) syndrome is a rare disease, often underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed in children. We describe the case of a 12-year-old boy who presented to Severance Hospital with a 1-month history of bilateral conjunctival injection. He was first evaluated by an Ophthalmologist in another hospital and diagnosed with panuveitis. Laboratory tests indicated renal failure, and a renal biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of acute tubulointerstitial nephritis. An extensive exclusion of all possible causes allowed a diagnosis of TINU syndrome. The patient was treated with a systemic corticosteroid (initially prednisolone, 2 mg/kg and later deflazacort 1 mg/kg) and topical steroid drops for 1 month. Azathioprine was later added to the treatment regimen and the systemic steroid was slowly tapered. The final outcome of renal-ocular disease was favorable in the patient. However, long-term follow-up is necessary to properly manage frequent relapses and incomplete renal recovery. TINU should be considered as a differential diagnosis in children with uveitis or acute renal failure.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Azathioprine , Biopsy , Child , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Nephritis, Interstitial , Panuveitis , Prednisolone , Rare Diseases , Recurrence , Renal Insufficiency , Steroids , Uveitis
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-128899

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Acute pyelonephritis (APN) is a serious bacterial infection that can cause renal scarring in children. Early identification of APN is critical to improve treatment outcomes. The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a prognostic marker of many diseases, but it has not yet been established in urinary tract infection (UTI). The aim of this study was to determine whether NLR is a useful marker to predict APN or vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 298 pediatric patients (age≤36 months) with febrile UTI from January 2010 to December 2014. Conventional infection markers (white blood cell [WBC] count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR], C-reactive protein [CRP]), and NLR were measured. RESULTS: WBC, CRP, ESR, and NLR were higher in APN than in lower UTI (P<0.001). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that NLR was a predictive factor for positive dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) defects (P<0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was high for NLR (P<0.001) as well as CRP (P<0.001) for prediction of DMSA defects. NLR showed the highest area under the ROC curve for diagnosis of VUR (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: NLR can be used as a diagnostic marker of APN with DMSA defect, showing better results than those of conventional markers for VUR prediction.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , Blood Cells , C-Reactive Protein , Child , Cicatrix , Diagnosis , Erythrocyte Count , Humans , Logistic Models , Pyelonephritis , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Succimer , Urinary Tract Infections , Urinary Tract , Vesico-Ureteral Reflux
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-128882

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Acute pyelonephritis (APN) is a serious bacterial infection that can cause renal scarring in children. Early identification of APN is critical to improve treatment outcomes. The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a prognostic marker of many diseases, but it has not yet been established in urinary tract infection (UTI). The aim of this study was to determine whether NLR is a useful marker to predict APN or vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 298 pediatric patients (age≤36 months) with febrile UTI from January 2010 to December 2014. Conventional infection markers (white blood cell [WBC] count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR], C-reactive protein [CRP]), and NLR were measured. RESULTS: WBC, CRP, ESR, and NLR were higher in APN than in lower UTI (P<0.001). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that NLR was a predictive factor for positive dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) defects (P<0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was high for NLR (P<0.001) as well as CRP (P<0.001) for prediction of DMSA defects. NLR showed the highest area under the ROC curve for diagnosis of VUR (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: NLR can be used as a diagnostic marker of APN with DMSA defect, showing better results than those of conventional markers for VUR prediction.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , Blood Cells , C-Reactive Protein , Child , Cicatrix , Diagnosis , Erythrocyte Count , Humans , Logistic Models , Pyelonephritis , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Succimer , Urinary Tract Infections , Urinary Tract , Vesico-Ureteral Reflux
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