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1.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e68-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967486

ABSTRACT

Background@#Respiratory pathogen infections and air pollution are main causes of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). Air pollution has a direct effect on the airway epithelial barrier and the immune system, which can have an influence on infection. However, studies on the relationship between respiratory infections and air pollutants in severe AECOPD are limited. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between air pollution and respiratory pathogen in severe AECOPD. @*Methods@#This multicenter observational study was conducted by reviewing electronic medical records of patients with AECOPD at 28 hospitals in South Korea. Patients were divided into four groups according to the comprehensive air-quality index (CAI) used in Korea. Identification rates of bacteria and viruses of each group were analyzed. @*Results@#Viral pathogens were identified in 270 (36.7%) of 735 patients. Viral identification rate was different (P = 0.012) according to air pollution. Specifically, the virus detection rate was 55.9% in the group of CAI ‘D’ with the highest air pollution. It was 24.4% in the group of CAI ‘A’ with the lowest air pollution. This pattern was clearly seen for influenza virus A (P = 0.042). When further analysis was performed with particulate matter (PM), the higher/lower the PM level, the higher/lower the virus detection rate. However, no significant difference was found in the analysis related to bacteria. @*Conclusion@#Air pollution may make COPD patients more susceptible to respiratory viral infections, especially influenza virus A. Thus, on days with poor air quality, COPD patients need to be more careful about respiratory infections.

2.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e311-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001199

ABSTRACT

Background@#Nonpharmacological interventions (NPIs) reduce the incidence of respiratory infections. After NPIs imposed during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic ceased, respiratory infections gradually increased worldwide. However, few studies have been conducted on severe respiratory infections requiring hospitalization in pediatric patients.This study compares epidemiological changes in severe respiratory infections during pre-NPI, NPI, and post-NPI periods in order to evaluate the effect of that NPI on severe respiratory infections in children. @*Methods@#We retrospectively studied data collected at 13 Korean sentinel sites from January 2018 to October 2022 that were lodged in the national Severe Acute Respiratory Infections (SARIs) surveillance database. @*Results@#A total of 9,631 pediatric patients were admitted with SARIs during the pre-NPI period, 579 during the NPI period, and 1,580 during the post-NPI period. During the NPI period, the number of pediatric patients hospitalized with severe respiratory infections decreased dramatically, thus from 72.1 per 1,000 to 6.6 per 1,000. However, after NPIs ceased, the number increased to 22.8 per 1,000. During the post-NPI period, the positive test rate increased to the level noted before the pandemic. @*Conclusion@#Strict NPIs including school and daycare center closures effectively reduced severe respiratory infections requiring hospitalization of children. However, childcare was severely compromised. To prepare for future respiratory infections, there is a need to develop a social consensus on NPIs that are appropriate for children.

3.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 127-136, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919203

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Adjuvant chemotherapy is the standard of care for resected stage II-IIIA non-small cell lung cancer (NCSLC). The efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy in stage IB (< 4 cm) NSCLC with high-risk factors is controversial. @*Methods@#This retrospective multicenter study included 285 stage IB NSCLC patients with high-risk factors according to the 8th edition tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) classification from four academic hospitals. High-risk factors included visceral pleural invasion, vascular invasion, lymphatic invasion, lung neuroendocrine tumors, and micropapillary histology patterns. @*Results@#Of the 285 patients, 127 (44.6%) were included in the adjuvant chemotherapy group and 158 (55.4%) were included in the non-adjuvant chemotherapy group. The median follow-up was 41.5 months. Patients in the adjuvant chemotherapy group had a significantly reduced recurrence rate and risk of mortality than those in the non-adjuvant chemotherapy group (hazards ratio, 0.408; 95% confidence interval, 0.221 to 0.754; p = 0.004 and hazards ratio, 0.176; 95% confidence interval, 0.057 to 0.546; p = 0.003, respectively). Adjuvant chemotherapy should be particularly considered for the high-risk factors such as visceral pleural involvement or vascular invasion. Based on the subgroup analysis, adjuvant chemotherapy should be considered when visceral pleural involvement is present, even if the tumor size is < 3 cm. @*Conclusions@#Adjuvant chemotherapy may be useful for patients with stage IB NSCLC with high-risk factors and is more relevant for patients with visceral pleural involvement or vascular invasion.

4.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 954-957, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904282

ABSTRACT

Nonpharmaceutical interventions (e.g., social distancing) are recommended to prevent the spread of respiratory viruses. However, few epidemiological studies have assessed whether social distancing in actual settings reduces the disease burden of severe acute respiratory infections (SARIs) in the general population. Accordingly, we aimed to assess associations between nationwide social distancing for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and non-COVID-19 SARIs. We collected data on SARI epidemiologic characteristics recorded from January 2018 through December 2020 from the nationwide sentinel SARI surveillance data maintained by the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency. The number of SARIs per 1000 hospitalized patients decreased significantly to 18.61, 18.15, and 6.25 in 2018, 2019, and 2020 (p<0.001), respectively, during the surveillance period of 3 years. The number of intensive care unit admissions associated with SARIs per 1000 hospitalized patients was 0.83, 0.69, and 0.54 in 2018, 2019, and 2020 (p< 0.001), respectively, and the number of SARI-associated mortalities per 1000 patients was 0.42, 0.29, and 0.27 in 2018, 2019, and 2020 (p<0.001), respectively. Moreover, SARIs had two peak seasons in 2 years of the surveillance period (2018 and 2019). However, seasonality was not observed since social distancing was initiated. Our sentinel surveillance data demonstrated a remarkable reduction in SARI disease burden and a change in seasonality following the implementation of nationwide social distancing. Accordingly, we suggest that social distancing could be effective in forthcoming seasonal epidemics of non-COVID-19 origin, although the impact thereof on other aspects of society needs to be carefully considered.

5.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 954-957, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896578

ABSTRACT

Nonpharmaceutical interventions (e.g., social distancing) are recommended to prevent the spread of respiratory viruses. However, few epidemiological studies have assessed whether social distancing in actual settings reduces the disease burden of severe acute respiratory infections (SARIs) in the general population. Accordingly, we aimed to assess associations between nationwide social distancing for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and non-COVID-19 SARIs. We collected data on SARI epidemiologic characteristics recorded from January 2018 through December 2020 from the nationwide sentinel SARI surveillance data maintained by the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency. The number of SARIs per 1000 hospitalized patients decreased significantly to 18.61, 18.15, and 6.25 in 2018, 2019, and 2020 (p<0.001), respectively, during the surveillance period of 3 years. The number of intensive care unit admissions associated with SARIs per 1000 hospitalized patients was 0.83, 0.69, and 0.54 in 2018, 2019, and 2020 (p< 0.001), respectively, and the number of SARI-associated mortalities per 1000 patients was 0.42, 0.29, and 0.27 in 2018, 2019, and 2020 (p<0.001), respectively. Moreover, SARIs had two peak seasons in 2 years of the surveillance period (2018 and 2019). However, seasonality was not observed since social distancing was initiated. Our sentinel surveillance data demonstrated a remarkable reduction in SARI disease burden and a change in seasonality following the implementation of nationwide social distancing. Accordingly, we suggest that social distancing could be effective in forthcoming seasonal epidemics of non-COVID-19 origin, although the impact thereof on other aspects of society needs to be carefully considered.

6.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 216-222, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742516

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The most common cause of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) is respiratory infection. Most studies of bacterial or viral cause in AECOPD have been conducted in Western countries. We investigated bacterial and viral identification rates in AECOPD in Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed and analyzed medical records of 736 cases of AECOPD at the Korea University Guro Hospital. We analyzed bacterial and viral identification rates and classified infections according to epidemiological factors, such as Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage, mortality, and seasonal variation. RESULTS: The numbers of AECOPD events involving only bacterial identification, only viral identification, bacterial-viral co-identification, and no identification were 200 (27.2%), 159 (21.6%), 107 (14.5%), and 270 (36.7%), respectively. The most common infectious bacteria identified were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (13.0%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (11.4%), and Haemophilus influenzae (5.3%); the most common viruses identified were influenza virus (12.4%), rhinovirus (9.4%), parainfluenza virus (5.2%), and metapneumovirus (4.9%). The bacterial identification rate tended to be higher at more advanced stages of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (p=0.020 overall, p=0.011 for P. aeruginosa, p=0.048 for S. pneumoniae). Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae were identified more in mortality group (p=0.003 for S. aureus, p=0.009 for K. pneumoniae). All viruses were seasonal (i.e., greater prevalence in a particular season; p < 0.050). Influenza virus and rhinovirus were mainly identified in the winter, parainfluenza virus in the summer, and metapneumovirus in the spring. CONCLUSION: This information on the epidemiology of respiratory infections in AECOPD will improve the management of AECOPD using antibiotics and other treatments in Korea.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bacteria , Epidemiology , Haemophilus influenzae , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Korea , Medical Records , Metapneumovirus , Mortality , Orthomyxoviridae , Paramyxoviridae Infections , Prevalence , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Respiratory Tract Infections , Rhinovirus , Seasons , Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus pneumoniae
7.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; : 211-216, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919445

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Docetaxel is one of the standard treatments for advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Docetaxel is usually administered in a 3-week schedule, but there is significant toxicity. In this phase II clinical study, we investigated the efficacy and safety of a 4-weekly schedule of docetaxel monotherapy, as first-line chemotherapy for advanced squamous cell carcinoma in elderly lung cancer patients.@*METHODS@#Patients with stage IIIB/ IV lung squamous-cell carcinoma age 70 or older, that had not undergone cytotoxic chemotherapy were enrolled. Patients received docetaxel 25 mg/m2 on days 1, 8, and 15, every 4 weeks. Primary endpoint was the objective response rate (ORR). Secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and toxicity profiles.@*RESULTS@#A total of 19 patients were enrolled. Among 19 patients, 17 were for evaluated efficacy and safety. In the intent-to-treat population, ORR and disease control rate (DCR) were 11.8% and 47.1%, respectively. In the response evaluable population, ORR was 16.7% and DCR was 66.7%. Median PFS and OS were 3.1 months and 3.3 months, respectively. There were three adverse grade 3/4 events. Grade 1 neutropenia was reported in one patient.@*CONCLUSION@#Our data failed to demonstrate efficacy of a 4-weekly docetaxel regimen, in elderly patients with a poor performance status. However, incidence of side effects, including neutropenia, was lower than with a 3-week docetaxel regimen, as previously reported.

8.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; : 81-85, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719614

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bronchoscopy is a useful diagnostic and therapeutic tool. However, the clinical use of high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) in adults with acute respiratory failure for diagnostic and invasive procedures has not been well evaluated. We present our experiences of well-tolerated diagnostic bronchoscopy as well as cases of improved saturation in hypoxaemic patients after a therapeutic bronchoscopic procedure. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed data of hypoxaemic patients who had undergone bronchoscopy for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes from October 2015 to February 2017. RESULTS: Ten patients (44–75 years of age) were enrolled. The clinical purposes of bronchoscopy were for diagnosis in seven patients and for intervention in three patients. For the diagnoses, we performed bronchoalveolar lavage in six patients. One patient underwent endobronchial ultrasonography with transbronchial needle aspiration of a lymph node to investigate tumour involvement. Patients who underwent bronchoscopy for therapeutic interventions had endobronchial mass or blood clot removal with cryotherapy for bleeding control. The mean saturation (SpO2) of pre-bronchoscopy in room air was 84.1%. The lowest and highest mean saturation with HFNC during the procedure was 95% and 99.4, respectively. The mean saturation in room air post-bronchoscopy was 87.4%, which was 3.3% higher than the mean room air SpO2 pre-bronchoscopy. Seven patients with diagnostic bronchoscopy had no hypoxic event. Three patients with interventional bronchoscopy showed improvement in saturation after the procedure. Bronchoscopy was well tolerated in all 10 cases. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the use of HFNC in hypoxaemic patients during diagnostic and therapeutic bronchoscopy procedures has clinical effectiveness.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Hypoxia , Bronchoalveolar Lavage , Bronchoscopy , Catheters , Cryotherapy , Diagnosis , Hemorrhage , Lymph Nodes , Needles , Oxygen , Respiratory Insufficiency , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Ultrasonography
10.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; : 211-216, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761950

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Docetaxel is one of the standard treatments for advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Docetaxel is usually administered in a 3-week schedule, but there is significant toxicity. In this phase II clinical study, we investigated the efficacy and safety of a 4-weekly schedule of docetaxel monotherapy, as first-line chemotherapy for advanced squamous cell carcinoma in elderly lung cancer patients. METHODS: Patients with stage IIIB/ IV lung squamous-cell carcinoma age 70 or older, that had not undergone cytotoxic chemotherapy were enrolled. Patients received docetaxel 25 mg/m2 on days 1, 8, and 15, every 4 weeks. Primary endpoint was the objective response rate (ORR). Secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and toxicity profiles. RESULTS: A total of 19 patients were enrolled. Among 19 patients, 17 were for evaluated efficacy and safety. In the intent-to-treat population, ORR and disease control rate (DCR) were 11.8% and 47.1%, respectively. In the response evaluable population, ORR was 16.7% and DCR was 66.7%. Median PFS and OS were 3.1 months and 3.3 months, respectively. There were three adverse grade 3/4 events. Grade 1 neutropenia was reported in one patient. CONCLUSION: Our data failed to demonstrate efficacy of a 4-weekly docetaxel regimen, in elderly patients with a poor performance status. However, incidence of side effects, including neutropenia, was lower than with a 3-week docetaxel regimen, as previously reported.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Appointments and Schedules , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Clinical Study , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Epithelial Cells , Incidence , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Neutropenia , Treatment Outcome
11.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; : 42-48, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742436

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The diffusing capacity of the lung is influenced by multiple factors such as age, sex, height, weight, ethnicity and smoking status. Although a prediction equation for the diffusing capacity of Korea was proposed in the mid-1980s, this equation is not used currently. The aim of this study was to develop a new prediction equation for the diffusing capacity for Koreans. METHODS: Using the data of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a total of 140 nonsmokers with normal chest X-rays were enrolled in this study. RESULTS: Using linear regression analysis, a new predicting equation for diffusing capacity was developed. For men, the following new equations were developed: carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLco)=−10.4433−0.1434×age (year)+0.2482×heights (cm); DLco/alveolar volume (VA)=6.01507−0.02374×age (year)−0.00233×heights (cm). For women the prediction equations were described as followed: DLco=−12.8895−0.0532×age (year)+0.2145×heights (cm) and DLco/VA=7.69516−0.02219×age (year)−0.01377×heights (cm). All equations were internally validated by k-fold cross validation method. CONCLUSION: In this study, we developed new prediction equations for the diffusing capacity of the lungs of Koreans. A further study is needed to validate the new predicting equation for diffusing capacity.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Carbon Monoxide , Diffusion , Korea , Linear Models , Lung , Methods , Nutrition Surveys , Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity , Smoke , Smoking , Thorax
12.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; : 73-79, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742433

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis is a common disease that occurs comorbidly in patients with chronic inflammatory airway diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS). However, the prevalence of osteoporosis in patients with ACOS has not widely been evaluated. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of osteoporosis and its relationship with the clinical parameters of patients with asthma, COPD, and ACOS. METHODS: This was a retrospective, cross-sectional study. Bone mineral density (BMD), lung function tests, and disease status evaluations were conducted. RESULTS: A total of 321 patients were enrolled: 138 with asthma, 46 with ACOS, and 137 with COPD. One hundred and ninety-three patients (60.1%) were diagnosed with osteoporosis (53.6% of asthma, 65.2% of ACOS, and 65.0% of COPD). Patients with ACOS showed a significantly lower BMD and T-score than did those with asthma. In addition to age, sex, and body mass index (BMI), which were previously reported to be associated with BMD, BMD also had a negative correlation with the diagnosis of ACOS, as compared to a diagnosis of asthma, after adjusting for age, sex, BMI, smoking, and inhaled corticosteroid use (p=0.001). Among those patients with COPD and ACOS, BMD was negatively associated with the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) after adjustment (p < 0.001). Inhaled corticosteroid was not associated with the prevalence of osteoporosis and BMD. CONCLUSION: Patients with ACOS, particularly aged and lean women, should be more carefully monitored for osteoporosis as compared to patients with asthma.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Asthma , Body Mass Index , Bone Density , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Obstructive , Osteoporosis , Prevalence , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Respiratory Function Tests , Retrospective Studies , Smoke , Smoking
13.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; : 42-48, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919419

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The diffusing capacity of the lung is influenced by multiple factors such as age, sex, height, weight, ethnicity and smoking status. Although a prediction equation for the diffusing capacity of Korea was proposed in the mid-1980s, this equation is not used currently. The aim of this study was to develop a new prediction equation for the diffusing capacity for Koreans.@*METHODS@#Using the data of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a total of 140 nonsmokers with normal chest X-rays were enrolled in this study.@*RESULTS@#Using linear regression analysis, a new predicting equation for diffusing capacity was developed. For men, the following new equations were developed: carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLco)=−10.4433−0.1434×age (year)+0.2482×heights (cm); DLco/alveolar volume (VA)=6.01507−0.02374×age (year)−0.00233×heights (cm). For women the prediction equations were described as followed: DLco=−12.8895−0.0532×age (year)+0.2145×heights (cm) and DLco/VA=7.69516−0.02219×age (year)−0.01377×heights (cm). All equations were internally validated by k-fold cross validation method.@*CONCLUSION@#In this study, we developed new prediction equations for the diffusing capacity of the lungs of Koreans. A further study is needed to validate the new predicting equation for diffusing capacity.

14.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; : 73-79, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919416

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Osteoporosis is a common disease that occurs comorbidly in patients with chronic inflammatory airway diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS). However, the prevalence of osteoporosis in patients with ACOS has not widely been evaluated. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of osteoporosis and its relationship with the clinical parameters of patients with asthma, COPD, and ACOS.@*METHODS@#This was a retrospective, cross-sectional study. Bone mineral density (BMD), lung function tests, and disease status evaluations were conducted.@*RESULTS@#A total of 321 patients were enrolled: 138 with asthma, 46 with ACOS, and 137 with COPD. One hundred and ninety-three patients (60.1%) were diagnosed with osteoporosis (53.6% of asthma, 65.2% of ACOS, and 65.0% of COPD). Patients with ACOS showed a significantly lower BMD and T-score than did those with asthma. In addition to age, sex, and body mass index (BMI), which were previously reported to be associated with BMD, BMD also had a negative correlation with the diagnosis of ACOS, as compared to a diagnosis of asthma, after adjusting for age, sex, BMI, smoking, and inhaled corticosteroid use (p=0.001). Among those patients with COPD and ACOS, BMD was negatively associated with the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) after adjustment (p < 0.001). Inhaled corticosteroid was not associated with the prevalence of osteoporosis and BMD.@*CONCLUSION@#Patients with ACOS, particularly aged and lean women, should be more carefully monitored for osteoporosis as compared to patients with asthma.

15.
Allergy, Asthma & Respiratory Disease ; : 131-134, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713208

ABSTRACT

Hypereosinophilia, defined as an absolute eosinophil count of >1,500/μL, can be caused by a number of allergic, infectious, paraneoplastic and neoplastic disorders. In cases of hypereosinophilia with lymphoid proliferation, pathological confirmation is essential to exclude either myeloid or lymphoid malignancy. A 38-year-old woman with both cervical lymphadenopathies and peripheral blood eosinophilia visited our clinic. She had already performed core biopsy of lymph nodes and diagnosed as Kimura disease at a regional hospital. At the time of our clinic visit, there were no palpable cervical lymph nodes. The blood test showed hypereosinophilia with a high total IgE level. There was no evidence of tissue infiltration of eosinophils except for duodenitis with eosinophilic infiltration. Based on these findings, she was diagnosed as Kimura disease. She treated with high-dose systemic corticosteroid (1 mg/kg) and additional immunosuppressants sequentially used cyclophosphamide and cyclosporine. However, her eosinophilia waxed and waned, and a left inguinal mass was newly found. Excisional biopsy findings showed large atypical lymphoid cells with numerous eosinophilis, and immunohistochemistry showed CD3+, CD20−, CD30+ and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK). The final diagnosis was ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma. We report a case of anaplastic large cell lymphoma with marked peripheral eosinophilia misdiagnosed as Kimura disease. In the case of hypereosinophilia with lymphadenopathy, it is necessary to differentiate hematologic diseases through immunochemical staining.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Ambulatory Care , Angiolymphoid Hyperplasia with Eosinophilia , Biopsy , Cyclophosphamide , Cyclosporine , Diagnosis , Duodenitis , Eosinophilia , Eosinophils , Hematologic Diseases , Hematologic Tests , Immunoglobulin E , Immunohistochemistry , Immunosuppressive Agents , Lymph Nodes , Lymphatic Diseases , Lymphocytes , Lymphoma , Lymphoma, Large-Cell, Anaplastic , Phosphotransferases
16.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 737-744, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716073

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma (PSC) is a poorly differentiated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that contains components of spindle or giant cells. Owing to its low prevalence, there are insufficient data regarding its clinical features, therapeutic strategies and prognosis. METHODS: The medical records of 26 patients diagnosed with PSC from January 2009 to June 2015 were reviewed and analyzed for clinicopathological characteristics, treatment modality, and outcomes. RESULTS: The median age was 69.5 years. Twenty-three patients (88%) were male. Twenty-four patients (92%) were smokers. The median time from symptom onset to diagnosis was one month. Eighteen patients (69%) were diagnosed at an advanced stage. Pleomorphic carcinoma was the most common subtype, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation was positive in two of 11 patients. Among 13 patients tested for programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) immunohistochemistry assay, eight showed high expression of PD-L1. The median overall survival (OS) of all patients was 9.5 months. In total, 12 patients were treated with chemotherapy: nine with platinum-based doublet therapy, two with tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and one with docetaxel. Seven patients showed partial response or stable disease. The median OS and progression-free survival of patients who received chemotherapy were 8.7 and 2.8 months, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: PSC was more common in males, smokers, and the elderly, with worse prognosis than ordinary NSCLC; chemotherapy response was favorable, and EGFR mutation status and PD-L1 expression may offer more therapeutic options.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Diagnosis , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Giant Cells , Immunohistochemistry , Medical Records , Prevalence , Prognosis , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , ErbB Receptors , Treatment Outcome
17.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 141-149, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-6987

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Reactive oxygen species modulator 1 (Romo1) is a key mediator of intracellular reactive oxygen species production. However, examination of the clinical usefulness of Romo1 in cancers has been limited. We evaluated the association of Romo1 expression with clinical outcomes in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Romo1 expression in tumor tissue was examined by immunohistochemistry and evaluated by histological score. Survival analyses were performed according to Romo1 expression and the association between Romo1 expression and clinical parameters was evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 88 tumor specimens were analyzed. Significantly shorter median progression-free survival (PFS) was observed in the high Romo1 group compared with the low Romo1 group (4.5 months vs. 9.8 months, p < 0.001), and the median overall survival (OS) of the high Romo1 group was also significantly shorter than that of the low Romo1 group (8.4 months vs. 15.5 months, p < 0.001). Results of multivariate analyses showed significant association of high Romo1 expression with both poor PFS (hazard ratio [HR], 2.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.71 to 4.44) and poor OS (HR, 3.99; 95% CI, 2.36 to 6.74). Results of the subgroup analysis showed a similar association regardless of tumor histology. Romo1 expression showed no association with any clinical parameter including age, sex, smoking status, stage, differentiation, or tumor histology. CONCLUSION: Romo1 overexpression was associated with poor response to treatment and shorter survival in advanced NSCLC patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. Romo1 could be a potential adverse predictive marker in this setting.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biomarkers , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Immunohistochemistry , Lung Neoplasms , Multivariate Analysis , Platinum , Prognosis , Reactive Oxygen Species , Smoke , Smoking
18.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; : 37-41, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-83856

ABSTRACT

Iron supplements such as ferrous sulfate tablets are usually used to treat iron-deficiency anemia in some elderly patients with primary neurologic disorders or decreased gag reflexes due to stroke, senile dementia, or parkinsonism. While the aspiration of ferrous sulfate is rarely reported, it is a potentially life-threatening condition that can lead to airway necrosis and bronchial stenosis. A detailed history and high suspicion of aspiration are required to avoid delays in diagnosis and treatment. The diagnosis can be confirmed by bronchoscopic examination and a tissue biopsy. Early removal of the aspirated tablet prevents acute complications, such as bronchial necrosis, hemoptysis, and lobar consolidation. Tablet removal is also necessary to prevent late bronchial stenosis. We presented the first case in Korea of a ferrous sulfate tablet aspiration that induced severe endobronchial inflammation.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Alzheimer Disease , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency , Biopsy , Bronchi , Bronchoscopy , Constriction, Pathologic , Diagnosis , Foreign Bodies , Hemoptysis , Inflammation , Iron , Korea , Necrosis , Nervous System Diseases , Parkinsonian Disorders , Reflex , Respiratory Aspiration , Stroke , Tablets
19.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 272-273, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-220770

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.

20.
Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research ; : 195-198, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-80636

ABSTRACT

Mulberry (Morus spp.) is a widespread deciduous tree and its fruit is commonly eaten in Korea and eastern Asia. Some reports demonstrate that mulberry fruit is a food allergen in the Mediterranean area. However, there has been no report of systemic allergic reactions after ingesting mulberry fruit in Korea. An 18-year-old boy with a mulberry fruit allergy visited our allergy clinic. He had experienced generalized urticaria, chest tightness, breathing difficulty, and abdominal cramping after ingesting mulberry fruit. The patient had a positive skin reaction to mulberry fruit extract (mean wheal size, 5 mm). We performed an ELISA to detect specific IgE antibody (Ab) to mulberry fruit extract in the patient's serum compared to those of non-atopic healthy controls and birch-sensitized individuals. Specific IgE Ab to mulberry fruit extract was detected in the patient's serum, as compared to non-atopic healthy controls. Another subject, who was strongly sensitized to birch pollen, also had a positive serum-specific IgE Ab to mulberry fruit. We performed IgE immunoblot analysis using the patient's and the other subject's sera, who had serum-specific IgE to mulberry fruit, to identify the IgE-binding component. An identical IgE-binding component to mulberry extract was detected in the two subjects at around 17 kDa, and which might be PR 10 of Bet v 1. In conclusion, mulberry fruit could induce a systemic allergic reaction through an IgE-mediated mechanism, and cross-reactivity might occur between mulberry fruit and birch pollen.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Humans , Male , Betula , Colic , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Asia, Eastern , Food Hypersensitivity , Fruit , Hypersensitivity , Immunoglobulin E , Korea , Morus , Pollen , Respiration , Skin , Thorax , Trees , Urticaria
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