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1.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 643-651, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976697

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This post-marketing surveillance (PMS) study was conducted to monitor the usage of axitinib (Inlyta) in clinical practice of Korean patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with disease progression during or after a prior systemic therapy in real world. @*Materials and Methods@#In this multicenter, observational study, patients indicated for oral axitinib 5 mg twice daily as second-line therapy for advanced RCC were followed up under routine clinical practices, and their safety and effectiveness outcomes were collected. @*Results@#Between 2012 and 2021, 125 patients were enrolled, and data from 111 patients were analyzed. Median age was 65 years (range, 30 to 84 years), 81% was male, and 110 (99%) had clear cell RCC. The median daily dose of axitinib was 10 mg (range, 4.36 to 15.95 mg) with a median administration period of 5.6 months (range, 15 to 750 days). Eighty-three percentage of patients experienced any grade of adverse events, 71% of which were related to study treatment, including diarrhea (36%), hypertension (21%), stomatitis (17%), decreased appetite (14%), palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome (12%), and asthenia (11%). Most adverse events were generally well tolerated and manageable, with 13% of grade ≥ 3. Axitinib dose reduction was required in 20% of the adverse events and discontinuation in 8%. Median progression-free survival was 12.4 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.6 to 18.9). Objective responses were observed in 30% of patients (95% CI, 21 to 39) with 4% of complete response and 26% of partial response. @*Conclusion@#No new safety signal was found in the present PMS study of Korean RCC patients. Axitinib showed consistent outcomes in terms of effectiveness and safety confirming that the drug is a valid option for second-line therapy in patients with advanced RCC in a real-world setting.

2.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 86-93, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968880

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Evidence in favor of adding docetaxel in treatment of metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (mHSPC) has led to docetaxel in conjunction with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) as standard therapy. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of docetaxel with ADT for Korean patients with mHSPC in real-world practice. @*Materials and Methods@#A retrospective cohort study was performed at six Korean hospitals for patients with mHSPC treated with docetaxel plus ADT. Patients were treated every 3 weeks for up to six cycles with 75 mg/m 2 of docetaxel. The primary endpoint was time to castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). @*Results@#This study included 46 eligible patients from June 2016 to February 2021. Median age was 68.5 years (range, 52–84) and all patients present with de novo M1 with high-volume disease. The median prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level at ADT initiation was 205.4 (7.7–1933) ng/mL, and time from ADT to docetaxel was 2.4 months (0–5.3). All six planned cycles of docetaxel were delivered in 36 patients (78%), 7 patients (15%) discontinued treatment due to adverse events, and 3 patients (7%) discontinued due to progression. At the time of the analysis, CRPC had developed in 34 patients (74%), and the median time to CRPC was 18.0 (95% confidence interval, 14.1–21.9) months. PSA <0.2 ng/mL was achieved in 11 patients (24%) after 6 months of ADT and in 10 patients (22%) after 12 months. At last follow-up, 35 patients (76%) were alive; the median overall survival was not reached. @*Conclusion@#The effect of docetaxel combined with ADT for Korean patients with mHSPC is comparable with prior results in Western studies.

3.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 231-244, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966497

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) signaling pathways have been used for metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (mCCRCC), but resistance to the drug develops in most patients. We aimed to explore the underlying mechanism of the TKI resistance with regard to programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) and to investigate signaling pathway associated with the resistant mechanism. @*Materials and Methods@#To determine the mechanism of resistance, 10 mCCRCC patients from whom tumor tissues were harvested at both the pretreatment and the TKI-resistant post-treatment period were included as the discovery cohort, and their global gene expression profiles were compared. A TKI-resistant renal cancer cell line was established by long-term treatment with sunitinib. @*Results@#Among differentially expressed genes in the discovery cohort, increased PD-L1 expression in post-treatment tissues was noted in four patients. Pathway analysis showed that PD-L1 expression was positively correlated with the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. The TKI-resistant renal cancer cells showed increased expression of PD-L1 and mTOR signaling proteins and demonstrated aggressive tumoral behaviour. Treatment with mTOR inhibitors down-regulated PD-L1 expression and suppressed aggressive tumoral behaviour, which was reversed with stimulation of the mTOR pathway. @*Conclusion@#These results showed that PD-L1 expression may be increased in a subset of VEGFR-TKI–resistant mCCRCC patients via the mTOR pathway.

4.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 226-233, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913825

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aims to evaluate the prognosis of pathologically node-positive bladder cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the role of adjuvant chemotherapy in these patients, and the value of preoperative clinical evaluation for lymph node metastases. @*Materials and Methods@#Patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by partial/radical cystectomy and had pathologically confirmed lymph node metastases between January 2007 and December 2019 were identified and analyzed. @*Results@#A total of 53 patients were included in the study. The median age was 61 years (range, 34 to 81 years) with males comprising 86.8%. Among the 52 patients with post-neoadjuvant/pre-operative computed tomography results, only 33 patients (63.5%) were considered positive for lymph node metastasis. Sixteen patients (30.2%) received adjuvant chemotherapy (AC group), and 37 patients did not (no AC group). With the median follow-up duration of 67.7 months, the median recurrence-free survival (RFS) and the median overall survival (OS) was 8.5 months and 16.2 months, respectively. The 2-year RFS and OS rates were 23.3% and 34.6%, respectively. RFS and OS did not differ between the AC group and no AC group (median RFS, 8.8 months vs. 6.8 months, p=0.772; median OS, 16.1 months vs. 16.3 months, p=0.479). Thirty-eight patients (71.7%) experienced recurrence. Distant metastases were the dominant pattern of failure in both the AC group (91.7%) and no AC group (76.9%). @*Conclusion@#Patients with lymph node-positive disease after neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery showed high recurrence rates with limited survival outcomes. Little benefit was observed with the addition of adjuvant chemotherapy.

5.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 491-514, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895992

ABSTRACT

In 2017, Korean Society of Medical Oncology (KSMO) published the Korean management guideline of metastatic prostate cancer. This paper is the 2nd edition of the Korean management guideline of metastatic prostate cancer. We updated recent many changes of management in metastatic prostate cancer in this 2nd edition guideline. The present guideline consists of the three categories: management of metastatic hormone sensitive prostate cancer; management of metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer; and clinical consideration for treating patients with metastatic prostate cancer. In category 1 and 2, levels of evidence (LEs) have been mentioned according to the general principles of evidence-based medicine. And grades of recommendation (GR) was taken into account the quality of evidence, the balance between desirable and undesirable effects, the values and preferences, and the use of resources and GR were divided into strong recommendations (SR) and weak recommendations (WR). A total of 16 key questions are selected. And we proposed recommendations and described key evidence for each recommendation. The treatment landscape of metastatic prostate cancer is changing very rapid and many trials are ongoing. To verify the results of the future trials is necessary and should be applied to the treatment for metastatic prostate cancer patients in the clinical practice. Especially, many prostate cancer patients are old age, have multiple underlying medical comorbidities, clinicians should be aware of the significance of medical management as well as clinical efficacy of systemic treatment.

6.
Annals of Laboratory Medicine ; : 207-213, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874173

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) is an autosomal dominant cancer predisposition syndrome. HLRCC is characterized by the development of cutaneous leiomyomas, early-onset uterine leiomyomas, and HLRCC-associated renal cell cancer (RCC) and caused by germline fumarate hydratase (FH) deficiency. We investigated the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of Korean patients with HLRCC. @*Methods@#We performed direct sequencing analysis of FH in 13 patients with suspected HLRCC and their family members. A chromosomal microarray test was performed in female patients with negative sequencing results but highly suspected HLRCC. In addition, we analyzed the clinical characteristics and evaluated the genotype–phenotype correlations in Korean patients with HLRCC. @*Results@#We identified six different pathogenic or likely pathogenic FH variants in six of the 13 patients (46.2%). The variants included two nonsense variants, two splicing variants, one frameshift variant, and one missense variant. Of the six variants, two (33.3%) were novel (c.132+1G > C, and c.243dup). RCC and early-onset uterine leiomyoma were frequently observed in families with HLRCC, while cutaneous leiomyoma was less common. No significant genotype–phenotype correlation was observed. @*Conclusions@#We describe the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum in a small series of Korean patients with HLRCC. Our data reveal the unique characteristics of Korean patients with HLRCC and suggest a need for establishing an optimal diagnostic approach for them.

7.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 232-243, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918264

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To construct a urologic cancer database using a standardized, reproducible method, and to assess preliminary characteristics of this cohort. @*Materials and Methods@#Patients with prostate, bladder, and kidney cancers who were enrolled with diagnostic codes in the electronic medical record (EMR) at Asan Medical Center from 2007–2016 were included. Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) was used to design the Asan Medical Center-Urologic Cancer Database (AMC-UCD). The process included developing a data dictionary, applying branching logic, mapping clinical data warehouse structures, alpha testing, clinical record summary testing, creating “standards of procedure,” importing data, and entering data. Descriptive statistics were used to identify rates of surgeries and numbers of patients. @*Results@#Clinical variables (n=407) were selected to develop a data dictionary from REDCap. In total, 20,198 urologic cancer patients visited our institution from 2007–2016 (bladder cancer, 4,616; kidney cancer, 5,750; prostate cancer, 10,330). The overall numbers of patients and surgeries increased over time, with robotic surgeries rapidly growing over a decade. The most common treatment for urologic cancer was surgery, followed by chemotherapy and radiation therapy. @*Conclusions@#Using a standardized method, the AMC-UCD fosters multidisciplinary research. This constructed database provides access to clinical statistics to effectively assist research. Preliminary data should be refined through EMR chart review. The successful organization of data from 2007–2016 provides a framework for future periods of investigation and prospective models.

8.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1166-1173, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913799

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to investigate the clinical outcomes with gemcitabine-carboplatin (GCb), the standard treatment for patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma (UC) who are ineligible for cisplatin-based regimens, in advanced UC patients with a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) < 30 mL/min. @*Materials and Methods@#A retrospective cohort study involving GCb-treated advanced UC patients with GFR < 60 mL/min (n=89) was performed. Clinical outcomes were compared between subgroups with GFR < 30 mL/min and GFR ≥ 30 mL/min but < 60 mL/min. @*Results@#Most baseline characteristics were comparable between the two subgroups. Patients with GFR < 30 mL/min had a significantly lower objective response rate (12.5%) compared to those with higher GFR levels (56.7%) (p=0.004). The number of GCb cycles was significantly lower in patients with GFR < 30 mL/min (median 2 cycles) than in those with higher GFR levels (median 6 cycles) (p=0.002). Compared to those with GFR ≥ 30 mL/min but < 60 mL/min, patients with GFR < 30 mL/min showed significantly worse progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) (p < 0.001 for both). Further stratification of patient subgroups according to their GFR (i.e., GFR ≥ 45 mL/min but < 60 mL/min vs. GFR ≥ 30 mL/min but < 45 mL/min vs. GFR < 30 mL/min) revealed significantly different PFS and OS (p < 0.001 for both). @*Conclusion@#The use of GCb is discouraged in advanced UC patients with GFR < 30 mL/min. Alternative therapeutic approaches with better efficacy are warranted for these patients.

9.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 491-514, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903696

ABSTRACT

In 2017, Korean Society of Medical Oncology (KSMO) published the Korean management guideline of metastatic prostate cancer. This paper is the 2nd edition of the Korean management guideline of metastatic prostate cancer. We updated recent many changes of management in metastatic prostate cancer in this 2nd edition guideline. The present guideline consists of the three categories: management of metastatic hormone sensitive prostate cancer; management of metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer; and clinical consideration for treating patients with metastatic prostate cancer. In category 1 and 2, levels of evidence (LEs) have been mentioned according to the general principles of evidence-based medicine. And grades of recommendation (GR) was taken into account the quality of evidence, the balance between desirable and undesirable effects, the values and preferences, and the use of resources and GR were divided into strong recommendations (SR) and weak recommendations (WR). A total of 16 key questions are selected. And we proposed recommendations and described key evidence for each recommendation. The treatment landscape of metastatic prostate cancer is changing very rapid and many trials are ongoing. To verify the results of the future trials is necessary and should be applied to the treatment for metastatic prostate cancer patients in the clinical practice. Especially, many prostate cancer patients are old age, have multiple underlying medical comorbidities, clinicians should be aware of the significance of medical management as well as clinical efficacy of systemic treatment.

10.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e31-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899758

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Mechanism and predictive biomarkers for tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) resistance of advanced clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) have not been fully evaluated.@*METHODS@#We performed gene expression profiling on samples from an acquired TKI resistance cohort that consisted of 10 cases of TKI-treated ccRCC patients with matched tumor tissues harvested at pre-treatment and TKI-resistant post-treatment periods. In addition, a public microarray dataset from patient-derived xenograft model for TKI-treated ccRCC (GSE76068) was retrieved. Commonly altered pathways between the datasets were investigated by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis using commonly regulated differently expressed genes (DEGs). The significance of candidate DEG on intrinsic TKI resistance was assessed through immunohistochemistry in a separate cohort of 101 TKI-treated ccRCC cases.@*RESULTS@#TNFRSF1A gene expression and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α pathway were upregulated in ccRCCs with acquired TKI resistance in both microarray datasets. Also, high expression (> 10% of labeled tumor cells) of TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1), the protein product of TNFRSF1A gene, was correlated with sarcomatoid dedifferentiation and was an independent predictive factor of clinically unfavorable response and shorter survivals in separated TKI-treated ccRCC cohort.@*CONCLUSION@#TNF-α signaling may play a role in TKI resistance, and TNFR1 expression may serve as a predictive biomarker for clinically unfavorable TKI responses in ccRCC.

11.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e31-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892054

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Mechanism and predictive biomarkers for tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) resistance of advanced clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) have not been fully evaluated.@*METHODS@#We performed gene expression profiling on samples from an acquired TKI resistance cohort that consisted of 10 cases of TKI-treated ccRCC patients with matched tumor tissues harvested at pre-treatment and TKI-resistant post-treatment periods. In addition, a public microarray dataset from patient-derived xenograft model for TKI-treated ccRCC (GSE76068) was retrieved. Commonly altered pathways between the datasets were investigated by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis using commonly regulated differently expressed genes (DEGs). The significance of candidate DEG on intrinsic TKI resistance was assessed through immunohistochemistry in a separate cohort of 101 TKI-treated ccRCC cases.@*RESULTS@#TNFRSF1A gene expression and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α pathway were upregulated in ccRCCs with acquired TKI resistance in both microarray datasets. Also, high expression (> 10% of labeled tumor cells) of TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1), the protein product of TNFRSF1A gene, was correlated with sarcomatoid dedifferentiation and was an independent predictive factor of clinically unfavorable response and shorter survivals in separated TKI-treated ccRCC cohort.@*CONCLUSION@#TNF-α signaling may play a role in TKI resistance, and TNFR1 expression may serve as a predictive biomarker for clinically unfavorable TKI responses in ccRCC.

12.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 834-853, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831782

ABSTRACT

After cisplatin-based chemotherapy became the standard treatment for metastatic urothelial cancer (mUC), very little progress has been made in the treatment landscape of this condition until recently. With increased knowledge about the molecular biology of mUC and advances in the field of cancer immunobiology, there has been an explosion in the number of clinical trials for mUC, and systemic treatment of mUC is rapidly changing. Despite the availability of several novel therapeutic agents, cisplatin-based cytotoxic chemotherapy remains the standard, first-line treatment option. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), including programmed death-1 and programmed death ligand-1 inhibitors, are preferred second-line treatment options that are also used in first-line cisplatin-ineligible settings. For patients with actionable fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) or FGFR3 genomic alterations, erdafitinib can be considered after platinum-based treatment. Enfortumab vedotin, a monoclonal antibody targeting nectin-4 conjugated to monomethyl auristatin E, has been approved for patients who do not respond to both cytotoxic chemotherapy and ICIs. In this review, we address the clinical trial data that have established the current standard treatments and ongoing clinical trials of various agents with different mechanisms as well as provide a brief overview of current practice guidelines and recommendations in patients with mUC.

13.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 31-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-782505

ABSTRACT

10% of labeled tumor cells) of TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1), the protein product of TNFRSF1A gene, was correlated with sarcomatoid dedifferentiation and was an independent predictive factor of clinically unfavorable response and shorter survivals in separated TKI-treated ccRCC cohort.CONCLUSION: TNF-α signaling may play a role in TKI resistance, and TNFR1 expression may serve as a predictive biomarker for clinically unfavorable TKI responses in ccRCC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biomarkers , Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Cohort Studies , Dataset , Drug Resistance , Gene Expression , Gene Expression Profiling , Heterografts , Immunohistochemistry , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
14.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1549-1556, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763206

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC) is a rare genetic syndrome resulting from germline mutations in fumarate hydratase. The combination of bevacizumab plus erlotinib showed promising interim results for HLRCC-associated RCC. Based on these results, we analyzed the outcome of bevacizumab plus erlotinib in Korean patients with HLRCC-associated RCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab plus erlotinib in patients with HLRCC-associated RCC who were confirmed to have germline mutations in fumarate hydratase. The primary endpoint was the objective response rate (ORR), while the secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). RESULT: We identified 10 patients with advanced HLRCC-associated RCC who received bevacizumab plus erlotinib. Median age at diagnosis was 41 years, and five of the patients had received the combination as first- or second-line treatments. The ORR was 50% and the median PFS and OS were 13.3 and 14.1 months, respectively. Most adverse events were predictable and manageable by conventional measures, except for one instance where a patient died of gastrointestinal bleeding. CONCLUSION: This is the first real-world outcome of the treatment of advanced HLRCC-associated RCC. Bevacizumab plus erlotinib therapy showed promising activity with moderate toxicity. We should be increasingly aware of HLRCC-associated RCC and bevacizumab plus erlotinib should be a first-line treatment for this condition, unless other promising data are published.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bevacizumab , Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Diagnosis , Disease-Free Survival , Erlotinib Hydrochloride , Fumarate Hydratase , Germ-Line Mutation , Hemorrhage , Leiomyomatosis , Retrospective Studies
15.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1252-1259, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717743

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signals are important in carcinogenesis and progression of prostate cancer. Dovitinib is an oral, pan-class inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), platelet-derived growth factor receptor, and fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR). We evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of dovitinib in men with metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a single-arm, phase II, open-label, multicenter trial of dovitinib 500 mg/day (5-days-on/2-days-off schedule). The primary endpoint was 16-week progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints were overall survival (OS), toxicity and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response rate. Biomarker analyses for VEGFR2, FGF23, and FGFR2 using multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed. RESULTS: Forty-four men were accrued from 11 hospitals. Eighty percent were post-docetaxel. Median PSA was 100 ng/dL, median age was 69, 82% had bone metastases, and 23% had liver metastases. Median cycles of dovitinib was 2 (range, 0 to 33). Median PFS was 3.67 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36 to 5.98) and median OS was 13.70 months (95% CI, 0 to 27.41). Chemotherapy-naïve patients had longer PFS (17.90 months; 95% CI, 9.23 to 28.57) compared with docetaxel-treated patients (2.07 months; 95% CI, 1.73 to 2.41; p=0.001) and the patients with high serum VEGFR2 level over median level (7,800 pg/mL) showed longer PFS compared with others (6.03 months [95% CI, 4.26 to 7.80] vs. 1.97 months [95% CI, 1.79 to 2.15], p=0.023). Grade 3 related adverse events were seen in 40.9% of patients. Grade 1-2 nausea, diarrhea, fatigue, anorexia, and all grade thrombocytopenia are common. CONCLUSION: Dovitinib showed modest antitumor activity with manageable toxicities in men with mCRPC. Especially, patients who were chemo-naïve benefitted from dovitinib.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Anorexia , Biomarkers , Carcinogenesis , Castration , Diarrhea , Disease-Free Survival , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Fatigue , Fibroblast Growth Factors , Liver , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Nausea , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prostate , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatic Neoplasms , Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant , Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor , Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor , Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor , Thrombocytopenia
16.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 488-494, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714224

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The optimal treatment strategy for patients with metastatic non-clear cell type renal cell carcinoma (nccRCC) remains unclear. Although several inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor have recently shown efficacy against nccRCC, the clinical benefit of pazopanib in nccRCC has not been analyzed. We therefore designed a single-arm, open-label, phase II study to determine the efficacy and safety of pazopanib in patients with nccRCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with locally advanced or metastatic nccRCC, exceptfor collecting duct or sarcomatoid type, received 800 mg/day of pazopanib daily until progression of disease or intolerable toxicity. One cyclewas defined as 4 weeks and tumor response was evaluated every two cycles. The primary objective was overall response rate (ORR). RESULTS: A total of 29 eligible patients were enrolled at nine centers in Korea from December 2012 and September 2014. The median age of the patients was 58 years (range, 27 to 76 years) and 21 patients (72%) were male. Regarding histology type, 19 patients had papillary, three had chromophobe, two had unclassified and five had unknown non-clear cell type. Of 28 evaluable patients, eight achieved a confirmed partial response with ORR of 28%. The median progression-free survival was 16.5 months (95% confidence interval, 10.9 to 22.1) and median overall survival was not reached. Sixteen patients (55%) experienced treatment-related toxicity of grade 3 or more, but most adverse events were overcome through dose reduction and delay. CONCLUSION: In this prospective phase II study, pazopanib demonstrated promising activity and tolerable safety profile in patients with metastatic nccRCC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Disease-Free Survival , Korea , Prospective Studies , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
17.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1324-1330, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717520

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although gemcitabine plus cisplatin has been established as the standard first-line chemotherapy for patients with advanced biliary tract cancer (BTC), overall prognosis remains poor. We investigated the efficacy of a novel triplet combination of oxaliplatin, irinotecan, and S-1 (OIS) for advanced BTC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chemotherapy-naive patientswith histologically documented unresectable or metastatic BTC were eligible for this multicenter, single-arm phase II study. Patients received 65 mg/m2 oxaliplatin (day 1), 135 mg/m2 irinotecan (day 1), and 40 mg/m2 S-1 (twice a day, days 1-7) every 2 weeks. Primary endpoint was objective response rate. Targeted exome sequencing for biomarker analysis was performed using archival tissue. RESULTS: In total, 32 patients were enrolled between October 2015 and June 2016. Median age was 64 years (range, 40 to 76 years), with 24 (75%) male patients; 97% patients had metastatic or recurrent disease. Response rate was 50%, and median progression-free survival and overall survival (OS) were 6.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.8 to 8.8) and 12.5 months (95% CI, 7.0 to 18.0), respectively. The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were neutropenia (32%), diarrhea (6%), and peripheral neuropathy (6%). TP53 and KRAS mutations were the most frequent genomic alterations (42% and 32%, respectively), and KRAS mutations showed a marginal relationship with worse OS (p=0.07). CONCLUSION: OIS combination chemotherapy was feasible and associated with favorable efficacy outcomes as a first-line treatment in patients with advanced BTC. Randomized studies are needed to compare OIS with gemcitabine plus cisplatin.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Biliary Tract Neoplasms , Biliary Tract , Cholangiocarcinoma , Cisplatin , Diarrhea , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Exome , Neutropenia , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases , Prognosis , Triplets
18.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 124-141, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-193491

ABSTRACT

The management of advanced prostate cancer has evolved rapidly. Androgen deprivation therapy, via surgical or medical castration, is the first-line therapy for hormone-naïve metastatic prostate cancer. For approximately a decade, docetaxel-based chemotherapy was the only approved agent to show a survival benefit for castration-resistant prostate cancer. However, over the last 5 years, significant advances in the field have led to the approval of several new agents with different mechanisms of action, such as the new androgen pathway inhibitors abiraterone and enzalutamide, a new cytotoxic agent, cabazitaxel, and new bone-seeking agents such as radium-223, which have all been associated with improved quality of life and pain palliation and an increase in survival. However, there has been no Korean treatment guideline for metastatic prostate cancer which is developed based on thorough search for relevant articles, including recently developed agents, and adequate review and assessment of evidences, and thus, a guideline adequate for domestic circumstance is eagerly needed. Experts from the Genitourinary Oncology Committee of the Korea Cancer Study Group developed clinical recommendations for the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer based on 19 key questions. The Korean Association for Clinical Oncology, the Korean Prostate Society, the Korean Urological Oncology Society, and the Korean Society of Pathologists reviewed and endorsed the guidelines. These are the first Korean treatment guidelines developed specifically for metastatic prostate cancer.


Subject(s)
Castration , Drug Therapy , Korea , Medical Oncology , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prostate , Prostatic Neoplasms , Quality of Life
19.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 759-765, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129235

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma (ACC) is a rare cancer of the exocrine pancreas. Because of its rare incidence, the efficacy of chemotherapy in this patient population has been largely unknown. Therefore, we retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of patients with advanced pancreatic ACC who received chemotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 1997 and March 2015, 15 patients with unresectable or metastatic pancreatic ACC who received systemic chemotherapy were identified in Asan Medical Center, Korea. RESULTS: The median age was 58 years. Eleven and four patients had recurrent/metastatic and locally advanced unresectable disease. The median overall survival in all patients was 20.9 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.7 to 26.1). As first-line therapy, intravenous 5-fluorouracil were administered in four patients (27%), gemcitabine in five (33%), gemcitabine plus capecitabine in two (13%), oxaliplatin plus 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin (FOLFOX) in two (13%), and concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by capecitabine maintenance therapy in two (13%). The objective response rate (ORR) to chemotherapy alone was 23% and the median progression-free survival (PFS) was 5.6 months (95% CI, 2.8 to 8.4). After progression, second-line chemotherapy was administered in eight patients, while four patients received FOLFOX and the other four patients received gemcitabine. The ORR was 38%, and patients administered FOLFOX had significantly better PFS than those administered gemcitabine (median, 6.5 months vs. 1.4 months; p=0.007). The ratio of time to tumor progression (TTP) during first-line chemotherapy to TTP at second-line chemotherapy was significantly higher in patients administered FOLFOX (4.07; range, 0.87 to 8.30) than in those administered gemcitabine (0.12; range, 0.08 to 0.25; p=0.029). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that oxaliplatin-containing regimens may have improved activity against pancreatic ACC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acinar Cells , Antineoplastic Agents , Capecitabine , Carcinoma, Acinar Cell , Chemoradiotherapy , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Fluorouracil , Incidence , Korea , Pancreas, Exocrine , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Retrospective Studies
20.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 759-765, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129221

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma (ACC) is a rare cancer of the exocrine pancreas. Because of its rare incidence, the efficacy of chemotherapy in this patient population has been largely unknown. Therefore, we retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of patients with advanced pancreatic ACC who received chemotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 1997 and March 2015, 15 patients with unresectable or metastatic pancreatic ACC who received systemic chemotherapy were identified in Asan Medical Center, Korea. RESULTS: The median age was 58 years. Eleven and four patients had recurrent/metastatic and locally advanced unresectable disease. The median overall survival in all patients was 20.9 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.7 to 26.1). As first-line therapy, intravenous 5-fluorouracil were administered in four patients (27%), gemcitabine in five (33%), gemcitabine plus capecitabine in two (13%), oxaliplatin plus 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin (FOLFOX) in two (13%), and concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by capecitabine maintenance therapy in two (13%). The objective response rate (ORR) to chemotherapy alone was 23% and the median progression-free survival (PFS) was 5.6 months (95% CI, 2.8 to 8.4). After progression, second-line chemotherapy was administered in eight patients, while four patients received FOLFOX and the other four patients received gemcitabine. The ORR was 38%, and patients administered FOLFOX had significantly better PFS than those administered gemcitabine (median, 6.5 months vs. 1.4 months; p=0.007). The ratio of time to tumor progression (TTP) during first-line chemotherapy to TTP at second-line chemotherapy was significantly higher in patients administered FOLFOX (4.07; range, 0.87 to 8.30) than in those administered gemcitabine (0.12; range, 0.08 to 0.25; p=0.029). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that oxaliplatin-containing regimens may have improved activity against pancreatic ACC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acinar Cells , Antineoplastic Agents , Capecitabine , Carcinoma, Acinar Cell , Chemoradiotherapy , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Fluorouracil , Incidence , Korea , Pancreas, Exocrine , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Retrospective Studies
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