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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926964

ABSTRACT

Sedation can resolve anxiety and fear in patients undergoing endoscopy. The use of sedatives has increased in Korea. Appropriate sedation is a state in which the patient feels subjectively comfortable while maintaining the airway reflex for stable spontaneous breathing. The patient should maintain a state of consciousness to the extent that he or she can cooperate with the needs of the medical staff. Despite its benefits, endoscopic sedation has been associated with cardiopulmonary complications. Cardiopulmonary complications are usually temporary. Most patients recover without sequelae. However, they may progress to serious complications, such as cardiovascular collapse. Therefore, it is essential to screen high-risk patients before sedation and reduce complications by meticulous monitoring. Additionally, physicians should be familiar with the management of emergencies. The first Korean clinical practice guideline for endoscopic sedation was developed based on previous worldwide guidelines for endoscopic sedation using an adaptation process. The guideline consists of nine recommendations based on a critical review of currently available data and expert consensus when the guideline was drafted. These guidelines should provide clinicians, nurses, medical school students, and policy makers with information on how to perform endoscopic sedation with minimal risk.

2.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926736

ABSTRACT

Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided intervention has gradually become a standard treatment for peripancreatic fluid collections (PFCs). However, it is difficult to popularize the procedure in Korea because of restrictions on insurance claims regarding the use of endoscopic accessories, as well as the lack of standardized Korean clinical practice guidelines. The Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (appointed a Task Force to develope medical guidelines by referring to the manual for clinical practice guidelines development prepared by the National Evidence-Based Healthcare Collaborating Agency. Previous studies on PFCs were searched, and certain studies were selected with the help of experts. Then, a set of key questions was selected, and treatment guidelines were systematically reviewed. Answers to these questions and recommendations were selected via peer review. This guideline discusses endoscopic management of PFCs and makes recommendations on indication for the procedure, pre-procedural preparations, optimal approach for drainage, procedural considerations (e.g., types of stent, advantages and disadvantages of plastic and metal stents, and accessories), adverse events of endoscopic intervention, and procedural quality issues. This guideline was reviewed by external experts and suggests best practices recommended based on the evidence available at the time of preparation. This will be revised as necessary to address advances and changes in technology and evidence obtained in clinical practice and future studies.

3.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926730

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Although several studies have compared the characteristics of Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RHS) with Bell’s palsy (BP), the differences in comorbid symptoms and prognosis according to symptoms have not been determined. This study therefore evaluated the differences in otologic symptoms and prognosis between patients with these two conditions.Subjects and Method The medical records of 118 patients with RHS and 215 patients with BP were retrospectively reviewed. Factors compared in these two groups included otologic symptoms, general health condition, electroneurography (ENoG) and House-Brackmann grades. @*Results@#Age, sex, body mass index, lipid profiles, ENoG, rate of diabetes, and side of palsy did not differ significantly between patients with RHS and BP (p>0.05). The rates of hearing disturbance, tinnitus, vertigo, and postauricular pain were significantly higher in RHS (p0.05). Additionally, in patients with facial paralysis, diabetes was associated with hearing disturbance and vertigo symptoms and dyslipidemia was associated with postauricular pain (p<0.05 each). @*Conclusion@#Otologic symptoms were more common in RHS than in BP. However, the prognosis of RHS and BP were not related to otologic symptoms. In patients with facial palsy hearing disturbance and vertigo were associated with diabetes and hypertension. Also, dyslipidemia was associated with post auricular pain.

4.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 167-182, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925768

ABSTRACT

Sedation can resolve anxiety and fear in patients undergoing endoscopy. The use of sedatives has increased in Korea. Appropriate sedation is a state in which the patient feels subjectively comfortable while maintaining the airway reflex for stable spontaneous breathing. The patient should maintain a state of consciousness to the extent that he or she can cooperate with the needs of the medical staff. Despite its benefits, endoscopic sedation has been associated with cardiopulmonary complications. Cardiopulmonary complications are usually temporary. Most patients recover without sequelae. However, they may progress to serious complications, such as cardiovascular collapse. Therefore, it is essential to screen high-risk patients before sedation and reduce complications by meticulous monitoring. Additionally, physicians should be familiar with the management of emergencies. The first Korean clinical practice guideline for endoscopic sedation was developed based on previous worldwide guidelines for endoscopic sedation using an adaptation process. The guideline consists of nine recommendations based on a critical review of currently available data and expert consensus when the guideline was drafted. These guidelines should provide clinicians, nurses, medical school students, and policy makers with information on how to perform endoscopic sedation with minimal risk.

5.
Gut and Liver ; : 341-356, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925017

ABSTRACT

Sedation can resolve anxiety and fear in patients undergoing endoscopy. The use of sedatives has increased in Korea. Appropriate sedation is a state in which the patient feels subjectively comfortable while maintaining the airway reflex for stable spontaneous breathing. The patient should maintain a state of consciousness to the extent that he or she can cooperate with the needs of the medical staff. Despite its benefits, endoscopic sedation has been associated with cardiopulmonary complications. Such cardiopulmonary complications are usually temporary, and most patients recover without sequelae. However, these events may progress to serious complications, such as cardiovascular collapse. Therefore, it is essential to screen high-risk patients before sedation and reduce complications by meticulous monitoring. Additionally, physicians should be familiar with the management of emergencies. The first Korean clinical practice guideline for endoscopic sedation was developed based on previous worldwide guidelines for endoscopic sedation using an adaptation process. The guideline consists of nine recommendations based on a critical review of currently available data and expert consensus when the guideline was drafted. These guidelines should provide clinicians, nurses, medical school students, and policy makers with information on how to perform endoscopic sedation with minimal risk.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919204

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The study aimed to investigate the current practice patterns in the management of pancreatic cystic neoplasms in Korea. @*Methods@#An electronic survey was systematically distributed by email to members of the Korean Pancreatobiliary Association from December 2019 to February 2020. @*Results@#In total, 115 (110 gastroenterologists, five surgeons) completed the survey, 72.2% of whom worked in a tertiary/academic medical center. Most (65.2%) followed the 2012/2017 International Association of Pancreatology guidelines for the management of pancreatic cystic neoplasms. A gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging/magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography was the most common first-line diagnostic modality (42.1%), but a contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan was preferred as a subsequent surveillance tool (58.3%). Seventy- four percent of respondents routinely performed endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration for pancreatic cystic neoplasms with suspicious mural nodules. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (94.8%) and cystic fluid carcinoembryonic antigen (95.7%) were used for cystic fluid analysis. Most (94%) typically recommended surgery in patients with high-risk stigmata, but 18.3% also considered proceeding with surgery in patients with worrisome features. Most (96.5%) would continue surveillance of pancreatic cystic neoplasms for more than 5 years. @*Conclusions@#According to this survey, there was variability in the management of pancreatic cystic neoplasms among the respondents. These results suggest that the development of evidence-based guidelines for pancreatic cystic neoplasms that fit the Korean practice is needed to create an optimal approach to the management of pancreatic cystic neoplasms.

7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918133

ABSTRACT

Initial and convalescent treatment of acute pancreatitis (AP) is important in order to improve the prognosis and prevent the recurrence in the patients with AP. Initial intensive treatment includes fluid therapy, pain control, antimicrobial therapy, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), and nutritional support. Goal-directed therapy is recommended for fluid therapy, and the routine use of prophylactic antibiotics is not recommended. In acute gallstone pancreatitis, urgent ERCP should be performed only in patients with cholangitis or persistent cholestasis. Early oral feeding is advisable as tolerated and enteral feeding via nasogastric or nasojejunal tube appear comparable. In convalescent treatment, cholecystectomy during the initial admission is advisable for mild biliary pancreatitis with gallstone as possible, and treatment against alcohol dependence is considerable for recurrent acute alcoholic pancreatitis. In this review, we recommend practice guidelines for initial treatment, nutritional support, and convalescent treatment.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913833

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a rare disease in children and there are some different characteristics between children and adult. We aimed to evaluate incidence, clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of pediatric APL in Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#Seventy-nine pediatric APL patients diagnosed from January 2009 to December 2016 in 16 tertiary medical centers in Korea were reviewed retrospectively. @*Results@#Of 801 acute myeloid leukemia children, 79 (9.9%) were diagnosed with APL. The median age at diagnosis was 10.6 years (range, 1.3 to 18.0). Male and female ratio was 1:0.93. Thirty patients (38.0%) had white blood cell (WBC) count greater than 10×109/L at diagnosis. All patients received induction therapy consisting of all-trans retinoic acid and chemotherapy. Five patients (6.6%) died during induction chemotherapy and 66 patients (86.8%) achieved complete remission (CR) after induction chemotherapy. The causes of death were three intracranial hemorrhage, one cerebral infarction, and one sepsis. Five patients (7.1%) suffered a relapse during or after maintenance chemotherapy. The estimated 4-year event-free survival and overall survival (OS) rates were 82.1%±4.4%, 89.7%±5.1%, respectively. The 4-year OS was significantly higher in patients with initial WBC < 10×109/L than in those with initial WBC ≥ 10×109/L (p=0.020). @*Conclusion@#This study showed that the CR rates and survival outcomes in Korean pediatric APL patients were relatively good. The initial WBC count was the most important prognostic factor and most causes of death were related to serious bleeding in the early stage of treatment.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903564

ABSTRACT

Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided tissue acquisition of pancreatic solid tumor requires a strict recommendation for its proper use in clinical practice because of its technical difficulty and invasiveness. The Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy appointed a Task Force to draft clinical practice guidelines for EUS-guided tissue acquisition of pancreatic solid tumor. The strength of recommendation and the level of evidence for each statement were graded according to the Minds Handbook for Clinical Practice Guideline Development 2014. The committee, comprising a development panel of 16 endosonographers and an expert on guideline development methodology, developed 12 evidence-based recommendations in eight categories intended to help physicians make evidence-based clinical judgments with regard to the diagnosis of pancreatic solid tumor. This clinical practice guideline discusses EUS-guided sampling in pancreatic solid tumor and makes recommendations on circumstances that warrant its use, technical issues related to maximizing the diagnostic yield (e.g., needle type, needle diameter, adequate number of needle passes, sample obtaining techniques, and methods of specimen processing), adverse events of EUS-guided tissue acquisition, and learning-related issues.This guideline was reviewed by external experts and suggests best practices recommended based on the evidence available at the time of preparation. This guideline may not be applicable for all clinical situations and should be interpreted in light of specific situations and the availability of resources. It will be revised as necessary to cover progress and changes in technology and evidence from clinical practice

10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902514

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#To examine the opinions regarding recovery and assess their will to recover in outpatients with schizophrenia. @*Methods@#Total 98 stable outpatients with schizophrenia were enrolled. To investigate the outpatients’ opinions regarding recovery, we asked the subjects to write down the ways they could think they had recovered from their current disease. We classified their answers and chose final 39 statements. Using this questionnaire, they were asked to what extent they agreed with each statement. Moreover, the Recovery Assessment Scale (RAS) was used to measure the subjects’ will to recover. @*Results@#Many of the 39 subjects who were surveyed about their opinions on recovery agreed on 11 statements about taking medicine, social life, daily life, social functioning, positivity about life (happiness, hope, confidence, and tranquility), symptoms, occupation, and self-control. The RAS score showed a significant correlation with age (r=-0.26, p<0.01), age at onset (r=0.26, p<0.01), duration of illness (r=-0.52, p<0.01), and number of hospitalization (r=-0.46, p<0.01). @*Conclusion@#This study shows that positivity about life is an important part of the patients’ subjective recovery criteria in schizophrenia. Therefore, if clinicians pay more attention to this part of subjective recovery, it would strengthen the patients’ will for recovery.

11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875245

ABSTRACT

Background@#/Aim: The COVID-19 pandemic has changed the way of traditional conference and meeting. Since social distancing rule was important issue, many conferences across the world were cancelled or postponed indefinitely. In 2020, International Conference of the Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (IC-KPBA) was held as a hybrid online and offline conference. Here, we report the result of a national survey about online and offline medical conference in Korea. @*Methods@#The survey was performed for both online and offline participants after IC-KPBA. The contents of survey included their way to access the hybrid online-offline conference and satisfaction with the conference format. @*Results@#Total of 78 participants answered the survey and there was no technical problem. Most offline participants were satisfied the prevention measures at conference hall as follows; very satisfied-56%; satisfied-34%. The quality of video and audio were generally satisfactory in both conference hall and virtual conference. ‘Live online lectures’ is the most preferred method of lecture delivery and personal computer with LAN network is preferred to access online conference. Eighty seven percent of offline participants and 91% of online participants answered satisfied and very satisfied, respectively. @*Conclusions@#Participants of IC-KPBA 2020 with hybrid online-offline conference showed a high level of satisfaction.

12.
Gut and Liver ; : 217-224, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874596

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Chitosan, a natural polymer widely used in the biomaterials field, has been proposed as a potential submucosal injection solution. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance and efficacy of aqueous chitosan solution and commercialized submucosal injection fluids using a three-dimensional sensor and to evaluate the efficacy of the measured parameters. @*Methods@#Normal saline (0.9% NaCl), as a control, Eleview ® (Poloxamer 188), Blue Eye TM (0.4% hyaluronic acid), and aqueous chitosan solution (2.0%) were injected into the submucosa of porcine stomachs ex vivo. The mucosal elevation height, elevated surface area, and angle of the tangent of the submucosal fluid cushion were measured using a three-dimensional sensor. The rates of change for each variable were calculated, and the correlation between parameters was analyzed. Tissue specimens were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. @*Results@#All variables exhibited the highest values under chitosan injection. The mucosal elevation height rate of change differed significantly between normal saline and chitosan solution (p=0.024). The elevated surface area rates of change for normal saline and Eleview® were significantly different from those for TS-905 and chitosan solution (p=0.006 and p=0.009, respectively). Further, height, area, and angle showed a positive correlation (p<0.001). A histological examination revealed an even distribution of aqueous chitosan within the submucosa without tissue damage. @*Conclusions@#Aqueous chitosan was superior to normal saline and Eleview® and was noninferior to TS-905. A three-dimensional sensor and the measured parameters were effective and useful for evaluating the performance of submucosal fluids.

13.
Gut and Liver ; : 677-693, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898472

ABSTRACT

Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided intervention has gradually become a standard treatment for peripancreatic fluid collections (PFCs). However, it is difficult to popularize the procedure in Korea because of restrictions on insurance claims regarding the use of endoscopic accessories, as well as the lack of standardized Korean clinical practice guidelines. The Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy appointed a Task Force to develop medical guidelines by referring to the manual for clinical practice guidelines development prepared by the National Evidence-Based Healthcare Collaborating Agency. Previous studies on PFCs were searched, and certain studies were selected with the help of experts. Then, a set of key questions was selected, and treatment guidelines were systematically reviewed. Answers to these questions and recommendations were selected via peer review. This guideline discusses endoscopic management of PFCs and makes recommendations on Indications for the procedure, pre-procedural preparations, optimal approach for drainage, procedural considerations (e.g., types of stent, advantages and disadvantages of plastic and metal stents, and accessories), adverse events of endoscopic intervention, and procedural quality issues. This guideline was reviewed by external experts and suggests best practices recommended based on the evidence available at the time of preparation. This will be revised as necessary to address advances and changes in technology and evidence obtained in clinical practice and future studies.

14.
Gut and Liver ; : 354-374, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898451

ABSTRACT

Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided tissue acquisition of pancreatic solid tumor requires a strict recommendation for its proper use in clinical practice because of its technical difficulty and invasiveness. The Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (KSGE) appointed a task force to draft clinical practice guidelines for EUS-guided tissue acquisition of pancreatic solid tumor. The strength of recommendation and the level of evidence for each statement were graded according to the Minds Handbook for Clinical Practice Guideline Development 2014. The committee, comprising a development panel of 16 endosonographers and an expert on guideline development methodology, developed 12 evidence-based recommendations in eight categories intended to help physicians make evidence-based clinical judgments with regard to the diagnosis of pancreatic solid tumor. This clinical practice guideline discusses EUS-guided sampling in pancreatic solid tumor and makes recommendations on circumstances that warrant its use, technical issues related to maximizing the diagnostic yield (e.g., needle type, needle diameter, adequate number of needle passes, sample obtaining techniques, and methods of specimen processing), adverse events of EUS-guided tissue acquisition, and learning-related issues. This guideline was reviewed by external experts and suggests best practices recommended based on the evidence available at the time of preparation. This guideline may not be applicable for all clinical situations and should be interpreted in light of specific situations and the availability of resources. It will be revised as necessary to cover progress and changes in technology and evidence from clinical practice.

15.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 694-700, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897810

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Several attempts have been made to incorporate smart glasses in the medical field. We applied wearable display glasses to show the position of an observer during endoscopy and compared students’ responses between the conventional and new methods. @*Methods@#We surveyed 28 medical students regarding the use of wearable display devices. The students used wearable display glasses to observe an endoscopic procedure and answered the prepared questionnaire. Their collected responses were analyzed for statistical correlations between each variable. @*Results@#The survey of medical students revealed disadvantages including dizziness (dissatisfied and very dissatisfied: 21.5%) and eye fatigue (25% dissatisfied) and advantages including concentration (satisfied and very satisfied: 57.2%) and securing patient rights (71.4%). The students showed more positive than negative reviews regarding the new devices (32.1% vs. 21.5%). @*Conclusions@#We investigated the advantages and disadvantages of viewing the endoscope image with new wearable display glasses compared to the conventional method using the survey to record user experience. The results revealed relatively positive responses from the medical students in the survey. If the new device compensates for some shortcomings, its use in the endoscopy room will be feasible.

16.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 413-419, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897787

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a relatively new ablation method. However, the application of IRE ablation in the treatment of biliary disease has not been attempted. A minimally invasive approach using endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) can be a novel therapeutic modality for IRE ablation. In this study, we aimed to investigate the feasibility of endoscopic IRE for the biliary tract using an animal model. @*Methods@#A new catheter-type electrode was developed for endoscopic IRE ablation of the biliary tract. We performed ERCP and endoscopic IRE ablations in the normal common bile duct of Yorkshire pigs. The experimental setting of IRE was 500 V/cm (50 pulses, 100-µs length). The animals were sacrificed after 24 hr, and the ablated bile duct was examined. @*Results@#Well-demarcated focal color changes were observed on the mucosa of the common bile duct. The depth of change after IRE was confined to the mucosal and submucosal layers. Apoptotic changes in the bile duct were observed only around the IRE ablation area. Immunohistochemistry assay showed cell death in the bile duct along the electrode. @*Conclusions@#Endoscopic IRE ablation using ERCP was successfully performed in the common bile duct. It can be a potential option for the treatment of biliary tumors.

17.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 161-181, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897748

ABSTRACT

Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided tissue acquisition of pancreatic solid tumor requires a strict recommendation for its proper use in clinical practice because of its technical difficulty and invasiveness. The Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (KSGE) appointed a Task Force to draft clinical practice guidelines for EUS-guided tissue acquisition of pancreatic solid tumor. The strength of recommendation and the level of evidence for each statement were graded according to the Minds Handbook for Clinical Practice Guideline Development 2014. The committee, comprising a development panel of 16 endosonographers and an expert on guideline development methodology, developed 12 evidence-based recommendations in 8 categories intended to help physicians make evidence-based clinical judgments with regard to the diagnosis of pancreatic solid tumor. This clinical practice guideline discusses EUS-guided sampling in pancreatic solid tumor and makes recommendations on circumstances that warrant its use, technical issues related to maximizing the diagnostic yield (e.g., needle type, needle diameter, adequate number of needle passes, sample obtaining techniques, and methods of specimen processing), adverse events of EUS-guided tissue acquisition, and learning-related issues. This guideline was reviewed by external experts and suggests best practices recommended based on the evidence available at the time of preparation. This guideline may not be applicable for all clinical situations and should be interpreted in light of specific situations and the availability of resources. It will be revised as necessary to cover progress and changes in technology and evidence from clinical practice.

18.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 505-521, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897718

ABSTRACT

Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided intervention has gradually become a standard treatment for peripancreatic fluid collections (PFCs). However, it is difficult to popularize the procedure in Korea because of restrictions on insurance claims regarding the use of endoscopic accessories, as well as the lack of standardized Korean clinical practice guidelines. The Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (KSGE) appointed a Task Force to develope medical guidelines by referring to the manual for clinical practice guidelines development prepared by the National Evidence-Based Healthcare Collaborating Agency. Previous studies on PFCs were searched, and certain studies were selected with the help of experts. Then, a set of key questions was selected, and treatment guidelines were systematically reviewed. Answers to these questions and recommendations were selected via peer review. This guideline discusses endoscopic management of PFCs and makes recommendations on Indications for the procedure, pre-procedural preparations, optimal approach for drainage, procedural considerations (e.g., types of stent, advantages and disadvantages of plastic and metal stents, and accessories), adverse events of endoscopic intervention, and procedural quality issues. This guideline was reviewed by external experts and suggests best practices recommended based on the evidence available at the time of preparation. This will be revised as necessary to address advances and changes in technology and evidence obtained in clinical practice and future studies.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895860

ABSTRACT

Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided tissue acquisition of pancreatic solid tumor requires a strict recommendation for its proper use in clinical practice because of its technical difficulty and invasiveness. The Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy appointed a Task Force to draft clinical practice guidelines for EUS-guided tissue acquisition of pancreatic solid tumor. The strength of recommendation and the level of evidence for each statement were graded according to the Minds Handbook for Clinical Practice Guideline Development 2014. The committee, comprising a development panel of 16 endosonographers and an expert on guideline development methodology, developed 12 evidence-based recommendations in eight categories intended to help physicians make evidence-based clinical judgments with regard to the diagnosis of pancreatic solid tumor. This clinical practice guideline discusses EUS-guided sampling in pancreatic solid tumor and makes recommendations on circumstances that warrant its use, technical issues related to maximizing the diagnostic yield (e.g., needle type, needle diameter, adequate number of needle passes, sample obtaining techniques, and methods of specimen processing), adverse events of EUS-guided tissue acquisition, and learning-related issues.This guideline was reviewed by external experts and suggests best practices recommended based on the evidence available at the time of preparation. This guideline may not be applicable for all clinical situations and should be interpreted in light of specific situations and the availability of resources. It will be revised as necessary to cover progress and changes in technology and evidence from clinical practice

20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894810

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#To examine the opinions regarding recovery and assess their will to recover in outpatients with schizophrenia. @*Methods@#Total 98 stable outpatients with schizophrenia were enrolled. To investigate the outpatients’ opinions regarding recovery, we asked the subjects to write down the ways they could think they had recovered from their current disease. We classified their answers and chose final 39 statements. Using this questionnaire, they were asked to what extent they agreed with each statement. Moreover, the Recovery Assessment Scale (RAS) was used to measure the subjects’ will to recover. @*Results@#Many of the 39 subjects who were surveyed about their opinions on recovery agreed on 11 statements about taking medicine, social life, daily life, social functioning, positivity about life (happiness, hope, confidence, and tranquility), symptoms, occupation, and self-control. The RAS score showed a significant correlation with age (r=-0.26, p<0.01), age at onset (r=0.26, p<0.01), duration of illness (r=-0.52, p<0.01), and number of hospitalization (r=-0.46, p<0.01). @*Conclusion@#This study shows that positivity about life is an important part of the patients’ subjective recovery criteria in schizophrenia. Therefore, if clinicians pay more attention to this part of subjective recovery, it would strengthen the patients’ will for recovery.

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