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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913843

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to analyze the treatment outcomes of locally recurrent nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) patients following moderate hypo-fractionation re-irradiation (re-RT). @*Materials and Methods@#Sixty locally recurrent NPC patients underwent hypo-fractionation re-RT. Forty-eight point three percentage had rT3-4, and 30.0% did keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), with or without intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT), was used in 66.7% of patients. @*Results@#With the median follow-up of 22 months (range, 2 to 254 months), 31 patients (51.7%) died, 38 (63.3%) developed further treatment failure, and 30 (50.0%) developed ≥ grade 3 toxicity (including seven grade 5) at time of analysis. The 2- and 5-year rates of overall survival, local failure-free survival, and ≥ grade 3 toxicity-free survival were 57.9% and 45.8%, 64.1% and 52.5%, and 54.8% and 44.9%, respectively. In multivariate analyses, worse factors for overall survival (OS) were iT3-4 (p=0.010) and age at re-RT ≥ 53 years (p=0.003), those for local failure-free survival (LFFS) were rT3-4 (p=0.022) and rN0-1 (p=0.035), and those for toxicity-free survival (TFS) were iT3-4 (p=0.020) and re-IMRT/IMPT (p=0.030), respectively. Cumulative dose or fraction size ≥ 3 Gy at re-RT, however, showed no significance for OS, LFFS and TFS. @*Conclusion@#Current re-RT with modern RT techniques by moderate hypo-fractionation scheme seemed feasible in treating locally recurrent NPC patients.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913820

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We investigated the feasibility of using an anatomically localized, target-enriched liquid biopsy (TLB) in mouse models of lung cancer. @*Materials and Methods@#After irradiating xenograft mouse with human lung cancer cell lines, H1299 (NRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase [NRAS] Q61K) and HCC827 (epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR] E746-750del), circulating (cell-free) tumor DNA (ctDNA) levels were monitored with quantitative polymerase chain reaction on human long interspersed nuclear element-1 and cell line-specific mutations. We checked dose-dependency at 6, 12, or 18 Gy to each tumor-bearing mouse leg using 6-MV photon beams. We also analyzed ctDNA of lung cancer patients by LiquidSCAN, a targeted deep sequencing to validated the clinical performances of TLB method. @*Results@#Irradiation could enhance the detection sensitivity of NRAS Q61K in the plasma sample of H1299-xenograft mouse to 4.5- fold. While cell-free DNA (cfDNA) level was not changed at 6 Gy, ctDNA level was increased upon irradiation. Using double-xenograft mouse with H1299 and HCC827, ctDNA polymerase chain reaction analysis with local irradiation in each region could specify mutation type matched to transplanted cell types, proposing an anatomically localized, TLB. Furthermore, when we performed targeted deep sequencing of cfDNA to monitor ctDNA level in 11 patients with lung cancer who underwent radiotherapy, the average ctDNA level was increased within a week after the start of radiotherapy. @*Conclusion@#TLB using irradiation could temporarily amplify ctDNA release in xenograft mouse and lung cancer patients, which enables us to develop theragnostic method for cancer patients with accurate ctDNA detection.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903272

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to evaluate the clinical outcomes and toxicities of salvage proton beam therapy (PBT) in patients with locoregional recurrent non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed 53 patients who received salvage PBT for locoregionally recurrent NSCLC between January 2016 and December 2019. The median clinical target volume (CTV) was 71.2 cm3 (range, 13.3 to 1,200.7 cm3). The median prescribed dose was 64.0 cobalt gray equivalent (CGE) (range, 45.0 to 70.0 CGE). One-third of the patients (32.1%) received concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). @*Results@#The patients’ median age was 67 years (range, 44 to 86 years). The initial treatments were surgery in 31 (58.5%), definitive CCRT in 12 (22.6%), and definitive radiotherapy in 10 (18.9%) patients. The median disease-free interval (DFI) was 14 months (range, 3 to 112 months). Thirty-seven patients (69.8%) had a previous radiotherapy history. Among them, 18 patients (48.7%) had in-field recurrence. The median follow-up time after salvage PBT was 15.0 months (range, 3.5 to 49.3 months). During the follow-up period, 26 patients (49.1%) experienced disease progression: local in 13 (24.5%), regional in 14 (26.5%), and distant metastases in 15 (26.5%). The 2-year overall survival (OS) rate, local control rate, and progression-free survival rate were 79.2%, 68.2%, and 37.1%, respectively. Shorter DFI (≤12 months; p = 0.015) and larger CTV (>80 mL; p = 0.014) were associated with poor OS. Grade 3 toxicities occurred in 8 patients (15.1%): esophagitis in 2, dermatitis in 3, and pulmonary toxicities in 4. @*Conclusion@#Salvage PBT for locoregionally recurrent NSCLC was effective, and treatment-related toxicities were tolerable.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895568

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to evaluate the clinical outcomes and toxicities of salvage proton beam therapy (PBT) in patients with locoregional recurrent non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed 53 patients who received salvage PBT for locoregionally recurrent NSCLC between January 2016 and December 2019. The median clinical target volume (CTV) was 71.2 cm3 (range, 13.3 to 1,200.7 cm3). The median prescribed dose was 64.0 cobalt gray equivalent (CGE) (range, 45.0 to 70.0 CGE). One-third of the patients (32.1%) received concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). @*Results@#The patients’ median age was 67 years (range, 44 to 86 years). The initial treatments were surgery in 31 (58.5%), definitive CCRT in 12 (22.6%), and definitive radiotherapy in 10 (18.9%) patients. The median disease-free interval (DFI) was 14 months (range, 3 to 112 months). Thirty-seven patients (69.8%) had a previous radiotherapy history. Among them, 18 patients (48.7%) had in-field recurrence. The median follow-up time after salvage PBT was 15.0 months (range, 3.5 to 49.3 months). During the follow-up period, 26 patients (49.1%) experienced disease progression: local in 13 (24.5%), regional in 14 (26.5%), and distant metastases in 15 (26.5%). The 2-year overall survival (OS) rate, local control rate, and progression-free survival rate were 79.2%, 68.2%, and 37.1%, respectively. Shorter DFI (≤12 months; p = 0.015) and larger CTV (>80 mL; p = 0.014) were associated with poor OS. Grade 3 toxicities occurred in 8 patients (15.1%): esophagitis in 2, dermatitis in 3, and pulmonary toxicities in 4. @*Conclusion@#Salvage PBT for locoregionally recurrent NSCLC was effective, and treatment-related toxicities were tolerable.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875547

ABSTRACT

Background@#Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has been used frequently, and its use continues to increase in lung cancer patients, despite insufficient scientific of its efficacy. To investigate this situation, we analyzed the current awareness and use of CAM in Korean lung-cancer patients. Methods: This prospective survey–based study was performed at seven medical centers in South Korea between August and October 2019. The survey assessed general patient characteristics and the awareness and use of CAM. We analyzed differences in the clinical parameters of patients aware and not aware of CAM and of CAM non-users and users. @*Results@#Of the 434 patients included in this study, 68.8% responded that they were aware of CAM and 30.9% said they had experienced it. In univariate analysis, the patients aware of CAM were younger with poor performance status, had advanced-stage lung cancer, received more systemic therapy, and received concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT). By multiple logistic regression, younger age, poor performance status, advanced stage, and prior CCRT were identified as independent risk factors for CAM awareness. There were no significant differences in the general characteristics and cancer-associated clinical parameters of CAM non-users and users. @*Conclusion@#Specific clinical parameters were associated with patients’ awareness of CAM, although there were no significantly different characteristics between CAM users and non-users.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719723

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of hospital case volume on clinical outcomes in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data on 1,073 patients with cT1-4N0-3M0 NPC were collected from a multi-institutional retrospective database (KROG 11-06). All patients received definitive radiotherapy (RT) either with three-dimensional-conformal RT (3D-CRT) (n=576) or intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) (n=497). The patients were divided into two groups treated at high volume institution (HVI) (n=750) and low volume institution (LVI) (n=323), defined as patient volume ≥ 10 (median, 13; range, 10 to 18) and < 10 patients per year (median, 3; range, 2 to 6), respectively. Endpoints were overall survival (OS) and loco-regional progression-free survival (LRPFS). RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 56.7 months, the outcomes were significantly better in those treated at HVI than at LVI. For the 614 patients of propensity score-matched cohort, 5-year OS and LRPFS were consistently higher in the HVI group than in the LVI group (OS: 78.4% vs. 62.7%, p < 0.001; LRPFS: 86.2% vs. 65.8%, p < 0.001, respectively). According to RT modality, significant difference in 5-year OS was observed in patients receiving 3D-CRT (78.7% for HVI vs. 58.9% for LVI, p < 0.001) and not in those receiving IMRT (77.3% for HVI vs. 75.5% for LVI, p=0.170). CONCLUSION: A significant relationship was observed between HVI and LVI for the clinical outcomes of patients with NPC. However, the difference in outcome becomes insignificant in the IMRT era, probably due to the standardization of practice by education.


Subject(s)
Cohort Studies , Disease-Free Survival , Education , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
7.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1001-1010, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763179

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Lung Cancer Subcommittee of Korean Radiation Oncology Group (KROG) has recently launched a prospective clinical trial (KROG 17-06) of hippocampus-sparing whole brain radiotherapy (HS-WBRT) with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) in treating multiple brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer. In order to improve trial quality, dummy run studies among the participating institutions were designed. This work reported the results of two-step dummy run procedures of the KROG 17-06 study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two steps tested hippocampus contouring variability and radiation therapy planning compliance. In the first step, the variation of the hippocampus delineation was investigated for two representative cases using the Dice similarity coefficients. In the second step, the participating institutions were requested to generate a HS-WBRT with SIB treatment plan for another representative case. The compliance of the treatment plans to the planning protocol was evaluated. RESULTS: In the first step, the median Dice similarity coefficients of the hippocampus contours for two other dummy run cases changed from 0.669 (range, 0.073 to 0.712) to 0.690 (range, 0.522 to 0.750) and from 0.291 (range, 0.219 to 0.522) to 0.412 (range, 0.264 to 0.598) after providing the hippocampus contouring feedback. In the second step, with providing additional plan priority and extended dose constraints to the target volumes and normal structures, we observed the improved compliance of the treatment plans to the planning protocol. CONCLUSION: The dummy run studies demonstrated the notable inter-institutional variability in delineating the hippocampus and treatment plan generation, which could be decreased through feedback from the trial center.


Subject(s)
Brain , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Compliance , Hippocampus , Lung Neoplasms , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prospective Studies , Radiation Oncology , Radiotherapy
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763145

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation and clinical outcomes in patients with stage III non-squamous cell lung cancer treated with definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2008 to December 2013, the medical records of 197 patients with stage III non- squamous non-small cell lung cancer treated with definitive CCRT were analyzed to determine progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) according to EGFR mutation status. RESULTS: Among 197 eligible patients, 81 patients were EGFR wild type, 36 patients had an EGFR mutation (exon 19 Del, n=18; L858R, n=9, uncommon [G719X, L868, T790M], n=9), and 80 patients had unknown EGFR status. The median age was 59 years (range, 28 to 80 years) and 136 patients (69.0%) were male. The median follow-up duration was 66.5 months (range, 1.9 to 114.5 months). One hundred sixty-four patients (83.2%) experienced disease progression. Median PFS was 8.9 months for the EGFR mutation group, 11.8 months for EGFR wild type, and 10.5 months for the unknown EGFR group (p=0.013 and p=0.042, respectively). The most common site of metastasis in the EGFR mutant group was the brain. However, there was no significant difference in OS among the three groups (34.6 months for EGFR mutant group vs. 31.9 months for EGFR wild type vs. 22.6 months for EGFR unknown group; p=0.792 and p=0.284). A total of 29 patients (80.6%) with EGFR mutation were treated with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (gefitinib, n=24; erlotinib, n=3; afatinib, n=2) upon progression. CONCLUSION: EGFR mutation is associatedwith short PFS and the brain is the most common site of distant metastasis in patients with stage III non- squamous cell lung cancer treated with CCRT.


Subject(s)
Brain , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Chemoradiotherapy , Disease Progression , Disease-Free Survival , Epithelial Cells , Erlotinib Hydrochloride , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Male , Medical Records , Neoplasm Metastasis , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , ErbB Receptors
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763134

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to report the clinical outcomes following selective neck irradiation (SNI) with lower elective radiation therapy (RT) dose in treating nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 347 NPC patients received definitive RT according to our SNI policy and were retrospectively analyzed. The clinical target volumes (CTVs) were subdivided into CTV at high risk (CTV-HR) and CTV at low risk (CTV-LR). The typical doses to gross tumor volume (GTV), CTV-HR, and CTV-LR were 68.4-70.0 Gy, 54.0-60.0 Gy, and 36.0 Gy. RESULTS: With the median follow-up of 68.1 months (range, 2.3 to 197.1 months), the 5-year rates of loco-regional control and progression-free survival in all the patients were 85.0% and 70.8%, respectively. Thirty patients developed regional failure and the regional control rates at 3 and 5 years were 92.6% and 91.4%, respectively. The sites of regional failure in relation to the target volume were exclusively inside GTV/CTV-HR in 20, inside and outside GTV/CTVHR in three, and exclusively outside GTV/CTV-HR in seven, which were 5.7%, 0.9%, and 2.0% of total patients, respectively. CONCLUSION: The clinical outcomes by the current SNI policy were feasible and comparable to those following classic elective nodal irradiation policy.


Subject(s)
Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lymphatic Irradiation , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms , Nasopharynx , Neck , Radiotherapy , Retrospective Studies , Tumor Burden
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763119

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study is to report clinical outcomes of salvage concurrent chemo-radiation therapy (CCRT) in treating patients with loco-regional recurrence (LRR) following initial complete resection of non-small cell lung cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between February 2004 and December 2016, 127 patients underwent salvage CCRT for LRR. The median radiation therapy (RT) dose was 66 Gy and clinical target volume was to cover recurrent lesion with margin without elective inclusion of regional lymphatics. Majority of patients (94.5%) received weekly platinum-based doublet chemotherapy during RT course. RESULTS: The median follow-up time from the start of CCRT was 25 months. The median survival duration was 49 months, and overall survival (OS) rates at 2 and 5 years were 72.9% and 43.9%. The 2- and 5-year rates of in-field failure-free survival, distant metastasis free survival, and progression free survival were 82.4% and 73.8%, 50.4% and 39.9%, and 34.6% and 22.3%, respectively. Grade ≥ 3 radiation-related esophagitis and pneumonitis occurred in 14 (11.0%) and six patients (4.7%), respectively. On both univariate and multivariate analysis, higher biologically equivalent dose (BED₁₀) (≥ 79.2 Gy₁₀ vs. 80 cm³; HR, 0.403), and longer disease-free interval (> 1 year vs. ≤ 1 year; HR, 0.489) were significantly favorable factors for OS. CONCLUSION: The current study has demonstrated that high dose salvage CCRT focused to the involved lesion only was highly effective and safe. In particular, higher BED₁₀, smaller CTV, and longer disease-free interval were favorable factors for improved survival.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Esophagitis , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Pneumonia , Recurrence
11.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 185-192, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761011

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The effectiveness of thoracic radiation therapy (TRT) in extensive-stage small cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC) patients is increasingly reported, but there is no definite consensus on its application. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with better outcomes of TRT among patients with ES-SCLC, focusing on whether a higher TRT dose could improve treatment outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The medical records of 85 patients with ES-SCLC who received TRT between January 2008 and June 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Eligibility criteria were a biological effective dose with α/β = 10 (BED) higher than 30 Gy₁₀ and completion of planned radiotherapy. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 5.3 months, 68 patients (80.0%) experienced disease progression. In univariate analysis, a BED >50 Gy₁₀ was a significant prognostic factor for overall survival (OS; 40.8% vs. 12.5%, p = 0.006), progression-free survival (PFS; 15.9% vs. 9.6%, p = 0.004), and intrathoracic PFS (IT-PFS; 39.3% vs. 20.5%, p = 0.004) at 1 year. In multivariate analysis, a BED >50 Gy₁₀ remained a significant prognostic factor for OS (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.502; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.287–0.876; p = 0.015), PFS (HR = 0.453; 95% CI, 0.265–0.773; p = 0.004), and IT-PFS (HR = 0.331; 95% CI, 0.171–0.641; p = 0.001). Response to the last chemotherapy was also associated with better OS in both univariate and multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: A TRT dose of BED >50 Gy₁₀ may be beneficial for patients with ES-SCLC. Further studies are needed to select patients who will most benefit from high-dose TRT.


Subject(s)
Consensus , Disease Progression , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Medical Records , Multivariate Analysis , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy Dosage , Retrospective Studies , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma , Treatment Outcome
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-72543

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prognostic significance of the tumor volume reduction rate (TVRR) measured during adaptive definitive radiation therapy (RT) for nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the RT records of 159 NPC patients treated with definitive RT with or without concurrent chemotherapy between January 2006 and February 2013. Adaptive re-planning was performed in all patients at the third week of RT. The pre- and mid-RT gross tumor volumes (GTVs) of the primary tumor and the metastatic lymph nodes were measured and analyzed for prognostic implications. RESULTS: After a median follow-up period of 41.5 months (range, 11.2 to 91.8 months) for survivors, there were 43 treatment failures. The overall survival and progression-free survival (PFS) rates at 5 years were 89.6% and 69.7%, respectively. The mean pre-RT GTV, mid-RT GTV, and TVRR were 45.9 cm3 (range, 1.5 to 185.3 cm3), 26.7 cm3 (1.0 to 113.8 cm3), and -41.9% (range, -87% to 78%), respectively. Patients without recurrence had higher TVRR than those with recurrence (44.3% in the no recurrence group vs. 34.0% in the recurrence group, p=0.004), and those with TVRR > 35% achieved a significantly higher rate of PFS at 5 years (79.2% in TVRR > 35% vs. 53.2% in TVRR ≤ 35%; p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, TVRR was a significant factor affecting PFS (hazard ratio, 2.877; 95% confidence interval, 1.555 to 5.326; p=0.001). CONCLUSION: TVRR proved to be a significant prognostic factor in NPC patients treated with definitive RT, and could be used as a potential indicator for early therapeutic modification during the RT course.


Subject(s)
Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Multivariate Analysis , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms , Radiotherapy , Recurrence , Survivors , Treatment Failure , Tumor Burden
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-61893

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We compared the treatment results and toxicity in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients treated with concurrent chemotherapy (CCRT) alone (the CRT arm) or neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by CCRT (the NCT arm). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multi-institutional retrospective study was conducted to review NPC patterns of care and treatment outcome. Data of 568 NPC patients treated by CCRT alone or by neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by CCRT were collected from 15 institutions. Patients in both treatment arms were matched using the propensity score matching method, and the clinical outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: After matching, 300 patients (150 patients in each group) were selected for analysis. Higher 5-year locoregional failure-free survival was observed in the CRT arm (85% vs. 72%, p=0.014). No significant differences in distant failure-free survival (DFFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival were observed between groups. In subgroup analysis, the NCT arm showed superior DFFS and DFS in stage IV patients younger than 60 years. No significant difference in compliance and toxicity was observed between groups, except the radiation therapy duration was slightly shorter in the CRT arm (50.0 days vs. 53.9 days, p=0.018). CONCLUSION: This study did not show the superiority of NCT followed by CCRT over CCRT alone. Because NCT could increase the risk of locoregional recurrences, it can only be considered in selected young patients with advanced stage IV disease. The role of NCT remains to be defined and should not be viewed as the standard of care.


Subject(s)
Arm , Chemoradiotherapy , Compliance , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Humans , Induction Chemotherapy , Methods , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms , Propensity Score , Radiotherapy , Recurrence , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , Standard of Care , Treatment Outcome
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-44797

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: A prospective phase II trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and toxicity of regional hyperthermia and whole liver irradiation (WLI) for numerous chemorefractory liver metastases from colorectal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Enrolled patients had numerous chemorefractory hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer. Five sessions of hyperthermia and seven fractions of 3-gray WLI were planned. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was determined using the Korean version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality of life questionnaire C-30 and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Hepatobiliary version 4.0. Objective and pain response was evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 12 patients consented to the study and the 10 who received WLI and hyperthermia were analyzed. WLI was completed as planned in nine patients and hyperthermia in eight. Pain response was partial in four patients and stable in four. Partial objective response was achieved in three patients (30.0%) and stable disease was seen in four patients at the 1-month follow-up. One patient died 1 month after treatment because of respiratory failure related to pleural metastasis progression. Other grade III or higher toxicities were detected in three patients; however, all severe toxicities were related to disease progression rather than treatment. No significant difference in HRQoL was noted at the time of assessment for patients who were available for questionnaires. CONCLUSION: Combined WLI and hyperthermia were well tolerated without severe treatment-related toxicity with a promising response from numerous chemorefractory hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms , Disease Progression , Fever , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hyperthermia, Induced , Liver , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Radiotherapy , Respiratory Insufficiency
15.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 223-229, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-39692

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study is to investigate the effect of captopril when combined with irradiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 4T1 (mouse mammary carcinoma) cells were injected in the right hind leg of Balb/c mice. Mice were randomized to four groups; control (group 1), captopril-treated (group 2), irradiated (group 3), irradiated and captopril-treated concurrently (group 4). Captopril was administered by intraperitoneal injection (10 mg/kg) daily and irradiation was delivered on the tumor-bearing leg for 15 Gy in 3 fractions. Surface markers of splenic neutrophils (G-MDSCs) and intratumoral neutrophils (tumor-associated neutrophils [TANs]) were assessed using flow cytometry and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) of tumor was evaluated by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. RESULTS: The mean tumor volumes (±standard error) at the 15th day after randomization were 1,382.0 (±201.2) mm³ (group 1), 559.9 (±67.8) mm³ (group 3), and 370.5 (± 48.1) mm³ (group 4), respectively. For G-MDSCs, irradiation reversed decreased expression of CD101 from tumor-bearing mice, and additional increase of CD101 expression was induced by captopril administration. Similar tendency was observed in TANs. The expression of tumor-necrosis factor-associated molecules, CD120 and CD137, are increased by irradiation in both G-MDSCs and TANs. Further increment was observed by captopril except CD120 in TANs. For IHC staining, VEGF and HIF-1α positivity in tumor cells were decreased when treated with captopril. CONCLUSION: Captopril is suggested to have additional effect when combined to irradiation in a murine tumor model by modulation of MDSCs and angiogenesis.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Animals , Captopril , Flow Cytometry , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Leg , Mice , Neutrophils , Radiotherapy , Random Allocation , Triacetoneamine-N-Oxyl , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-170080

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the dosimetric benefits and treatment efficiency of carotid-sparing TomoHelical 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (TH-3DCRT) for early glottic cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten early-stage (T1N0M0) glottic squamous cell carcinoma patients were simulated, based on computed tomography scans. Two-field 3DCRT (2F-3DCRT), 3-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (3F-IMRT), TomoHelical-IMRT (TH-IMRT), and TH-3DCRT plans were generated with a 67.5-Gy total prescription dose to the planning target volume (PTV) for each patient. In order to evaluate the plan quality, dosimetric characteristics were compared in terms of conformity index (CI) and homogeneity index (HI) for PTV, dose to the carotid arteries, and maximum dose to the spinal cord. Treatment planning and delivery times were compared to evaluate treatment efficiency. RESULTS: The median CI was substantially better for the 3F-IMRT (0.65), TH-IMRT (0.64), and TH-3DCRT (0.63) plans, compared to the 2F-3DCRT plan (0.32). PTV HI was slightly better for TH-3DCRT and TH-IMRT (1.05) compared to 2F-3DCRT (1.06) and 3F-IMRT (1.09). TH-3DCRT, 3F-IMRT, and TH-IMRT showed an excellent carotid sparing capability compared to 2F-3DCRT (p < 0.05). For all plans, the maximum dose to the spinal cord was < 45 Gy. The median treatment planning times for 2F-3DCRT (5.85 minutes) and TH-3DCRT (7.10 minutes) were much lower than those for 3F-IMRT (45.48 minutes) and TH-IMRT (35.30 minutes). The delivery times for 2F-3DCRT (2.06 minutes) and 3F-IMRT (2.48 minutes) were slightly lower than those for TH-IMRT (2.90 minutes) and TH-3DCRT (2.86 minutes). CONCLUSION: TH-3DCRT showed excellent carotid-sparing capability, while offering high efficiency and maintaining good PTV coverage.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Carotid Arteries , Humans , Prescriptions , Radiotherapy, Conformal , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated , Spinal Cord
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-170075

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to evaluate clinical outcomes following definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for patients with N3-positive stage IIIB (N3-IIIB) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), with a focus on radiation therapy (RT) techniques. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From May 2010 to November 2012, 77 patients with N3-IIIB NSCLC received definitive CCRT (median, 66 Gy). RT techniques were selected individually based on estimated lung toxicity, with 3-dimensional conformal RT (3D-CRT) and intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) delivered to 48 (62.3%) and 29 (37.7%) patients, respectively. Weekly docetaxel/paclitaxel plus cisplatin (67, 87.0%) was the most common concurrent chemotherapy regimen. RESULTS: The median age and clinical target volume (CTV) were 60 years and 288.0 cm3, respectively. Patients receiving IMRT had greater disease extent in terms of supraclavicular lymph node (SCN) involvement and CTV > or = 300 cm3. The median follow-up time was 21.7 months. Fortyfive patients (58.4%) experienced disease progression, most frequently distant metastasis (39, 50.6%). In-field locoregional control, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) rates at 2 years were 87.9%, 38.7%, and 75.2%, respectively. Although locoregional control was similar between RT techniques, patients receiving IMRT had worse PFS and OS, and SCN metastases from the lower lobe primary tumor and CTV > or = 300 cm3were associated with worse OS. The incidence and severity of toxicities did not differ significantly between RT techniques. CONCLUSION: IMRT could lead to similar locoregional control and toxicity, while encompassing a greater disease extent than 3D-CRT. The decision to apply IMRT should be made carefully after considering oncologic outcomes associated with greater disease extent and cost.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Chemoradiotherapy , Cisplatin , Disease Progression , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Lung , Lymph Nodes , Neoplasm Metastasis , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated
18.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1187-1195, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-109757

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: High dose definitive radiation therapy (RT) alone is recommended to patients with cT1-3N0 non-small cell lung cancer, who are unfit for surgery or stereotactic RT. This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness following RT alone using two different modest hypofractionation dose schemes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 2001 and 2014, 124 patients underwent RT alone. From 2001 till 2010, 60 Gy in 20 fractions was delivered to 79 patients (group 1). Since 2011, 60 Gy in 20 fractions (group 2, 20 patients), and 60 Gy in 15 fractions (group 3, 25 patients) were selectively chosen depending on estimated risk of esophagitis. RESULTS: At follow-up of 16.7 months, 2-year rates of local control, progression-free survival, and overall survival were 62.6%, 39.1%, and 59.1%, respectively. Overall survival was significantly better in group 3 (p=0.002). In multivariate analyses, cT3 was the most powerful adverse factor affecting clinical outcomes. Incidence and severity of radiation pneumonitis were not different among groups, while no patients developed grade 2 esophagitis in group 3 (p=0.003). Under current Korean Health Insurance Policy, RT cost per person was 22.5% less in group 3 compared with others. CONCLUSION: The current study demonstrated that 60 Gy in 15 fractions instead of 60 Gy in 20 fractions resulted in comparable clinical outcomes with excellent safety, direct cost saving, and improved convenience to the patients with tumors located at ≥ 1.5 cm from the esophagus.


Subject(s)
Appointments and Schedules , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Cost Savings , Disease-Free Survival , Dose Fractionation, Radiation , Esophagitis , Esophagus , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Insurance, Health , Multivariate Analysis , Radiation Pneumonitis , Radiotherapy
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-189089

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to assess the clinicopathologic features, treatment outcomes, and role of adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) in cervical thymic neoplasm involving the thyroid gland or neck. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The medical and pathologic records of eight patients with cervical thymic neoplasm were reviewed retrospectively. All patients underwent surgical resection, including thyroidectomy or mass excision. Adjuvant RT was added in five patients with adverse clinicopathologic features. The radiation doses ranged from 54 Gy/27 fractions to 66 Gy/30 fractions delivered to the primary tumor bed and pathologically involved regional lymphatics using a 3-dimensional conformal technique. RESULTS: Eight cases of cervical thymic neoplasm included three patients with carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation (CASTLE) and five with ectopic cervical thymoma. The histologic subtypes of ectopic cervical thymoma patients were World Health Organization (WHO) type B3 thymoma in one, WHO type B1 thymoma in two, WHO type AB thymoma in one, and metaplastic thymoma in one, respectively. The median age was 57 years (range, 40 to 76 years). Five patients received adjuvant RT: three with CASTLE; one with WHO type B3; and one with WHO type AB with local invasiveness. After a median follow-up period of 49 months (range, 11 to 203 months), no recurrence had been observed, regardless of adjuvant RT. CONCLUSION: Adjuvant RT after surgical resection might be worthwhile in patients with CASTLE and ectopic cervical thymoma with WHO type B2-C and/or extraparenchymal extension, as similarly indicated for primary thymic epithelial tumors. A longer follow-up period may be needed in order to validate this strategy.


Subject(s)
Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Neck , Radiotherapy , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Thymoma , Thymus Neoplasms , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroidectomy , World Health Organization
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-74300

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to evaluate the treatment outcomes following definitive bimodality concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in patients with inoperable N2-positive stage IIIA (N2-IIIA) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: From May 1997 to December 2012, 65 out of 633 patients with N2-IIIA NSCLC received bimodality therapy. The treatment modality was selected during/after neoadjuvant CCRT in 21 patients or primarily at diagnosis in 44 through a multidisciplinary consensus meeting. The median age was 65 years (range, 36 to 76 years). Sixty patients (92.3%) had clinically evident N2 disease, while 22 (33.8%) had multi-station N2 involvement. The median radiation therapy dose was 66 Gy in 33 fractions, while the dose was elevated to 72 Gy in 13 patients who had a treatment break due to delayed decision regarding resectability. The most frequent chemotherapy regimen was weekly paclitaxel or docetaxel plus cisplatin or carboplatin (54, 83.1%). RESULTS: During the median follow-up of 18.8 months (range, 1.6 to 173.1 months), 34 patients (52.3%) experienced disease progression, with distant metastasis being the most common first treatment failure pattern (23, 34.8%). The median and 2-year rates of progression-free survival were 18.8 months and 45.9%, respectively. The median and 2-year rates of overall survival were 28.6 months and 50.1%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Definitive bimodality therapy in patients with N2-IIIA NSCLC demonstrated favorable outcomes, while trimodality therapy could be considered for candidates for less than pneumonectomy.


Subject(s)
Carboplatin , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Chemoradiotherapy , Cisplatin , Consensus , Diagnosis , Disease Progression , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Neoplasm Metastasis , Paclitaxel , Pneumonectomy , Treatment Failure
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