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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915524

ABSTRACT

Background@#In diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), bone marrow involvement (BMI) has an important clinical implication as a component of staging and International Prognostic Index. This study aimed to determine whether molecular analysis of immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) genes and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) could overcome the limitation of defining morphologic BMI by trephination biopsy and could increase the diagnostic accuracy or prognostic prediction. @*Methods@#A total of 94 de novo patients with DLBCL underwent PET/CT, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for detection of IgH gene rearrangement, and unilateral bone marrow (BM) trephination at diagnosis. @*Results@#A total of 9 patients (9.6%) were confirmed to present morphologic BMI (mBMI) based on trephination biopsy. On the other hand, 21 patients (22.3%) were confirmed to have IgH clonality (IgH BMI), while 16 (17.0%) were classified with BMI based on the assessment of PET/CT (PET BMI). Each IgH rearrangement PCR and PET/CT showed the high negative predictive value of detecting the BMI. However, the combined assessment of IgH rearrangement and PET/CT could increase the diagnostic accuracy and specificity with 87.2% and 97.0%, respectively. The survival outcome of patients with double positive PET BMI and IgH BMI was significantly worse than that with either single positive PET BMI or IgH BMI, and even less than patients with neither PET BMI nor IgH BMI (3-year PFS: 50.0% vs. 75.4% vs. 97.9%, P = 0.007, 3-year OS: 50.0% vs. 75.6% vs. 80.1%, P = 0.035, respectively). @*Conclusion@#This study suggests that the combined evaluation of PET/CT and IgH rearrangement could give additional information for predicting therapeutic outcomes in patients with negative morphologic BMI as an important part of the prognosis.

2.
Blood Research ; : 13-19, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925648

ABSTRACT

The mutational and epigenetic landscape of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has become increasingly well understood in recent years, informing on biological targets for precision medicine. Among the most notable findings was the recognition of mutational hot-spots in the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) genes. In this review, we provide an overview on the IDH1/2 mutation landscape in Korean AML patients, and compare it with available public data. We also discuss the role of IDH1/2 mutations as biomarkers and drug targets.Taken together, occurrence of IDH1/2 mutations is becoming increasingly important in AML treatment, thus requiring thorough examination and follow-up throughout the clinical course of the disease.

3.
Blood Research ; : 51-58, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925643

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although survival outcomes of multiple myeloma (MM) have improved with the development of new and effective agents, infection remains the major cause of morbidity and mortality. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of levofloxacin prophylaxis (in a real-world setting) during bortezomib, melphalan, and prednisone (VMP) therapy in elderly patients with newly diagnosed MM. @*Methods@#This study retrospectively analyzed the records of patients with newly diagnosed MM treated with the VMP regimen between February 2011 and September 2020 at three institutes of the Republic of Korea. @*Results@#Of a total of 258 patients, 204 (79.1%) received levofloxacin prophylaxis during VMP therapy. The median number of levofloxacin prophylaxis cycles was 4 (range, 1‒9), but 10 patients did not complete the planned prophylaxis because of side effects. Sixty-six patients (25.5%) experienced severe infections during VMP therapy, most of which (74.7%) occurred within the first four cycles of VMP therapy regardless of levofloxacin prophylaxis status. Early severe infection was significantly associated with poor survival.In multivariate analysis, levofloxacin prophylaxis was significantly associated with a lower risk in early severe infection. @*Conclusion@#Our findings suggest that levofloxacin prophylaxis should be considered at least during the first four cycles of VMP therapy in elderly patients with newly diagnosed MM.

4.
Blood Research ; : S32-S36, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925632

ABSTRACT

FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) mutations, the most frequently detected genetic aberrations in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), are identified in approximately 30% of patients with newly diagnosed AML and are more common in patients with normal karyotypes. Since the discovery of FLT3 mutations in AML, clinical trials have been actively conducted in patients with FLT3 mutated AML, and FLT3 inhibitors have been introduced into clinical practice. The current standard treatment for patients with newly diagnosed FLT3-mutated AML is 7+3 induction chemotherapy combined with midostaurin.Additionally, gilteritinib is more effective than salvage chemotherapy for relapsed or refractory FLT3-mutated AML. Ongoing trials are expected to provide additional treatment options depending on the disease state and patient vulnerability. This review summarizes information on clinically available FLT3 inhibitors for the management of AML with FLT3 mutations.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914227

ABSTRACT

Combination treatment with hypomethylating agents (HMAs) and venetoclax is being used increasingly in elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML).Venetoclax with HMAs has been reported to be associated with tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) in AML patients with high leukemic burden. We present a case of an elderly AML patient with low leukemic burden who developed TLS while receiving venetoclax and azacitidine (AZA). A 74-year-old man with newly diagnosed AML with NPM1 mutation received combination therapy with venetoclax and AZA in an outpatient clinic. Within 12 hours after starting venetoclax and AZA, the patient was admitted to the emergency room with fever, general weakness, and laboratory findings consistent with TLS. Based on our results, we recommend monitoring at the start of the treatment with venetoclax and HMAs to prevent and control TLS regardless of the leukemic burden and favorable genetic ris

6.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831839

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) is usually incorporated in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) to reduce the incidence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). This study aimed to find optimal ATG doses in patients undergoing human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-mismatched allogeneic HSCT. @*Methods@#We retrospectively collected medical records from 352 consecutive patients with acute myeloid leukemia (n = 214), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 62), or myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 76) in eight centers of Korea between 2005 and 2015. All patients received busulfan-based conditioning without total body irradiation (TBI) and received stem cells from HLA-mismatched donors. @*Results@#In the current study, 5-year overall survival rates of patients receiving low to medium doses of ATG (2.5 to 7.5 mg/kg) were higher than those receiving other doses of ATG (hazard ratio [HR], 0.528; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.311 to 0.897; p = 0.018). The incidence rates of extensive chronic GVHD (ecGVHD) after administration of low to medium doses of ATG were lower than those after other doses of ATG (HR, 0.447; 95% CI, 0.224 ton 0.889; p = 0.022). @*Conclusions@#The low to medium doses of ATG may be associated with improving survival outcomes and reducing incidence of ecGVHD without enhancing the chances of relapse in patients with acute leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome undergoing non-TBI-based HLA-mismatched allogeneic HSCT.

7.
Blood Research ; : S37-S42, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830982

ABSTRACT

Since the introduction of an alkylator to the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM), new effective agents have been developed, such as immunomodulatory drugs including thalidomide, lenalidomide, and pomalidomide; proteasome inhibitors including bortezomib, carfilzomib, and ixazomib; monoclonal antibodies including daratumumab and elotuzumab; and deacetylase inhibitors including panobinostat. Numerous regimens with these new agents have been developed and they have contributed in improving survival outcomes in MM patients. In addition, the recommended therapies for newly diagnosed MM change every year based on the results of clinical trials. This review will discusses the appropriate induction therapies based on recent clinical trials for patients with newly diagnosed MM.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718012

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study evaluated the role of hypomethylating agents (HMA) compared to best supportive care (BSC) for patients with high or very-high (H/VH) risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) according to the Revised International Prognostic Scoring System. METHODS: A total of 279 H/VH risk MDS patients registered in the Korean MDS Working Party database were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: HMA therapy was administered to 205 patients (73.5%), including 31 patients (11.1%) who then received allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT), while 74 patients (26.5%) received BSC or allo-HCT without HMA. The 3-year overall survival (OS) rates were 53.1% ± 10.7% for allo-HCT with HMA, 75% ± 21.7% for allo-HCT without HMA, 17.3% ± 3.6% for HMA, and 20.8% ± 6.9% for BSC groups (p < 0.001). In the multivariate analysis, only allo-HCT was related with favorable OS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.356; p = 0.002), while very poor cytogenetic risk (HR, 5.696; p = 0.042), age ≥ 65 years (HR, 1.578; p = 0.022), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) 2 to 4 (HR, 2.837; p < 0.001), and transformation to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (HR, 1.901; p = 0.001) all had an adverse effect on OS. CONCLUSIONS: For the H/VH risk group, very poor cytogenetic risk, age ≥ 65 years, ECOG PS 2 to 4, and AML transformation were poor prognostic factors. HMA showed no benefit in terms of OS when compared to BSC. Allo-HCT was the only factor predicting a favorable long-term outcome. The use of HMA therapy did not seem to have an adverse effect on the transplantation outcomes. However, the conclusion of this study should be carefully interpreted and proven by large scale research in the future.


Subject(s)
Cell Transplantation , Cytogenetics , Humans , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Multivariate Analysis , Myelodysplastic Syndromes , Retrospective Studies , Transplants
9.
Blood Research ; : 293-299, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-21828

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is not only a key signaling molecule in the regulation of growth but is also involved in malignant transformation. We investigated the prognostic significance of STAT3 expression in 94 non-elderly adult patients (aged 38 to 65 yr) with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM). METHODS: Tumor cell-specific phosphotyrosine-STAT3 (PY-STAT3) expression at the time of diagnosis was evaluated with dual immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for PY-STAT3 and CD138. RESULTS: PY-STAT3 positivity was detected in 10 patients (10.6%), including three who showed strong expression. PY-STAT3-positive patients had higher serum C-reactive protein and calcium levels at diagnosis than did PY-STAT3-negative patients. PY-STAT3 positivity had predictive value for poor progression-free survival (PFS; P=0.001) and overall survival (OS; P=0.003). Among the 60 patients who received frontline autologous stem cell transplantation, PY-STAT3-positive patients had poorer PFS than did PY-STAT3-negative patients (4.2 vs. 19.2 mo, respectively; P=0.013). Multivariate analysis identified PY-STAT3 expression as an independent prognostic factor for PFS (relative risk [RR]=2.706, P=0.014) and OS (RR=3.091, P=0.044). CONCLUSION: These data show that PY-STAT3 positivity, as determined using dual IHC, is a marker of poor prognosis in non-elderly adult patients with MM.


Subject(s)
Adult , C-Reactive Protein , Calcium , Diagnosis , Disease-Free Survival , Humans , Multiple Myeloma , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , STAT3 Transcription Factor , Stem Cell Transplantation
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-13343

ABSTRACT

Peripheral T cell lymphoma (PTCL) is a heterogeneous group of aggressive lymphomas with poor prognosis. Elderly (age ≥ 65years) patients generally have impaired bone marrow function, altered drug metabolism, comorbidities, and poor functional status. Thus, treatment of elderly patients with relapsed or refractory PTCL remains a challenge for clinicians. A recent study disclosed that pralatrexate has a synergistic effect in combination with bortezomib. Weekly pralatrexate and bortezomib were administered intravenously for 3 weeks in a 4-week cycle. Of 5 patients, one achieved complete response after 4 cycles which has lasted 12 months until now. Another patient attained partial response after 2 cycles. Only 1 patient experienced grade 3 thrombocytopenia and neutropenia. Two patients suffered from grade 3 mucositis. Combination therapy with pralatrexate and bortezomib may be used as a salvage therapy for relapsed or refractory PTCL in the elderly with a favorable safety profile.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aminopterin/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Bortezomib/adverse effects , Drug Administration Schedule , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Lymphoma, T-Cell, Peripheral/diagnostic imaging , Male , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Neutropenia/etiology , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography
12.
Blood Research ; : 19-25, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-104397

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Eltrombopag is a thrombopoietin receptor agonist with excellent treatment outcomes in immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Here, we analyzed the dose of eltrombopag required to achieve and maintain safe platelet counts in Korean ITP patients. METHODS: Adult refractory ITP patients ( or =50,000 cells/microL). After achieving the target platelet count, the dose of concomitant ITP medications and eltrombopag was reduced to identify the lowest effective dose required to maintain the platelet count. RESULTS: Among 18 patients, 66.7% achieved complete response, 5.6% achieved platelet counts between 50,000 and 100,000 cells/microL, and 27.8% failed to achieve the target platelet count. The median ITP duration was significantly shorter in patients who achieved the target platelet count. The initial dose required to achieve the target platelet count was 25 mg/d. The adjusted maintenance doses were 25 mg twice per week or 25 mg/d. After discontinuation, 83.3% relapsed, and the median relapse-free survival was 15 days. Two relapsed and 1 failed patient switched to romiplostim. The response to romiplostim was similar to eltrombopag. During eltrombopag treatment, 38.9% showed hepatobiliary laboratory anomalies. Among 9 follow-up bone marrow examinations, 1 revealed fibrosis after 1 year of treatment. CONCLUSION: Eltrombopag was well tolerated with excellent treatment outcomes in refractory adult ITP patients. Low-dose eltrombopag effectively maintained the target platelet count. However, some patients required longer or higher-dose treatment to maintain the target platelet count, especially in heavily pretreated or longer ITP cases.


Subject(s)
Adult , Bone Marrow Examination , Fibrosis , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Platelet Count , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Receptors, Thrombopoietin , Thrombocytopenia
13.
Blood Research ; : 167-172, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-36728

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A change in urine output has been recently recognized as a valuable biomarker of acute kidney injury that is associated with mortality in critically ill patients. We investigated the prognostic impact of oliguria for survival outcomes in multiple myeloma (MM) patients presenting with renal impairment (RI). METHODS: Retrospective data on 98 patients with MM and RI, who received initial treatment with novel therapies, were analyzed. Oliguria was defined as a urine output of <0.5 mL/kg/h. RESULTS: The baseline median eGFR was 39.7 mL/min (range, 5.1-59.8). Achievement of renal complete response (CR) was observed in 39.8% of patients. Nine patients (9.2%) presented with oliguria at initial diagnosis, and 4 initially required dialysis. Over a median follow-up period of 17.1 months (range, 1.7-100.0), the median overall survival (OS) was 38.7 months (95% CI 25.0-52.5). Multivariate analyses indicated that oliguria at diagnosis [hazard ratio (HR) 3.628, 95% CI 1.366-9.849, P=0.011], and thrombocytopenia <100x10(9)/L at diagnosis (HR 2.534, 95% CI 1.068-6.015, P=0.035), were significantly associated with overall survival. CONCLUSION: Oliguria was significantly associated with higher mortality in MM patients with RI. Therefore, close monitoring of urine output could be important for these patients.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Critical Illness , Diagnosis , Dialysis , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Mortality , Multiple Myeloma , Multivariate Analysis , Oliguria , Renal Insufficiency , Retrospective Studies , Thrombocytopenia
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-133657

ABSTRACT

Although the introduction of stem cell transplantation and novel agents has improved survival, multiple myeloma (MM) is still difficult to cure. Alternative approaches are clearly needed to prolong the survival of patients with MM. Dendritic cell (DC) therapy is a very promising tool immunologically in MM. We developed a method to generate potent DCs with increased Th1 polarization and migration ability for inducing strong myeloma-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. In this review, we discuss how the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy using DCs can be improved in MM.


Subject(s)
Dendritic Cells , Humans , Immunotherapy , Multiple Myeloma , Stem Cell Transplantation , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-133656

ABSTRACT

Although the introduction of stem cell transplantation and novel agents has improved survival, multiple myeloma (MM) is still difficult to cure. Alternative approaches are clearly needed to prolong the survival of patients with MM. Dendritic cell (DC) therapy is a very promising tool immunologically in MM. We developed a method to generate potent DCs with increased Th1 polarization and migration ability for inducing strong myeloma-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. In this review, we discuss how the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy using DCs can be improved in MM.


Subject(s)
Dendritic Cells , Humans , Immunotherapy , Multiple Myeloma , Stem Cell Transplantation , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-214111

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: BK virus (BKV) has been associated with late-onset hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Cidofovir has been used at higher doses (3 to 5 mg/kg/wk) with probenecid prophylaxis; however, cidofovir may result in nephrotoxicity or cytopenia at high doses. METHODS: Allogeneic HSCT recipients with BKV-associated HC are treated with 1 mg/kg intravenous cidofovir weekly at our institution. A microbiological response was defined as at least a one log reduction in urinary BKV viral load, and a clinical response was defined as improvement in symptoms and stability or reduction in cystitis grade. RESULTS: Eight patients received a median of 4 weekly (range, 2 to 11) doses of cidofovir. HC occurred a median 69 days (range, 16 to 311) after allogeneic HSCT. A clinical response was detected in 7/8 patients (86%), and 4/5 (80%) had a measurable microbiological response. One patient died of uncontrolled graft-versus-host disease; therefore, we could not measure the clinical response to HC treatment. One microbiological non-responder had a stable BKV viral load with clinical improvement. Only three patients showed transient grade 2 serum creatinine toxicities, which resolved after completion of concomitant calcineurin inhibitor treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Weekly intravenous low-dose cidofovir without probenecid appears to be a safe and effective treatment option for patients with BKV-associated HC.


Subject(s)
Administration, Intravenous , Adult , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , BK Virus/drug effects , Cystitis/diagnosis , Cytosine/administration & dosage , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Male , Organophosphonates/administration & dosage , Polyomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Transplantation, Homologous , Treatment Outcome , Tumor Virus Infections/diagnosis , Viral Load
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-198399

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to evaluate outcomes in adult patients with Burkitt lymphoma (BL) or Burkitt-like lymphoma treated with an rituximab plus hyper-CVAD (R-hyper-CVAD) regimen by focusing on tolerability and actual delivered relative dose intensity (RDI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients > or = 20 years of age and pathologically diagnosed with BL or Burkitt-like lymphoma were treated with at least one cycle of R-hyper-CVAD as the first-line treatment in this study. Eligible patients' case report forms were requested from their physicians to obtain clinical and laboratory data for this retrospective study. RESULTS: Forty-three patients (median age, 51 years) from 14 medical centers in Korea were analyzed, none of which were infected with human immunodeficiency virus. The majority of patients had advanced diseases, and 24 patients achieved a complete response (75.0%). After a median follow-up period of 20.0 months, 2-year event-free and overall survival rates were 70.9% and 81.4%, respectively. Eleven patients (25.6%) were unable to complete the R-hyper-CVAD regimen, including six patients due to early death. The RDIs of adriamycin, vincristine, methotrexate, and cytarabine were between 60% and 65%, which means less than 25% of patients received greater than 80% of the planned dose of each drug. Poor performance status was related to the lower RDIs of doxorubicin and methotrexate. CONCLUSION: R-hyper-CVAD showed excellent treatment outcomes in patients who were suitable for dose-intense chemotherapy. However, management of patients who are intolerant to a dose-intense regimen remains problematic due to the frequent occurrence of treatmentrelated complications.


Subject(s)
Adult , Burkitt Lymphoma , Cytarabine , Doxorubicin , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , HIV , Humans , Korea , Lymphoma , Methotrexate , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Vincristine
18.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 109-114, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-87794

ABSTRACT

The prognostic value of whole-body positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) shortly after the onset of induction chemotherapy or mid treatment could help to predict long-term clinical outcomes in patients with Hodgkin's or Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. However, FDG is not a tumor-specific substance, and it may accumulate to the point of being detected in a variety of benign conditions or at physiologic anatomical sites, which may give rise to false-positive interpretation. In an attempt to standardize the reporting criteria for interim PET/CT, the First International Workshop on Interim PET in Lymphoma suggested visual response criteria with the Deauville five-point scale, and the standardized uptake value (SUV) has been investigated in comparison with this visual system. A quantitative approach using the measurement of maximal SUV (SUVmax) or the reduction rate of SUVmax (DeltaSUVmax) might be more appropriate in early-response PET/CT for reducing false-positive rates or for decreasing interobserver variability in interpretation. In this review, the predictive efficacy of PET/CT is discussed for the treatment of aggressive lymphoma, especially in terms of an interim PET/CT-based prognostic model.


Subject(s)
Education , Electrons , Humans , Induction Chemotherapy , Lymphoma , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin , Observer Variation , Positron-Emission Tomography , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Prognosis
19.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 109-114, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788322

ABSTRACT

The prognostic value of whole-body positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) shortly after the onset of induction chemotherapy or mid treatment could help to predict long-term clinical outcomes in patients with Hodgkin's or Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. However, FDG is not a tumor-specific substance, and it may accumulate to the point of being detected in a variety of benign conditions or at physiologic anatomical sites, which may give rise to false-positive interpretation. In an attempt to standardize the reporting criteria for interim PET/CT, the First International Workshop on Interim PET in Lymphoma suggested visual response criteria with the Deauville five-point scale, and the standardized uptake value (SUV) has been investigated in comparison with this visual system. A quantitative approach using the measurement of maximal SUV (SUVmax) or the reduction rate of SUVmax (DeltaSUVmax) might be more appropriate in early-response PET/CT for reducing false-positive rates or for decreasing interobserver variability in interpretation. In this review, the predictive efficacy of PET/CT is discussed for the treatment of aggressive lymphoma, especially in terms of an interim PET/CT-based prognostic model.


Subject(s)
Education , Electrons , Humans , Induction Chemotherapy , Lymphoma , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin , Observer Variation , Positron-Emission Tomography , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Prognosis
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788307

ABSTRACT

Although the introduction of stem cell transplantation and novel agents has improved survival, multiple myeloma (MM) is still difficult to cure. Alternative approaches are clearly needed to prolong the survival of patients with MM. Dendritic cell (DC) therapy is a very promising tool immunologically in MM. We developed a method to generate potent DCs with increased Th1 polarization and migration ability for inducing strong myeloma-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. In this review, we discuss how the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy using DCs can be improved in MM.


Subject(s)
Dendritic Cells , Humans , Immunotherapy , Multiple Myeloma , Stem Cell Transplantation , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic
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