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1.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 235-249, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896182

ABSTRACT

Leptin is a type of adipokine mainly produced by adipocytes and reported to be overproduced in prostate cancer. However, it is not known whether it stimulates the proliferation of prostate cells. In this study, we investigated whether benign prostatic hyperplasia epithelial cells (BPH-1 cells) infected with Trichomonas vaginalis induced the proliferation of prostate cells via a leptin signaling pathway. To investigate the effect of crosstalk between adipocyte leptin and inflamed epithelial cell in proliferation of prostate cells, adipocytes 3T3-L1 cells were incubated in conditioned medium of BPH-1 cells infected with T. vaginalis (T. vaginalis-conditioned medium, TCM), and then the adipocyte-conditioned medium (ATCM) was identified to cause proliferation of prostate cells. BPH-1 cells incubated with live T. vaginalis released pro-inflammatory cytokines, and conditioned medium of these cells caused migration of adipocytes. When prostate stromal cells and BPH-1 cells were incubated with adipocyte conditioned medium containing leptin, their growth rates increased as did expression of the leptin receptor (known as OBR) and signaling molecules such as JAK2/STAT3, Notch and survivin. Moreover, blocking the OBR reduced this proliferation and the expression of leptin signaling molecules in response to ATCM. In conclusion, our findings show that inflamed BPH-1 cells infected with T. vaginalis induce the proliferation of prostate cells through leptin-OBR signaling. Therefore, it is likely that T. vaginalis contributes to prostate enlargement in BPH via adipocyte leptin released as a result of inflammation of the prostate.

2.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 235-249, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903886

ABSTRACT

Leptin is a type of adipokine mainly produced by adipocytes and reported to be overproduced in prostate cancer. However, it is not known whether it stimulates the proliferation of prostate cells. In this study, we investigated whether benign prostatic hyperplasia epithelial cells (BPH-1 cells) infected with Trichomonas vaginalis induced the proliferation of prostate cells via a leptin signaling pathway. To investigate the effect of crosstalk between adipocyte leptin and inflamed epithelial cell in proliferation of prostate cells, adipocytes 3T3-L1 cells were incubated in conditioned medium of BPH-1 cells infected with T. vaginalis (T. vaginalis-conditioned medium, TCM), and then the adipocyte-conditioned medium (ATCM) was identified to cause proliferation of prostate cells. BPH-1 cells incubated with live T. vaginalis released pro-inflammatory cytokines, and conditioned medium of these cells caused migration of adipocytes. When prostate stromal cells and BPH-1 cells were incubated with adipocyte conditioned medium containing leptin, their growth rates increased as did expression of the leptin receptor (known as OBR) and signaling molecules such as JAK2/STAT3, Notch and survivin. Moreover, blocking the OBR reduced this proliferation and the expression of leptin signaling molecules in response to ATCM. In conclusion, our findings show that inflamed BPH-1 cells infected with T. vaginalis induce the proliferation of prostate cells through leptin-OBR signaling. Therefore, it is likely that T. vaginalis contributes to prostate enlargement in BPH via adipocyte leptin released as a result of inflammation of the prostate.

3.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 547-556, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919307

ABSTRACT

Our objective was to investigate whether inflammatory microenvironment induced by Trichomonas vaginalis infection can stimulate proliferation of prostate cancer (PCa) cells in vitro and in vivo mouse experiments. The production of CXCL1 and CCL2 increased when cells of the mouse PCa cells (TRAMP-C2 cell line) were infected with live T. vaginalis. T. vaginalis-conditioned medium (TCM) prepared from co-culture of PCa cells and T. vaginalis increased PCa cells migration, proliferation and invasion. The cytokine receptors (CXCR2, CCR2, gp130) were expressed higher on the PCa cells treated with TCM. Pretreatment of PCa cells with antibodies to these cytokine receptors significantly reduced the proliferation, mobility and invasiveness of PCa cells, indicating that TCM has its effect through cytokine-cytokine receptor signaling. In C57BL/6 mice, the prostates injected with T. vaginalis mixed PCa cells were larger than those injected with PCa cells alone after 4 weeks. Expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers and cyclin D1 in the prostate tissue injected with T. vaginalis mixed PCa cells increased than those of PCa cells alone. Collectively, it was suggested that inflammatory reactions by T. vaginalis-stimulated PCa cells increase the proliferation and invasion of PCa cells through cytokine-cytokine receptor signaling pathways.

4.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 557-564, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919306

ABSTRACT

Macrophages play a key role in chronic inflammation, and are the most abundant immune cells in the tumor microenvironment. We investigated whether an interaction between inflamed prostate cancer cells stimulated with Trichomonas vaginalis and macrophages stimulates the proliferation of the cancer cells. Conditioned medium was prepared from T. vaginalis-infected (TCM) and uninfected (CM) mouse prostate cancer (PCa) cell line (TRAMP-C2 cells). Thereafter conditioned medium was prepared from macrophages (J774A.1 cell line) after incubation with CM (MCM) or TCM (MTCM). When TRAMP-C2 cells were stimulated with T. vaginalis, protein and mRNA levels of CXCL1 and CCL2 increased, and migration of macrophages toward TCM was more extensive than towards CM. Macrophages stimulated with TCM produced higher levels of CCL2, IL-6, TNF-α, their mRNAs than macrophages stimulated with CM. MTCM stimulated the proliferation and invasiveness of TRAMP-C2 cells as well as the expression of cytokine receptors (CCR2, GP130, CXCR2). Importantly, blocking of each cytokine receptors with anti-cytokine receptor antibody significantly reduced the proliferation and invasiveness of TRAMP-C2 cells. We conclude that inflammatory mediators released by TRAMP-C2 cells in response to infection by T. vaginalis stimulate the migration and activation of macrophages and the activated macrophages stimulate the proliferation and invasiveness of the TRAMP-C2 cells via cytokine-cytokine receptor binding. Our results therefore suggested that macrophages contribute to the exacerbation of PCa due to inflammation of prostate cancer cells reacted with T. vaginalis.

5.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 217-227, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833810

ABSTRACT

Trichomonas vaginalis causes inflammation of the prostate and has been detected in tissues of prostate cancers (PCa), prostatitis and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Obesity is a risk factor for PCa and causes a chronic subclinical inflammation. This chronic inflammation further exacerbates adipose tissue inflammation as results of migration and activation of macrophages. Macrophages are the most abundant immune cells in the PCa microenvironment. M2 macrophages, known as Tumor-Associated Macrophages, are involved in increasing cancer malignancy. In this study, conditioned medium (TCM) of PCa cells infected with live trichomonads contained chemokines that stimulated migration of the mouse preadipocytes (3T3-L1 cells). Conditioned medium of adipocytes incubated with TCM (ATCM) contained Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-13). Macrophage migration was stimulated by ATCM. In macrophages treated with ATCM, expression of M2 markers increased, while M1 markers decreased. Therefore, it is suggested that ATCM induces polarization of M0 to M2 macrophages. In addition, conditioned medium from the macrophages incubated with ATCM stimulates the proliferation and invasiveness of PCa. Our findings suggest that interaction between inflamed PCa treated with T. vaginalis and adipocytes causes M2 macrophage polarization, so contributing to the progression of PCa.

6.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 21-25, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742310

ABSTRACT

Trichomoniasis is the most common curable sexually-transmitted infection. Most Trichomonas vaginalis-infected men are asymptomatic and can remain undiagnosed and untreated, and this has been thought to result in chronic persistent prostatic infection. Chronic inflammation is regarded as the major factor in the pathogenesis and progression of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostatic cancer (PCa). The aim of this study is to identify seropositivity to T. vaginalis in men with prostate tumors (BPH or PCa) visited to Hanyang University Hospital. A total of 183 men were enrolled between October 2013 and November 2014. They consisted of 139 with BPH (mean age: 64.0±0.07) and 44 with prostate cancer (mean age: 73.3±0.18). We carried out ELISA to identify the seropositivity to T. vaginalis. Mixed lysate antigen extracted from 8 strains of T. vaginalis was used in the ELISA. Also 58 male outpatients visited to Health Promotion Center in Hanyang University Hospital were evaluated for comparing group. As a results, seropositivity to T. vaginalis in patients with prostatic diseases was 19.7% (BPH: 18.7%, PCa: 22.7%) and it was significantly higher than the 1.7% of the comparing healthy group (P=0.001). Therefore, prostatic tumor showed higher seropositivity against T. vaginalis than normal men. As far as we know, this is the first report about seroprevalence in prostatic tumor in Korea.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Health Promotion , Inflammation , Korea , Outpatients , Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis , Prostate , Prostatic Diseases , Prostatic Hyperplasia , Prostatic Neoplasms , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Trichomonas vaginalis , Trichomonas
7.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 27-31, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742309

ABSTRACT

PCR is known to be the most sensitive method for diagnosing Trichomonas vaginalis infections. This study aimed to compare the sensitivity of a PCR assay for trichomoniasis (HY-PCR) developed in Hanyang University with the use of a Seeplex Ace Detection Kit®, using urine collected from four Korean men with prostatic disease. Overall, HY-PCR was more sensitive than the Seeplex Kit. The use of Chelex 100 is recommended for DNA isolation in order to increase the sensitivity of the PCR test.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , DNA , Methods , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prostatic Diseases , Trichomonas vaginalis , Trichomonas
8.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 329-339, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761765

ABSTRACT

Indonesia and South Korea have become inseparable in various respects since the 2 countries established diplomatic relation in 1973. Indonesia is a tropical region that stretches across the equator, comprised of 5 main islands (Java, Kalimantan, Sumatra, Sulawesi, and Papua) and 4 archipelagoes (Riau, Bangka Belitung, Nusa Tenggara, and Maluku). As most population of Eastern Indonesia (Sulawesi, Papua and Nusa Tenggara & Maluku) live in poor areas, it is expected that there will be many parasites. Nevertheless, little is known about the status of parasites in Indonesia. This study examines the prevalences of malaria and lymphatic filaria, which are prevalent in Indonesia, as well as those of soil-transmitted-helminths (STH). As a result, the Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax case loads are almost equal. The current prevalence of P. vivax is uniformly low (<5%) in all age groups and annual parasite incidence (API) showed decreasing tendency as 0.84 per 1,000 population in 2016. However, more than 65 million people still live in malaria epidemic regions. Lymphatic filariasis remains an important public health problem and 236 cities were classified as endemic areas in 514 cities/districts in 2017. It is difficult to ascertain the current prevalence rate of STH in Indonesia, although West Sumba and Southwest Sumba in East Nusa Tenggara reported prevalence rate of more than 20%. The study also considers the (sero) prevalences of other parasites identified in Indonesia. This report should be useful not only to parasitologists but also to travelers and people with business in Indonesia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Commerce , Diplomacy , Elephantiasis, Filarial , Incidence , Indonesia , Islands , Korea , Malaria , Parasites , Plasmodium falciparum , Prevalence , Public Health
9.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 201-206, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761718

ABSTRACT

The roles of mast cells in allergic diseases and helminth infections are well known. However, the roles of mast cells in T. gondii infection is poorly understood. This study was focused on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-4), chemokines (CXCL8, MCP-1) and nitric oxide (NO) by mast cells in response to soluble lysate of T. gondii tachyzoites. Production of CXCL8 (IL-8), MCP-1, TNF-α and IL-4 were measured by RT-PCR and ELISA. Western blot were used for detection of CXCR-1 and CXCR2. Our results showed that T. gondii lysates triggered mast cells to release CXCL8, MCP-1, TNF-α, IL-4 and to produce NO. This suggests that mast cells play an important role in inflammatory responses to T. gondii.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blotting, Western , Chemokines , Cytokines , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Helminths , Interleukin-4 , Mast Cells , Nitric Oxide , Toxoplasma
10.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 199-203, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742231

ABSTRACT

The cutaneous myiasis has been rarely reported in the Republic of Korea. We intended to describe here a case of furuncular cutaneous myiasis caused by Cordylobia anthropophaga larvae in a Korean traveler returned from Central Africa. A patient, 55-year-old man, had traveled to Equatorial Guinea, in Central Africa for a month and just returned to Korea. Physical examinations showed 2 tender erythematous nodules with small central ulceration on the left buttock and thigh. During skin biopsy, 2 larvae came out from the lesion. C. anthropophaga was identified by paired mouth hooks (toothed, spade-like, oral hooklets) and 2 posterior spiracles, which lack a distinct chitinous rim. Although rarely described in Korea until now, cutaneous myiasis may be encountered more frequently with increasing international travel and exchange workers to tropical areas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Africa, Central , Biopsy , Buttocks , Chitin , Equatorial Guinea , Korea , Larva , Mouth , Myiasis , Physical Examination , Republic of Korea , Skin , Thigh , Ulcer
11.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 375-384, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-203201

ABSTRACT

Trichomonas vaginalis is a pathogen that triggers severe immune responses in hosts. T. vaginalis α-actinin 2, Tvα-actinin 2, has been used to diagnose trichomoniasis. This study was undertaken to examine the role of Tvα-actinin 2 as an antigenic molecule to induce immune responses from humans. Western blot analysis using anti-Tvα-actinin 2 antibodies indicated its presence in the secreted proteins of T. vaginalis. ELISA was employed to measure cytokine production by vaginal epithelial cells, prostate cells, mouse dendritic cells (DCs), or T cells stimulated with T. vaginalis or Tvα-actinin 2 protein. Both T. vaginalis and rTvα-actinin 2 induced cytokine production from epithelial cell lines, including IL-10. Moreover, CD4+CD25− regulatory T cells (Treg cells) incubated with rTvα-actinin 2-treated DCs produced high levels of IL-10. These data indicate that Tvα-actinin 2 modulates immune responses via IL-10 production by Treg cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Antibodies , Blotting, Western , Dendritic Cells , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Epithelial Cells , Interleukin-10 , Prostate , T-Lymphocytes , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Trichomonas vaginalis , Trichomonas
12.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 213-218, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-192951

ABSTRACT

Most men infected with Trichomonas vaginalis are asymptomatic and can remain undiagnosed and untreated. This has been hypothesized to result in chronic persistent prostatic infection. Adhesion of the protozoan organisms to mucosal cells is considered a first and prerequisite step for T. vaginalis infection. Adhesion of T. vaginalis to prostate epithelial cells has not yet been observed; however, there are several reports about inflammation of prostate epithelial cells induced by T. vaginalis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether adhesion and cytotoxicity of T. vaginalis are involved in inflammation of prostate epithelial cells. When RWPE-1 cells were infected with T. vaginalis (1:0.4 or 1:4), adhesion of T. vaginalis continuously increased for 24 hr or 3 hr, respectively. The cytotoxicity of prostate epithelial cells infected with T. vaginalis (RWPE-1: T. vaginalis=1:0.4) increased at 9 hr; at an infection ratio of 1:4, cytotoxicity increased after 3 hr. When the RWPE-1 to T. vaginalis ratio was 1:0.4 or 1:4, production of IL-1β, IL-6, CCL2, and CXCL8 also increased. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was verified by measuring decreased E-cadherin and increased vimentin expression at 24 hr and 48 hr. Taken together, the results indicate that T. vaginalis adhered to prostate epithelial cells, causing cytotoxicity, pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and EMT. Our findings suggest for the first time that T. vaginalis may induce inflammation via adhesion to normal prostate epithelial cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Cadherins , Cell Adhesion , Epithelial Cells , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Epithelium , Inflammation , Interleukin-6 , Prostate , Trichomonas vaginalis , Trichomonas , Vimentin
13.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 75-80, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-36479

ABSTRACT

This study explored epidemiological trends in trichomoniasis in Daegu, South Korea. Wet mount microscopy, PCR, and multiplex PCR were used to test for Trichomonas vaginalis in vaginal swab samples obtained from 621 women visiting 2 clinics in Daegu. Of the 621 women tested, microscopy detected T. vaginalis in 4 (0.6%) patients, PCR detected T. vaginalis in 19 (3.0%) patients, and multiplex PCR detected T. vaginalis in 12 (1.9%) patients. Testing via PCR demonstrated high sensitivity and high negative predictive value for T. vaginalis. Among the 19 women who tested positive for T. vaginalis according to PCR, 94.7% (18/19) reported vaginal signs and symptoms. Notably, more than 50% of T. vaginalis infections occurred in females younger than 30 years old, and 58% were unmarried. Multiplex PCR, which simultaneously detects pathogens from various sexually transmitted infections, revealed that 91.7% (11/12) of patients were infected with 2 or more pathogens. Mycoplasma hominis was the most prevalent co-infection pathogen with T. vaginalis, followed by Ureaplasma urealyticum and Chlamydia trachomatis. Our results indicate that PCR and multiplex PCR are the most sensitive tools for T. vaginalis diagnosis, rather than microscopy which has been routinely used to detect T. vaginalis infections in South Korea. Therefore, clinicians should take note of the high prevalence of T. vaginalis infections among adolescent and young women in order to prevent persistent infection and transmission of this disease.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Ambulatory Care Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Microscopy/standards , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards , Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards , Predictive Value of Tests , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Trichomonas Infections/epidemiology , Trichomonas vaginalis/physiology , Vaginal Smears/standards
14.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 123-132, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-57440

ABSTRACT

Trichomonas vaginalis causes the most prevalent sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Trichomonads have been detected in prostatic tissues from prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and prostate cancer. Chronic prostatic inflammation is known as a risk factor for prostate enlargement, benign prostatic hyperplasia symptoms, and acute urinary retention. Our aim was to investigate whether T. vaginalis could induce inflammatory responses in cells of a benign prostatic hyperplasia epithelial cell line (BPH-1). When BPH-1 cells were infected with T. vaginalis, the protein and mRNA of inflammatory cytokines, such as CXCL8, CCL2, IL-1β, and IL-6, were increased. The activities of TLR4, ROS, MAPK, JAK2/STAT3, and NF-κB were also increased, whereas inhibitors of ROS, MAPK, PI3K, NF-κB, and anti-TLR4 antibody decreased the production of the 4 cytokines although the extent of inhibition differed. However, a JAK2 inhibitor inhibited only IL-6 production. Culture supernatants of the BPH-1 cells that had been incubated with live T. vaginalis (trichomonad-conditioned medium, TCM) contained the 4 cytokines and induced the migration of human monocytes (THP-1 cells) and mast cells (HMC-1 cells). TCM conditioned by BPH-1 cells pretreated with NF-κB inhibitor showed decreased levels of cytokines and induced less migration. Therefore, it is suggested that these cytokines are involved in migration of inflammatory cells. These results suggest that T. vaginalis infection of BPH patients may cause inflammation, which may induce lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS).


Subject(s)
Humans , Cytokines , Emigration and Immigration , Epithelial Cells , Inflammation , Interleukin-6 , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms , Mast Cells , Monocytes , Prostate , Prostatic Hyperplasia , Prostatic Neoplasms , Prostatitis , Risk Factors , RNA, Messenger , Trichomonas vaginalis , Trichomonas , Urinary Retention
15.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 187-190, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-57432

ABSTRACT

Trichomoniasis is the most common curable sexually-transmitted infection (STI) worldwide. There are few reports on the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis in Korea. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of trichomoniasis by PCR in Guri city, Korea. All adult women who visited Hanyang University Guri Hospital for health screening within the National Health Care Service were invited to participate in the study, and 424 women were enrolled between March and June 2011. PCR was used to detect Trichomonas vaginalis using primers based on a repetitive sequence cloned from T. vaginalis (TV-E650). Fourteen women (3.3%) were found to have T. vaginalis. All were over 50, and they were significantly older on average than the 410 Trichomonas-negative women (mean ages 63.4 vs 55.3 years). It seems that T. vaginalis infection is not rare in women receiving health screening, especially among those over 50.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Clone Cells , Delivery of Health Care , Korea , Mass Screening , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid , Trichomonas vaginalis
16.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 595-603, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-229078

ABSTRACT

Trichomonas vaginalis secretes a number of proteases which are suspected to be the cause of pathogenesis; however, little is understood how they manipulate host cells. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates cell growth, cell proliferation, cell motility, cell survival, protein synthesis, and transcription. We detected various types of metalloproteinases including GP63 protein from T. vaginalis trophozoites, and T. vaginalis GP63 metalloproteinase was confirmed by sequencing and western blot. When SiHa cells were stimulated with live T. vaginalis, T. vaginalis excretory-secretory products (ESP) or T. vaginalis lysate, live T. vaginalis and T. vaginalis ESP induced the mTOR cleavage in both time- and parasite load-dependent manner, but T. vaginalis lysate did not. Pretreatment of T. vaginalis with a metalloproteinase inhibitor, 1,10-phenanthroline, completely disappeared the mTOR cleavage in SiHa cells. Collectively, T. vaginalis metallopeptidase induces host cell mTOR cleavage, which may be related to survival of the parasite.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blotting, Western , Cell Line, Tumor , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Metalloproteases/genetics , Proteolysis , Sequence Analysis, DNA , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Trichomonas vaginalis/enzymology
17.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 677-680, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-124055

ABSTRACT

Infection cases of diphyllobothriid tapeworms are not much in the below teen-age group. We report a case of Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense infection in a 13-year-old boy. He presented with severe fatigue, occasional abdominal pain at night time. He also had several episodes of tapeworm segment discharge in his stools. By his past history, he had frequently eaten raw fish including salmon and trout with his families. Numerous eggs of diphyllobothriid tapeworm were detected in the fecal examination. We introduced amidotrizoic acid as a cathartic agent through nasogastroduodenal tube and let nearly whole length (4.75 m) of D. nihonkaiense be excreted through his anus. After a single dose of praziquantel, the child's stool showed no further eggs, and his symptoms disappeared. The evacuated worm was identified as D. nihonkaiense by mitochondrial cox1 gene analysis. Here we report a successful extracorporeal worm extraction from an infection case of D. nihonkaiense by the injection of amidotrizoic acid.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Animals , Humans , Male , Antiparasitic Agents/therapeutic use , Cyclooxygenase 1/genetics , Diatrizoate Meglumine/therapeutic use , Diphyllobothriasis/drug therapy , Diphyllobothrium/classification , Feces/parasitology , Praziquantel/therapeutic use , Sequence Analysis, DNA
18.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 551-555, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-7387

ABSTRACT

Trichomonas vaginalis, a causative agent of trichomoniasis, may trigger symptomatic or asymptomatic nongonococcal urethritis and chronic prostatitis in men. Despite the availability of highly sensitive diagnostic tests, such as nucleic acid amplification tests, including PCR, few prospective studies present data on male T. vaginalis infection in South Korea. In the present study, the prevalence of T. vaginalis and associated clinical conditions were evaluated in 201 male patients from a primary care urology clinic in South Korea. The prevalence of T. vaginalis infection in our cohort was 4% (8/201) by PCR. T. vaginalis infection was common in men older than 40 years (median age, 52 years). Among the 8 Trichomonas-positive patients, 87.5% (7/8) had prostatic diseases, such as prostatitis and benign prostatic hyperplasia, and 25.0% (2/8) and 12.5% (1/8) were coinfected with Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium, respectively. Our results suggest that T. vaginalis infection is not rare in men attending primary care urology clinics in South Korea, especially in those older than 40 years, in whom it may explain the presence of prostatic disease. The possibility of T. vaginalis infection should be routinely considered in older male patients with prostatic diseases in South Korea.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Chlamydia Infections/parasitology , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolation & purification , Coinfection , Mycoplasma Infections/parasitology , Mycoplasma genitalium/isolation & purification , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prostatitis/epidemiology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Trichomonas Infections/diagnosis , Trichomonas vaginalis/isolation & purification
19.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 215-220, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-121883

ABSTRACT

We analyzed 320 clinical samples of parasitic infections submitted to the Department of Environmental Biology and Medical Parasitology, Hanyang University from January 2004 to June 2011. They consisted of 211 nematode infections, 64 trematode or cestode infections, 32 protozoan infections, and 13 infections with arthropods. The nematode infections included 67 cases of trichuriasis, 62 of anisakiasis (Anisakis sp. and Pseudoterranova decipiens), 40 of enterobiasis, and 24 of ascariasis, as well as other infections including strongyloidiasis, thelaziasis, loiasis, and hookworm infecions. Among the cestode or trematode infections, we observed 27 cases of diphyllobothriasis, 14 of sparganosis, 9 of clonorchiasis, and 5 of paragonimiasis together with a few cases of taeniasis saginata, cysticercosis cellulosae, hymenolepiasis, and echinostomiasis. The protozoan infections included 14 cases of malaria, 4 of cryptosporidiosis, and 3 of trichomoniasis, in addition to infections with Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii. Among the arthropods, we detected 6 cases of Ixodes sp., 5 of Phthirus pubis, 1 of Sarcoptes scabiei, and 1 of fly larva. The results revealed that trichuriasis, anisakiasis, enterobiasis, and diphyllobothriasis were the most frequently found parasitosis among the clinical samples.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Arthropods/pathogenicity , Cestode Infections/epidemiology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology , Malaria/epidemiology , Nematode Infections/epidemiology , Protozoan Infections/epidemiology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Trematode Infections/epidemiology
20.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 479-484, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-14629

ABSTRACT

Neutrophils are the predominant inflammatory cells found in vaginal discharges of patients infected with Trichomonas vaginalis. In this study, we examined superoxide anion (O2(.-)) production by neutrophils activated by T. vaginalis. Human neutrophils produced superoxide anions when stimulated with either a lysate of T. vaginalis, its membrane component (MC), or excretory-secretory product (ESP). To assess the role of trichomonad protease in production of superoxide anions by neutrophils, T. vaginalis lysate, ESP, and MC were each pretreated with a protease inhibitor cocktail before incubation with neutrophils. Superoxide anion production was significantly decreased by this treatment. Trichomonad growth was inhibited by preincubation with supernatants of neutrophils incubated for 3 hr with T. vaginalis lysate. Furthermore, myeloperoxidase (MPO) production by neutrophils was stimulated by live trichomonads. These results indicate that the production of superoxide anions and MPO by neutrophils stimulated with T. vaginalis may be a part of defense mechanisms of neutrophils in trichomoniasis.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Anions/metabolism , Neutrophils/enzymology , Peroxidase/metabolism , Superoxides/metabolism , Trichomonas Infections/enzymology , Trichomonas vaginalis/isolation & purification
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