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1.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 30-39, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913822

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#K-MASTER project is a Korean national precision medicine platform that screened actionable mutations by analyzing next-generation sequencing (NGS) of solid tumor patients. We compared gene analyses between NGS panel from the K-MASTER project and orthogonal methods. @*Materials and Methods@#Colorectal, breast, non–small cell lung, and gastric cancer patients were included. We compared NGS results from K-MASTER projects with those of non-NGS orthogonal methods (KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF mutations in colorectal cancer [CRC]; epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR], anaplastic lymphoma kinase [ALK] fusion, and reactive oxygen species 1 [ROS1] fusion in non–small cell lung cancer [NSCLC], and Erb-B2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (ERBB2) positivity in breast and gastric cancers). @*Results@#In the CRC cohort (n=225), the sensitivity and specificity of NGS were 87.4% and 79.3% (KRAS); 88.9% and 98.9% (NRAS); and 77.8% and 100.0% (BRAF), respectively. In the NSCLC cohort (n=109), the sensitivity and specificity of NGS for EGFR were 86.2% and 97.5%, respectively. The concordance rate for ALK fusion was 100%, but ROS1 fusion was positive in only one of three cases that were positive in orthogonal tests. In the breast cancer cohort (n=260), ERBB2 amplification was detected in 45 by NGS. Compared with orthogonal methods that integrated immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, sensitivity and specificity were 53.7% and 99.4%, respectively. In the gastric cancer cohort (n=64), ERBB2 amplification was detected in six by NGS. Compared with orthogonal methods, sensitivity and specificity were 62.5% and 98.2%, respectively. @*Conclusion@#The results of the K-MASTER NGS panel and orthogonal methods showed a different degree of agreement for each genetic alteration, but generally showed a high agreement rate.

2.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 123-130, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874366

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Next-generation sequencing (NGS) can facilitate precision medicine approaches in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients. We investigated the molecular profiling of Korean mCRC patients under the K-MASTER project which was initiated in June 2017 as a nationwide precision medicine oncology clinical trial platform which used NGS assay to screen actionable mutations. @*Materials and Methods@#As of 22 January 2020, total of 994 mCRC patients were registered in K-MASTER project. Targeted sequencing was performed using three platforms which were composed of the K-MASTER cancer panel v1.1 and the SNUH FIRST Cancer Panel v3.01. If tumor tissue was not available, cell-free DNA was extracted and the targeted sequencing was performed by Axen Cancer Panel as a liquid biopsy. @*Results@#In 994 mCRC patients, we found 1,564 clinically meaningful pathogenic variants which mutated in 71 genes. Anti-EGFR therapy candidates were 467 patients (47.0%) and BRAF V600E mutation (n=47, 4.7%), deficient mismatch repair/microsatellite instability–high (n=15, 1.5%), HER2 amplifications (n=10, 1.0%) could be incorporated with recently approved drugs. The patients with high tumor mutation burden (n=101, 12.7%) and DNA damaging response and repair defect pathway alteration (n=42, 4.2%) could be enrolled clinical trials with immune checkpoint inhibitors. There were more colorectal cancer molecular alterations such as PIK3CA, KRAS G12C, atypical BRAF, and HER2 mutations and even rarer but actionable genes that approved or ongoing clinical trials in other solid tumors. @*Conclusion@#K-MASTER project provides an intriguing background to investigate new clinical trials with biomarkers and give therapeutic opportunity for mCRC patients.

3.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 764-778, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831112

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was to identify the concordant or discordant genomic profiling between primary and matched metastatic tumors in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) and to explore the clinical implication. @*Materials and Methods@#Surgical samples of primary and matched metastatic tissues from 158 patients (335 samples) with CRC at Korea University Anam Hospital were evaluated using the Ion AmpliSeq Cancer Hotspot Panel. We compared genetic variants and classified them as concordant, primary-specific, and metastasis-specific variants. We used a combination of principal components analysis and clustering to find genomic groups. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to appraise survival between genomic groups. We used machine learning to confirm the correlation between genetic variants and metastatic sites. @*Results@#A total of 282 types of deleterious non-synonymous variants were selected for analysis. Of a total of 897 variants, an average of 40% was discordant. Three genomic groups were yielded based on the genomic discrepancy patterns. Overall survival differed significantly between the genomic groups. The poorest group had the highest proportion of concordant KRAS G12V and additional metastasis-specific SMAD4. Correlation analysis between genetic variants and metastatic sites suggested that concordant KRAS mutations would have more disseminated metastases. @*Conclusion@#Driver gene mutations were mostly concordant; however, discordant or metastasis-specific mutations were present. Clinically, the concordant driver genetic changes with additional metastasis-specific variants can predict poor prognosis for patients with CRC.

4.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 796-803, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-90560

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: KRAS mutations have been used widely as prognostic or predictive marker in patients with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC). However, it may be difficult to obtain a tumor tissue for analyzing the status of KRAS mutation in large proportion of patients with advanced disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We obtained pairs of tumor and serum samples from 65 patients with advanced CRC, between March 2008 and July 2011. KRAS mutation status from the tumor samples was analyzed by genomic polymerase chain reaction and direct sequence, and KRASmutation status from the serum samples was determined by a genomic polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. RESULTS: KRAS mutations were detected in the serum samples of 26 patients and in the tumor samples of 31 patients. KRAS mutation status in the serum and tumor samples was consistent in 44 of the 65 pairs (67.7%). There was a significant correlation between the mutations detected in the serum sample and the mutations detected in the matched tumor sample (correlation index, 0.35; p 0.05). In a multivariate analysis, liver metastasis and no cytoreductive operation were independent prognostic factors for decreased OS. CONCLUSION: The serum sample might alternatively be used when it is difficult to obtain tumor tissues for analyzing the status of KRAS mutation in patients with advanced CRC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Colorectal Neoplasms , Liver , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Polymerase Chain Reaction
5.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 840-847, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-159657

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer in never-smokers ranks as the seventh most common cause of cancer death worldwide, and the incidence of lung cancer in non-smoking Korean women appears to be steadily increasing. To identify the effect of genetic polymorphisms on lung cancer risk in non-smoking Korean women, we conducted a genome-wide association study of Korean female non-smokers with lung cancer. We analyzed 440,794 genotype data of 285 cases and 1,455 controls, and nineteen SNPs were associated with lung cancer development (P < 0.001). For external validation, nineteen SNPs were replicated in another sample set composed of 293 cases and 495 controls, and only rs10187911 on 2p16.3 was significantly associated with lung cancer development (dominant model, OR of TG or GG, 1.58, P = 0.025). We confirmed this SNP again in another replication set composed of 546 cases and 744 controls (recessive model, OR of GG, 1.32, P = 0.027). OR and P value in combined set were 1.37 and < 0.001 in additive model, 1.51 and < 0.001 in dominant model, and 1.54 and < 0.001 in recessive model. The effect of this SNP was found to be consistent only in adenocarcinoma patients (1.36 and < 0.001 in additive model, 1.49 and < 0.001 in dominant model, and 1.54 and < 0.001 in recessive model). Furthermore, after imputation with HapMap data, we found regional significance near rs10187911, and five SNPs showed P value less than that of rs10187911 (rs12478012, rs4377361, rs13005521, rs12475464, and rs7564130). Therefore, we concluded that a region on chromosome 2 is significantly associated with lung cancer risk in Korean non-smoking women.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Adenocarcinoma/genetics , Asian People/genetics , Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal/genetics , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 2 , Genome-Wide Association Study , Genotype , Logistic Models , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Models, Genetic , Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics , Odds Ratio , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Republic of Korea
6.
Genomics & Informatics ; : 167-174, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-192769

ABSTRACT

AKT is a signal transduction protein that plays a central role in the tumorigenesis. There are 3 mammalian isoforms of this serine/threonine protein kinase-AKT1, AKT2, and AKT3-showing a broad tissue distribution. We first discovered 2 novel polymorphisms (AKT2 -9826 C/G and AKT3 -811 A/G), and we confirmed 6 known polymorphisms (AKT2 -9473 C/T, AKT2 -9151 C/T, AKT2 -9025 C/T, AKT2 -8618G/A, AKT3 -675 A/-, and AKT3 -244 C/T) of the AKT2 and AKT3 promoter region in 24 blood samples of Korean lung cancer patients using direct sequencing. To evaluate the role of AKT2 and AKT3 polymorphisms in the risk of Korean lung cancer, genotypes of the AKT2 and AKT3 polymorphisms (AKT2 -9826 C/G, AKT2 -9473 C/T, AKT2 -9151 C/T, AKT2 -9025 C/T, AKT2 -8618G/A, and AKT3 -675 A/-) were determined in 360 lung cancer patients and 360 normal controls. Statistical analyses revealed that the genotypes and haplotypes in the AKT2 and AKT3 promoter regions were not significantly associated with the risk of lung cancer in the Korean population. These results suggest that polymorphisms of the AKT2 and AKT3 promoter regions do not contribute to the genetic susceptibility to lung cancer in the Korean population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genotype , Haplotypes , Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Polymorphism, Genetic , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Protein Isoforms , Signal Transduction , Tissue Distribution
7.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 108-116, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-78353

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The genetic alteration of the janus kinases (JAKs), non-receptor tyrosine kinase, is related to the development of human cancers. However, little is known about how the sequence variation of JAK3 contributes to the development of lung cancer. This study investigated whether polymorphisms at the promoter region of the JAK3 gene are associated with the risk of lung cancer in the Korean population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 819 subjects, including 409 lung cancer patients and 410 healthy controls were recruited. The SNaPshot assay and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis were used, and logistic regression analyses were performed to characterize the association between polymorphisms of JAK3 and lung cancer risk. RESULTS: Three polymorphisms (-672 G>A, +64 A>G and +227 G>A) of JAK3 were analyzed for large-scale genotyping (n=819). Statistical analyses revealed that polymorphisms and haplotypes in the JAK3 gene were not significantly associated with lung cancer. CONCLUSION: JAK3 gene was not significantly associated with the risk of lung cancer in the Korean population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Haplotypes , Janus Kinase 3 , Janus Kinases , Korea , Logistic Models , Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
8.
Genomics & Informatics ; : 194-200, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-122590

ABSTRACT

The PIK3CA gene, oncogenic gene located on human chromosome 3q26.3, is an important regulator of cell proliferation, death, motility and invasion. To evaluate the role of PIK3CA gene in the risk of Korean lung cancer, genotypes of the PIK3CA polymorphisms (rs11709323, rs2699895, rs3729679, rs17849074 and rs1356413) were determined in 423 lung cancer patients and 443 normal controls. Statistical analyses revealed that the genotypes and haplotypes in the PIK3CA gene were not significantly associated with the risk of lung cancer in the Korean population, suggesting that these PIK3CA polymorphisms do not contribute to the genetic susceptibility to lung cancer in the Korean population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cell Proliferation , Chromosomes, Human , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genotype , Haplotypes , Lung , Lung Neoplasms
9.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 211-217, 2009.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-10557

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Serine-threonine kinase11 (STK11) was originally identified in 1997 as the causative mutation that's responsible for Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome (PJS). Several recent studies have reported that the STK11 gene is an important human tumor suppressor gene in lung cancer. We evaluated the associations between the polymorphisms of the STK11 promoter region and the risk of lung cancer in 901 Koreans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: By direct sequencing, we first discovered three novel polymorphisms (-1,795 T>C, -981 C>T and -160 G>T) and four known polymorphisms (-1,580 C>T, -1,494 A>C, -881 A>G and -458 G>C) of the STK11 promoter region in 24 blood samples of 24 Korean lung cancer patients. Further genotype analyses were then performed on 443 lung cancer patients and 458 controls. RESULTS: We discovered three novel polymorphisms and we identified four known polymorphisms of the STK11 promoter region in a Korean population. Statistical analyses revealed that the genotypes and haplotypes in the STK11 gene were not significantly associated with the risk of lung cancer in a Korean population. CONCLUSION: This is the first study that's focused on the association of STK11 promoter polymorphisms and the risk of lung cancer in a Korean population. To evaluate the role of the STK11 gene for the risk of lung cancer, the genotypes of the STK11 promoter region (-1,795 T>C, -1,494 A>C and -160 G>T) were determined in 901 Koreans, yet the result revealed no significant difference between the lung cancer patients and the controls. These results suggest that the three promoter polymorphisms we studied are not important risk factors for the susceptibility to lung cancer in Koreans.


Subject(s)
Humans , Genes, Tumor Suppressor , Genotype , Haplotypes , Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Risk Factors
10.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 190-196, 2008.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-53922

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The expression of the PIM-1 gene, which is a proto-oncogene that encodes a serine/threonine kinase, is associated with multiple cellular functions such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and tumorigenesis. In particular, several studies have reported that the PIM-1 gene is associated with the development of lymphoma, leukemia and prostate cancer. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the association between the single nucleotide polymorphisms in the PIM-1 gene and the risk of lung cancer occurrence in the Korean population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To evaluate the role of the PIM-1 gene in the development of lung cancer, the genotypes of the PIM-1 gene were determined in 408 lung cancer patients and 410 normal subjects. RESULTS: We found that the T-C-T-C haplotypes of the PIM-1 gene (-1196 T>C, IVS4 +55 T>C, IVS4 +1416 T>A and +3684 C>A) were associated with an increased risk of lung cancer [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 3.98; 95% CI: 1.24~12.75, p-value: 0.020]. In particular, these haplotypes showed an increased risk of lung cancer in males (aOR: 5.67; 95% CI: 1.32~24.30, p-value: 0.019) and smokers (aOR: 7.82; 95% CI: 1.75~34.98, p-value: 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: The present results suggest that the T-C-T-C haplotype of the PIM-1 gene could influence the risk of developing smoking-related lung cancer in the Korean population. Additional functional studies with an larger sample sized analysis are warranted to reconfirm our findings.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Apoptosis , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic , Genotype , Haplotypes , Leukemia , Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Lymphoma , Odds Ratio , Oncogenes , Phosphotransferases , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Prostatic Neoplasms , Proto-Oncogenes
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