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1.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e142-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976970

ABSTRACT

Background@#Heart rate variability (HRV) extracted from electrocardiogram measured for a short period during a resting state is clinically used as a bio-signal reflecting the emotional state. However, as interest in wearable devices increases, greater attention is being paid to HRV extracted from long-term electrocardiogram, which may contain additional clinical information. The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of HRV parameters extracted through long-term electrocardiogram and explore the differences between participants with and without depression and anxiety symptoms. @*Methods@#Long-term electrocardiogram was acquired from 354 adults with no psychiatric history who underwent Holter monitoring. Evening and nighttime HRV and the ratio of nighttime-to-evening HRV were compared between 127 participants with depressive symptoms and 227 participants without depressive symptoms. Comparisons were also made between participants with and without anxiety symptoms. @*Results@#Absolute values of HRV parameters did not differ between groups based on the presence of depressive or anxiety symptoms. Overall, HRV parameters increased at nighttime compared to evening. Participants with depressive symptoms showed a significantly higher nighttime-to-evening ratio of high-frequency HRV than participants without depressive symptoms. The nighttime-to-evening ratio of HRV parameters did not show a significant difference depending on the presence of anxiety symptoms. @*Conclusion@#HRV extracted through long-term electrocardiogram showed circadian rhythm. Depression may be associated with changes in the circadian rhythm of parasympathetic tone.

2.
International Journal of Arrhythmia ; : 2-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925066

ABSTRACT

Background@#Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is an effective treatment option for patients with heart failure (HF) and left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony. However, the problem of some patients not responding to CRT remains unresolved. This study aimed to propose a novel in silico method for CRT simulation. @*Methods@#Three-dimensional heart geometry was constructed from computed tomography images. The finite ele‑ ment method was used to elucidate the electric wave propagation in the heart. The electric excitation and mechani‑ cal contraction were coupled with vascular hemodynamics by the lumped parameter model. The model parameters for three-dimensional (3D) heart and vascular mechanics were estimated by matching computed variables with measured physiological parameters. CRT effects were simulated in a patient with HF and left bundle branch block (LBBB). LV end-diastolic (LVEDV) and end-systolic volumes (LVESV), LV ejection fraction (LVEF), and CRT responsiveness measured from the in silico simulation model were compared with those from clinical observation. A CRT responder was defined as absolute increase in LVEF ≥ 5% or relative increase in LVEF ≥ 15%. @*Results@#A 68-year-old female with nonischemic HF and LBBB was retrospectively included. The in silico CRT simu‑ lation modeling revealed that changes in LVEDV, LVESV, and LVEF by CRT were from 174 to 173 mL, 116 to 104 mL, and 33 to 40%, respectively. Absolute and relative ΔLVEF were 7% and 18%, respectively, signifying a CRT responder.In clinical observation, echocardiography showed that changes in LVEDV, LVESV, and LVEF by CRT were from 162 to 119 mL, 114 to 69 mL, and 29 to 42%, respectively. Absolute and relative ΔLVESV were 13% and 31%, respectively, also signifying a CRT responder. CRT responsiveness from the in silico CRT simulation model was concordant with that in the clinical observation. @*Conclusion@#This in silico CRT simulation method is a feasible technique to screen for CRT non-responders in patients with HF and LBBB.

3.
International Journal of Arrhythmia ; : 4-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898676

ABSTRACT

Background@#We aimed to investigate the comparative risk of fracture among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) treated with warfarin or non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs). @*Methods@#Using the Korean National Health Insurance Service database, patients with AF who received a prescrip‑ tion for apixaban, dabigatran, rivaroxaban, or warfarin between 2013 and 2016 were included. Risk of major fractures (osteoporotic hip, vertebral, or pelvic fractures) were compared using inverse probability of treatment weighting. @*Results@#There were 70,481 patients identified (41.3% women; mean [SD] age 70.5 [11.3] years); 16,992 apixaban, 22,514 dabigatran, 27,998 rivaroxaban, and 29,390 warfarin users. During a median follow-up of 390 days, 2412 major fractures occurred with weighted incidences per 100 patient-years of 2.56 for apixaban, 2.39 for dabigatran, 2.78 for rivaroxaban, and 3.43 for warfarin. NOAC use was associated with a lower risk for fracture than warfarin use: HR 0.70 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.57–0.86) for apixaban, HR 0.69 (95% CI 0.60–0.78) for dabigatran, and HR 0.79 (95% CI 0.70–0.90) for rivaroxaban. In head-to-head comparisons between NOACs, there was no significant difference between apixaban and dabigatran. Rivaroxaban was associated with a higher risk for fracture than dabigatran (HR 1.15, 95% CI 1.02–1.31). @*Conclusion@#In patients with AF, NOAC use may result in a lower risk for osteoporotic fracture compared with warfa‑ rin use. Fracture risk does not seem to be altered by the choice of NOAC type, except for rivaroxaban. These associa‑ tions may help inform benefit–risk assessments when choosing between the different anticoagulant types.

4.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 298-305, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875583

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Cardiovascular health (CVH) status is associated with several cardiovascular outcomes; however, correlations between changes in CVH status and risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) are unknown. We aimed to evaluate associations between changes in CVH status and risk of SCD and all-cause death in older adults. @*Materials and Methods@#We used data from the Korea National Health Insurance Service-Senior cohort database (2005–2012). Six metrics from the American Heart Association (smoking, body mass index, physical activity, blood pressure, total cholesterol, and fasting blood glucose) were used to calculate CVH scores. Changes in CVH status between two health checkups were categorized as low to low, low to high, high to low, and high to high. @*Results@#We included 105200 patients whose CVH status for an initial and follow-up health checkup (2-year interval) was available. During a median of 5.2 years of follow-up after a second health checkup, 688 SCDs occurred. Compared to patients with a persistent low CVH status, those with a consistently high CVH status had a reduced risk of SCD [adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 0.69; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.56–0.86] and all-cause death (adjusted HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.69–0.78). The risk of all-cause death followed similar trends. However, an inconsistent linear relationship was observed for changes in CVH status and the risk of SCD, but not of all-cause death. @*Conclusion@#Maintaining a high CVH status was associated with future risks of SCD and all-cause death among an older adult population.

5.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 114-123, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875456

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Comparative occurrence of ischemic stroke for rhythm versus rate control strategy in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) is still inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the rhythm control strategy is associated with a lower risk of ischemic stroke compared to the rate control strategy in NVAF patients. @*Methods@#The CODE-AF registry prospectively enrolled 6,280 consecutive patients who were treated for NVAF at 10 tertiary referral centers in South Korea. Of these, 2,513 NVAF patients (age, 67 ± 10 years; male, 61.8%) were clinically followed up for over 1-year and divided into rate and rhythm control groups. @*Results@#Those treated with the rhythm control strategy were younger and had less proportions of underlying disease compared to those treated with the rate control strategy. After the propensity matching analysis, those treated with the rhythm control strategy had similar baseline characteristics including the CHA 2 DS 2 -VASC score compared to those treated with the rate control strategy.The rate of oral anticoagulation, all bleeding, and hospitalization were also similarly between the two groups. The incidence rate of ischemic stroke in the rhythm control group was significantly lower than in the rate control group (0.7 vs. 6.9 per 1,000 person-years, p = 0.011). @*Conclusions@#The rhythm control strategy demonstrated a beneficial effect to lower the risk of ischemic stroke during a 1-year follow-up compared to the rate control strategy.

6.
International Journal of Arrhythmia ; : 4-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890972

ABSTRACT

Background@#We aimed to investigate the comparative risk of fracture among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) treated with warfarin or non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs). @*Methods@#Using the Korean National Health Insurance Service database, patients with AF who received a prescrip‑ tion for apixaban, dabigatran, rivaroxaban, or warfarin between 2013 and 2016 were included. Risk of major fractures (osteoporotic hip, vertebral, or pelvic fractures) were compared using inverse probability of treatment weighting. @*Results@#There were 70,481 patients identified (41.3% women; mean [SD] age 70.5 [11.3] years); 16,992 apixaban, 22,514 dabigatran, 27,998 rivaroxaban, and 29,390 warfarin users. During a median follow-up of 390 days, 2412 major fractures occurred with weighted incidences per 100 patient-years of 2.56 for apixaban, 2.39 for dabigatran, 2.78 for rivaroxaban, and 3.43 for warfarin. NOAC use was associated with a lower risk for fracture than warfarin use: HR 0.70 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.57–0.86) for apixaban, HR 0.69 (95% CI 0.60–0.78) for dabigatran, and HR 0.79 (95% CI 0.70–0.90) for rivaroxaban. In head-to-head comparisons between NOACs, there was no significant difference between apixaban and dabigatran. Rivaroxaban was associated with a higher risk for fracture than dabigatran (HR 1.15, 95% CI 1.02–1.31). @*Conclusion@#In patients with AF, NOAC use may result in a lower risk for osteoporotic fracture compared with warfa‑ rin use. Fracture risk does not seem to be altered by the choice of NOAC type, except for rivaroxaban. These associa‑ tions may help inform benefit–risk assessments when choosing between the different anticoagulant types.

7.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 267-277, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833032

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES@#Nationwide social inequalities of oral anticoagulation (OAC) usage after the introduction of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have not been well identified in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). This study assessed overall rate and social inequalities of OAC usage after the introduction of NOAC in Korea.@*METHODS@#Between January 2002 and December 2016, we identified 888,540 patients with AF in the Korea National Health Insurance system database. The change of OAC rate in different medical systems after the introduction of NOAC were evaluated.@*RESULTS@#In all population, overall OAC use increased from 13.2% to 23.4% (p for trend <0.001), and NOAC use increased from 0% to 14.6% (p for trend <0.001). Compared with pre-reimbursement (0.48%), the annual increase of OAC use was significantly higher after partial (1.16%, p<0.001), and full reimbursement of OAC (3.72%, p<0.001). Full reimbursement of NOAC (adjusted odds ratio, 2.10; 95% confidence interval, 2.04–2.15) was independently associated with higher OAC use. However, the difference of overall OAC usage between tertiary referral hospitals and nursing or public health centers increased from 17.9% in 2010 to 36.8% in 2016. Moreover, usage rate of NOAC was significantly different among different medical systems from 37.2% at the tertiary referral hospital and 5.5% at nursing or public health centers.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Introduction of NOACs in routine practice for stroke prevention in AF was associated with improved rates of overall OAC use. However, significant practice-level variations in OAC and NOAC use remain producing social inequalities of OAC despite full reimbursement.

8.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 511-523, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833023

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Little is known about the outcomes of outpatient clinic-based elective external cardioversion (OPC-ECV) for persistent atrial fibrillation (PeAF). We investigated the acute, short-term, and long-term elective external cardioversion (ECV) outcomes. @*Methods@#We included 1,718 patients who underwent OPC-ECV (74% male, 61.1±11.0 years old, 90.9% long-standing PeAF, 9.1% after atrial fibrillation [AF] ablation) after excluding patients with atrial tachycardia or inappropriate antiarrhythmic drug medication, and in-patient ECV. Biphasic shocks were delivered sequentially until successful cardioversion was achieved (70-100-150-200-250 J). If ECV failed at 150 J, we administered intravenous amiodarone 150 mg and delivered 200 J. @*Results@#ECV failed in 11.4%, and the complication rate was 0.47%. Within 3 months, AF recurred in 55.5% (44.7% as sustaining AF, 10.8% as paroxysmal AF), and the AF duration was independently associated (odds ratio [OR], 1.01 [1.00–1.02]; p=0.006), but amiodarone was independently protective (OR, 0.46 [0.27–0.76]; p=0.002, Log rank p<0.001) against an early recurrence. Regarding the long-term recurrence, pre-ECV heart failure was protective against an AF recurrence (hazard ratio, 0.63 [0.41–0.96], p=0.033) over 32 (9–66) months of follow-up. ECV energy (p<0.001) and early recurrence rate within 3 months (p=0.007, Log rank p=0.006) were significantly lower in post-ablation patients than in those with long-standing persistent AF. @*Conclusions@#The success rate of OPC-ECV was 88.6%, and the complication rate was low. However, AF recurred in 55.5% within 3 months. Amiodarone was protective against short-term AF recurrences, and long-term AF recurrences were less in patients with baseline heart failure.

9.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 346-357, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832947

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES@#The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term clinical outcomes and the incidence of permanent pacemaker implantation after catheter ablation in patients with of atrial fibrillation (AF) and sinus node dysfunction (SND).@*METHODS@#Among 3,068 total consecutive patients who underwent AF catheter ablation (AFCA), this study included 222 (9.5%; men 53.2%, 63.7±9.2 years of age, 81.5% paroxysmal AF) with underlying SND and a regular rhythm follow-up. We analyzed the rhythm outcomes, changes in the mean heart rate or heart rate variability, and permanent pacemaker implantation rate.@*RESULTS@#During 47.5±28.8 months of follow-up, 25 (11.3%) patients received pacemaker implantations due to symptomatic SND. More than half (56.0%, 14/25) underwent a pacemaker implantation within 3 months of the AFCA, and the annual pacemaker implantation rate was 2.0% afterwards. Both the early (68.0% vs. 31.0%, p<0.001) and clinical AF recurrence (68.0% vs. 32.5%, p=0.001) rates and continuous antiarrhythmic drug use after 3 months (44.0% vs. 24.4%, p=0.036) were significantly higher in patients requiring pacemaker implantations than those that did not. An anterior linear ablation (odds ratio [OR], 9.37 [3.03–28.9]; p<0.001) and the E/Em (OR, 1.15 [1.02–1.28]; p=0.018) were independently associated with permanent pacemaker implantations after AFCA in patients with AF and SND.@*CONCLUSIONS@#After AFCA in patients with AF and SND, 1 of 9 patients needed a pacemaker implantation and half needed implantations within 3 months. The AF recurrence rate was significantly higher in those who required pacemaker implantations after the AFCA.

10.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 1125-1135, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831920

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The current study aimed to elucidate a time-course change in left atrial volume after cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) and to verify factors associated with left atrial volume reduction (LAVR) and its prognostic implications. @*Methods@#The records of 97 patients were retrospectively reviewed after CRT.Echocardiographic data were analyzed at baseline before CRT, at early follow-up FU) (≤ 1 year, median 6 months), and at late FU (median 30 months). Left ventricular volume response (LVVR) was defined as 15% reduction in left ventricular (LV) end-systolic volume (ESV). LAVR was classified into two groups by the median value at early FU: LAVR (≥ 7.5%) and no LAVR (< 7.5%). @*Results@#LV ESV index continuously decreased from baseline to early FU and from early FU to late FU (106.1 ± 47.4 mL/m2 vs. 87.6 ± 51.6 mL/m2 vs. 72.5 ± 57.1 mL/m2).LA volume index decreased from baseline to early FU, but there were no reductions thereafter (51.8 ± 21.9 mL/m2 vs. 45.1 ± 19.6 mL/m2 vs. 44.9 ± 23.0 mL/m2).The only echocardiographic factor associated with LAVR was change in E velocity(odds ratio [OR], 1.04;p = 0.002). Early LAVR (OR, 10.05;p = 0.002) was an independent predictor for late LVVR. @*Conclusions@#LAVR was related to reduction in E velocity, suggesting its relation with optimization of LV filling pressure. Early LAVR was a predictor for LVVR to CRT in long-term FU.

11.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 897-905, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831803

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Atrial arrhythmia (AA) occasionally occurs after lung transplantation (LT); however, risk factors for AA and their impact on clinical outcomes are inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the incidence, predisposing factors, and clinical outcomes of AA after LT. @*Methods@#We retrospectively evaluated 153 consecutive patients who underwent LT between January 2010 and August 2016. An AA episode was defined as a documented atrial fibrillation (AF), atrial flutter, or atrial tachycardia on 12-lead electrocardiography or episodes lasting ≥ 30 seconds on telemetry monitoring. @*Results@#The mean follow-up time was 22.0 ± 19.1 months. Postoperative AA occurred in 46 patients (30.1%) after LT. Patients with postoperative AA were older, had larger body surface area, and had an increased incidence of paroxysmal AF prior to transplantation, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and postoperative tracheostomy than patients without AA. Preoperative right atrial pressure (RAP) (odds ratio [OR], 1.19; p = 0.005) and longer periods of mechanical ventilation (OR, 1.03; p = 0.008) were found to be independent risk factors for AA after surgery. Development of AA was a significant predictor of long-term overall mortality (hazard ratio, 2.75; p = 0.017). @*Conclusions@#Patients with elevated preoperative RAP and long-term ventilator care had a higher risk of AA after LT. Further, AA after LT was associated with poor long-term survival.

12.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 99-108, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831766

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Efforts to reduce stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) have focused on increasing physician adherence to oral anticoagulant (OAC) guidelines; however, the high early discontinuation rate of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) is a limitation. Although non-VKA OACs (NOACs) are more convenient to administer than warfarin, their lack of monitoring may predispose patients to nonpersistence. We compared the persistence of NOAC and VKA treatment for AF in real-world practice. @*Methods@#In a prospective observational registry (COmparison study of Drugs for symptom control and complication prEvention of Atrial Fibrillation [CODE-AF] registry), 7,013 patients with nonvalvular AF (mean age 67.2 ± 10.9 years, women 36.4%) were consecutively enrolled between June 2016 and June 2017 from 10 tertiary hospitals in Korea. This study included 3,381 patients who started OAC 30 days before enrollment (maintenance group) and 572 patients who newly started OAC (new-starter group). The persistence rate of OAC was evaluated. @*Results@#In the maintenance group, persistence to OAC declined during 6 months, to 88.3% for VKA and 95.5% for NOAC (p < 0.0001). However, the persistence rate was not different among NOACs. In the new-starter group, persistence to OAC declined during 6 months, to 78.9% for VKA and 92.1% for NOAC (p < 0.0001). The persistence rate was lower for rivaroxaban (83.7%) than apixaban (94.6%) and edoxaban (94.1%, p < 0.001). In the new-starter group, diabetes, valve disease, and cancer were related to nonpersistence of OAC. @*Conclusions@#Nonpersistence was significantly lower with NOAC than VKA in both the maintenance and new-starter groups. In only the new-starter group, apixaban or edoxaban showed higher persistence rates than rivaroxaban.

13.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e366-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831703

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to investigate the cardiac manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). @*Methods@#From February to March 2020, we prospectively and retrospectively enrolled consecutive patients diagnosed with COVID-19. Patient's data such as the demographic characteristics, symptoms, vital signs, laboratory and radiologic findings, electrocardiographic, and echocardiographic data, including the global longitudinal strain (GLS) of both ventricles, were obtained. @*Results@#Forty patients (median age, 58 years; 50% men) were enrolled in the initial analysis. Patients were classified into severe and nonsevere groups based on the current guidelines. The 13 patients in the severe group were significantly older, had a greater prevalence of bilateral pneumonia and leukocytosis, and higher aspartate transaminase levels than patients in the nonsevere group. Patients in the severe group had a slightly lower left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) than those in the nonsevere group (median [interquartile range], 61.0% [58.5%, 62.3%] vs. 66.7% [60.6%, 69.8%], P = 0.015). In a subgroup of 34 patients in whom GLS could be analyzed, patients in the severe group had a significantly impaired left ventricular GLS (LVGLS) than those in the nonsevere group (−18.1% [−18.8%, −17.1%] vs. −21.7% [−22.9%, −19.9%], P = 0.001). There were no significant differences in total wall (RVGLS total , −19.3% [−23.9%, −18.4%] vs. −24.3% [−26.0%, −22.6%], P = 0.060) and free wall (RVGLS fw , −22.7% [−27.2%, −18.6%] vs. −28.8% [−30.4%, −24.1%], P = 0.066) right ventricle GLS (RVGLS). @*Conclusion@#Patients with severe COVID-19 had lower LVEF and LVGLS. RVGLS was not different between patients with severe and nonsevere COVID-19.

14.
International Journal of Arrhythmia ; : e12-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835476

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although myocardial thickness is an important variable for therapeutic catheter ablation of cardiac arrhythmias, quantification of wall thickness has been overlooked. We developed a software (AMBER) that measures 3D-myocardial thickness using a cardiac computed tomogram (CT) image, verified its accuracy, and tested its clinical feasibility. @*Methods@#We generated 3D-thickness maps by calculating wall thickness (WT) from the CT images of 120 patients’ hearts and a 3D-phantom model (PhM). The initial vector field of the Laplace equation was oriented to calculate WT with the field lines derived from the 3D mesh. We demonstrate the robustness of the Laplace WT algorithm by comparing with the real thickness of 3D-PhM, echocardiographically measured left ventricular (LV) WT, and regional left atrial (LA) WT reported from previous studies. We conducted a pilot case of catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) utilizing real-time LAWT map-guided radiofrequency (RF) energy titration. @*Results@#AMBER 3D-WT had excellent correlations with the real thickness of the PhM (R = 0.968, p < 0.001) and echocardiographically measured LVWT in 10 patients (R = 0.656, p = 0.007). AMBER 3D-LAWT (n = 120) showed a relatively good match with 12 previously reported regional LAWT. We successfully conducted pilot AF ablation utilizing AMBER 3D-LAWT map-guided real-time RF energy titration. @*Conclusion@#We developed and verified an AMBER 3D-cardiac thickness map measured by cardiac CT images for LAWT and LVWT, and tested its feasibility for RF energy titration during clinical catheter ablation.

15.
International Journal of Arrhythmia ; : e1-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835473

ABSTRACT

Background@#Symptom burden is an important factor in determining the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). AF is frequently accompanied by heart failure (HF). This study investigated the characteristics of AF symptoms with concomitant HF. @*Methods@#A total of 4885 patients with AF were consecutively enrolled through a prospective observational registry (the Comparison Study of Drugs for Symptom Control and Complication Prevention of Atrial Fibrillation [CODE-AF] registry). Clinically diagnosed HF was divided into three categories (preserved, mid-range, and reduced ejection fraction [EF]). Symptom severity was assessed using the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) classification. @*Results@#The presence of AF-related symptoms was comparable irrespective of concomitant HF. Patients with HF with reduced EF demonstrated severe (EHRA classes 3 and 4) and atypical symptoms. HF with preserved EF was also associated with atypical symptoms. Female sex and AF type were associated with the presence of symptoms in AF without HF, and non-maintenance of sinus rhythm and increased left atrial pressure (E/e′ ≥ 15) were factors related to the presence of symptoms in AF with HF. @*Conclusion@#AF with concomitant HF presented with more severe and atypical symptoms than AF without HF. Maintaining the sinus rhythm and reducing the E/e’ ratio are important factors for reducing symptoms in AF with concomitant HF.

16.
International Journal of Arrhythmia ; : e3-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835471

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Dose reduction of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) is indicated in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) with renal impairment. This study investigated anticoagulation patterns and outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). @*Materials and methods@#In a prospective observational registry (CODE-AF), 3445 patients with non-valvular AF including 1129 with CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate ≤ 60 mL min−1 1.73 m−2) were identified between June 1, 2016, and July 3, 2017. @*Results@#Compared with patients with no-CKD, patients with CKD more frequently had a high stroke risk (94.9% vs. 67.0%, p < 0.001) and higher NOAC usage rate (61.1% vs. 47.8%, p < 0.001). Among 718 patients with renal indication for dose reduction (RIDR), 7.5% were potentially overdosed. Among 2587 patients with no-RIDR, 79% were potentially underdosed. Compared with patients with no-RIDR, the underdose rates of dabigatran (0% vs. 88.6%, p = 0.001) and rivaroxaban (0% vs. 79.5%, p = 0.001) were lower in patients with RIDR. However, the underdose rate of apixaban was not different (62.5% vs. 53.9%, p = 0.089). The overdose rate of dabigatran (7.5% vs. 0%) and rivaroxaban (13.7% vs. 0%) was higher in RIDR than in no-RIDR patients. Stroke/transient ischemic attack was significantly higher in CKD patients (1.4 vs. 0.6 per 100 person-years, p = 0.045). Aspirin significantly increased minor bleeding in CKD patients compared with controls (p = 0.037). @*Conclusion@#CKD patients might have a high stroke risk and NOAC usage rate. The underdose rate of NOACs decreased in CKD patients, except for apixaban. Aspirin significantly increased minor bleeding in CKD patients.

17.
International Journal of Arrhythmia ; : e5-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835469

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives@#Atrial fibrillation is a known risk factor for cryptogenic stroke and therefore requires early detection and prompt management. We investigated predictors of stroke recurrence in patients with cryptogenic stroke and concomitant non-sustained atrial tachycardia but not atrial fibrillation. @*Subjects and methods@#We investigated 390 patients (219 men, mean age 67 ± 12 years) diagnosed with stroke and non-sustained atrial tachycardia on 24-h Holter monitoring and recorded the total number of atrial premature contractions identified by the Holter monitor. Multiple atrial premature contractions were defined as atrial premature contractions > 34 beats/day. We analyzed the rates of 5-year freedom from stroke recurrence or atrial fibrillation and investigated independent predictors of stroke recurrence and undiagnosed atrial fibrillation. @*Results@#The mean follow-up period was 35 ± 21 months, and the overall stroke recurrence rate was 9.0%. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis revealed that the rate of freedom from stroke recurrence was significantly lower in patients with multiple atrial premature contractions. Also, the patients with multiple atrial premature contractions had higher cumulative incidence rate of new-onset AF (p = 0.019). Multivariate analysis showed that multiple atrial premature contractions (hazard ratio 2.49, 95% confidence interval 1.05–5.88, p = 0.038), cigarette smoking status (hazard ratio 2.66, 95% confidence interval 1.15–6.17, p = 0.022), and the left atrial volume index (hazard ratio 1.05, 95% confidence interval 1.01–1.09, p = 0.020) were significantly associated with stroke recurrence in patients with cryptogenic stroke. However, these factors were not statistically significant predictors of future onset of atrial fibrillation. @*Conclusions@#Multiple atrial premature contractions were significantly correlated with an increased left atrial volume index, which could predict future onset of atrial fibrillation and stroke recurrence. This study showed that multiple atrial premature contractions predict stroke recurrence in patients with cryptogenic stroke without atrial fibrillation.

18.
International Journal of Arrhythmia ; : e9-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835465

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives@#A prolonged QTc interval is associated with an increased risk of a stroke or atrial fibrillation (AF). However, its direct causal relationship with AF associated a stroke has not been proven yet. To examine whether QTc interval is causally linked with risk of stroke in AF patients, we used the Mendelian randomization analysis. @*Subjects and methods@#Among 2742 patients (73.6% male; 58.2 ± 11.0 years old; 69.5% with paroxysmal AF) who underwent AF catheter ablation, we analyzed 1766 patients who had preablation sinus rhythm electrocardiograms off antiarrhythmic drugs after excluding amiodarone users. Among them, 1213 subjects had genome-wide association study dataset analyzable for the Mendelian randomization. We explored the mechanistic relationships between QTc interval (ms) and the risk of a stroke by analyzing the Mendelian randomization (1213 subjects) after reviewing 35 genetic polymorphisms associated with the QTc in 31 European descent studies. @*Results@#Among the patients in the higher quartile with a higher QTc, CHA2DS2-VASc score (p < 0.001), and age (p  < 0.001), the proportions of a prior stroke (p  < 0.001), females, heart failure, and persistent AF were significantly higher than in those in the lower quartile. The QTc was independently associated with the CHA2DS2-VASc score (β, 4.63E−5; 95% confidence interval, 3.57E−6–8.90E−5; p  = 0.034) and ischemic strokes (odds ratio, 1.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.00–1.01; p  = 0.027). However, there was no direct causal relationship between the QTc and CHA2DS2-VASc score or a prior stroke in either the one-sample or two-sample Mendelian randomizations. @*Conclusion@#The QTc was independently associated with the CHA2DS2-VASc score and strokes among the patients with AF who underwent catheter ablation, despite no genetically direct causal relationship.

20.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 346-357, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811365

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term clinical outcomes and the incidence of permanent pacemaker implantation after catheter ablation in patients with of atrial fibrillation (AF) and sinus node dysfunction (SND).METHODS: Among 3,068 total consecutive patients who underwent AF catheter ablation (AFCA), this study included 222 (9.5%; men 53.2%, 63.7±9.2 years of age, 81.5% paroxysmal AF) with underlying SND and a regular rhythm follow-up. We analyzed the rhythm outcomes, changes in the mean heart rate or heart rate variability, and permanent pacemaker implantation rate.RESULTS: During 47.5±28.8 months of follow-up, 25 (11.3%) patients received pacemaker implantations due to symptomatic SND. More than half (56.0%, 14/25) underwent a pacemaker implantation within 3 months of the AFCA, and the annual pacemaker implantation rate was 2.0% afterwards. Both the early (68.0% vs. 31.0%, p<0.001) and clinical AF recurrence (68.0% vs. 32.5%, p=0.001) rates and continuous antiarrhythmic drug use after 3 months (44.0% vs. 24.4%, p=0.036) were significantly higher in patients requiring pacemaker implantations than those that did not. An anterior linear ablation (odds ratio [OR], 9.37 [3.03–28.9]; p<0.001) and the E/Em (OR, 1.15 [1.02–1.28]; p=0.018) were independently associated with permanent pacemaker implantations after AFCA in patients with AF and SND.CONCLUSIONS: After AFCA in patients with AF and SND, 1 of 9 patients needed a pacemaker implantation and half needed implantations within 3 months. The AF recurrence rate was significantly higher in those who required pacemaker implantations after the AFCA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Atrial Fibrillation , Catheter Ablation , Catheters , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Rate , Incidence , Pacemaker, Artificial , Recurrence , Sick Sinus Syndrome , Sinoatrial Node
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