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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919337

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to investigate the physiological role of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) associated with odontogenic differentiation during tooth development in mice. Mouse dental papilla cell-23 (MDPC-23) cells cultured in differentiation media were stimulated with the specific NAMPT inhibitor, FK866, and Visfatin (NAMPT) for up to 10 days. The cells were evaluated after 0, 4, 7, and 10 days. Cell viability was measured using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The mineralization assay was performed by staining MDPC-23 cells with Alizarin Red S solution. After cultivation, MDPC-23 cells were harvested for quantitative PCR or Western blotting. Analysis of variance was performed using StatView 5.0 software (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA). Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. The expression of NAMPT increased during the differentiation of murine odontoblast-like MDPC-23 cells. Furthermore, the up-regulation of NAMPT promoted odontogenic differentiation and accelerated mineralization through an increase in representative odontoblastic biomarkers, such as dentin sialophosphoprotein, dentin matrix protein-1, and alkaline phosphatase in MDPC-23 cells. However, treatment of the cells with the NAMPT inhibitor, FK866, attenuated odontogenic differentiation, as evidenced by the suppression of odontoblastic biomarkers. These data indicate that NAMPT regulated odontoblastic differentiation through the regulation of odontoblastic biomarkers. The increase in NAMPT expression in odontoblasts was closely related to the formation of the extracellular matrix and dentin via the Runx signaling pathway. Therefore, these data suggest that NAMPT is a critical regulator of odontoblast differentiation during tooth development.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891004

ABSTRACT

Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) is a naturally occurring antioxidant and has been previously used to treat diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, the autophagy effects of ALA against oxidative stress-induced dopaminergic neuronal cell injury remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of ALA in autophagy and apoptosis against oxidative stress in the SH-SY5Y human dopaminergic neuronal cell line. We examined SH-SY5Y phenotypes using the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay (cell viability/proliferation), 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride nuclear staining, Live/Dead cell assay, cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay, immunoblotting, and immunocytochemistry. Our data showed ALA attenuated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced ROS generation and cell death. ALA effectively suppressed Bax up-regulation and Bcl-2 and BclxL down-regulation. Furthermore, ALA increased the expression of the antioxidant enzyme, heme oxygenase-1. Moreover, the expression of Beclin-1 and LC-3 autophagy biomarkers was decreased by ALA in our cell model. Combined, these data suggest ALA protects human dopaminergic neuronal cells against H2O2-induced cell injury by inhibiting autophagy and apoptosis.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891003

ABSTRACT

Demethoxycurcumin (DMC), which is a curcuminoid found in turmeric, has anti-proliferative effects on cancer cells. However, the effect of DMC on osteosarcoma has not been established. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of DMC on cell growth and apoptosis induction in MG-63 human osteosarcoma cells. This study was investigated using 3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromid assay, Live/Dead cell assay, 4’, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining, and immunoblotting in MG-63 cells. DMC induced MG-63 cell death in a dosedependent manner, with an estimated IC50 value of 54.4 μM. DMC treatment resulted in nuclear condensation in MG-63 cells. DMC-induced apoptosis in MG-63 cells was mediated by the expression of Fas and activation of caspase-8, caspase-3, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Immunoblotting results showed that Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL were downregulated, while Bax and Bad were upregulated by DMC in MG-63 cells. These results indicated that DMC inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptotic cell death in MG-63 human osteosarcoma cells via the death receptormediated extrinsic apoptotic pathway and mitochondria-mediated intrinsic apoptotic pathway.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903259

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#In radiotherapy for head and neck cancer, it is crucial to define the appropriate treatment volume to determine treatment outcome and toxicity. We examined the feasibility of omitting elective high retropharyngeal lymph node (RPLN) irradiation in patients with oropharyngeal cancer. @*Materials and Methods@#We performed a retrospective review of 189 patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma who were treated with definitive or postoperative radiation therapy between 2009 and 2016. Of them, 144 (76.2%) underwent ipsilateral RPLN irradiation up to the superior border of the C1 vertebral body, while the other 45 (23.8%) were irradiated up to the transverse process of the C1 vertebra. High RPLN-treated and spared group were propensity matched based on key clinical variables. @*Results@#During the follow-up period, only three patients (one in the high RPLN-treated group and two in the high RPLN-spared group) developed RPLN recurrence. There were no significant between-group differences in 5-year locoregional failure-free survival (82.8% vs. 90.6%; p = 0.14), distant metastasis-free survival (93.1% vs. 93.3%; p = 0.98) and RPLN failure-free survival (99.3% vs. 95.0%; p = 0.09). In the matched groups, high RPLN-spared patients received a lower mean ipsilateral parotid gland dose (mean, 20.8 Gy vs. 29.9 Gy; p < 0.001) and had a lower incidence of chronic xerostomia (grade 0, 43.5% vs. 13.0%; p = 0.023) at 1 year after radiotherapy compared with high RPLN-treated patients. @*Conclusion@#Omission of ipsilateral high RPLN irradiation seems safe, and reduces the incidence of chronic xerostomia in patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898708

ABSTRACT

Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) is a naturally occurring antioxidant and has been previously used to treat diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, the autophagy effects of ALA against oxidative stress-induced dopaminergic neuronal cell injury remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of ALA in autophagy and apoptosis against oxidative stress in the SH-SY5Y human dopaminergic neuronal cell line. We examined SH-SY5Y phenotypes using the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay (cell viability/proliferation), 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride nuclear staining, Live/Dead cell assay, cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay, immunoblotting, and immunocytochemistry. Our data showed ALA attenuated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced ROS generation and cell death. ALA effectively suppressed Bax up-regulation and Bcl-2 and BclxL down-regulation. Furthermore, ALA increased the expression of the antioxidant enzyme, heme oxygenase-1. Moreover, the expression of Beclin-1 and LC-3 autophagy biomarkers was decreased by ALA in our cell model. Combined, these data suggest ALA protects human dopaminergic neuronal cells against H2O2-induced cell injury by inhibiting autophagy and apoptosis.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898707

ABSTRACT

Demethoxycurcumin (DMC), which is a curcuminoid found in turmeric, has anti-proliferative effects on cancer cells. However, the effect of DMC on osteosarcoma has not been established. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of DMC on cell growth and apoptosis induction in MG-63 human osteosarcoma cells. This study was investigated using 3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromid assay, Live/Dead cell assay, 4’, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining, and immunoblotting in MG-63 cells. DMC induced MG-63 cell death in a dosedependent manner, with an estimated IC50 value of 54.4 μM. DMC treatment resulted in nuclear condensation in MG-63 cells. DMC-induced apoptosis in MG-63 cells was mediated by the expression of Fas and activation of caspase-8, caspase-3, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Immunoblotting results showed that Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL were downregulated, while Bax and Bad were upregulated by DMC in MG-63 cells. These results indicated that DMC inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptotic cell death in MG-63 human osteosarcoma cells via the death receptormediated extrinsic apoptotic pathway and mitochondria-mediated intrinsic apoptotic pathway.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895555

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#In radiotherapy for head and neck cancer, it is crucial to define the appropriate treatment volume to determine treatment outcome and toxicity. We examined the feasibility of omitting elective high retropharyngeal lymph node (RPLN) irradiation in patients with oropharyngeal cancer. @*Materials and Methods@#We performed a retrospective review of 189 patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma who were treated with definitive or postoperative radiation therapy between 2009 and 2016. Of them, 144 (76.2%) underwent ipsilateral RPLN irradiation up to the superior border of the C1 vertebral body, while the other 45 (23.8%) were irradiated up to the transverse process of the C1 vertebra. High RPLN-treated and spared group were propensity matched based on key clinical variables. @*Results@#During the follow-up period, only three patients (one in the high RPLN-treated group and two in the high RPLN-spared group) developed RPLN recurrence. There were no significant between-group differences in 5-year locoregional failure-free survival (82.8% vs. 90.6%; p = 0.14), distant metastasis-free survival (93.1% vs. 93.3%; p = 0.98) and RPLN failure-free survival (99.3% vs. 95.0%; p = 0.09). In the matched groups, high RPLN-spared patients received a lower mean ipsilateral parotid gland dose (mean, 20.8 Gy vs. 29.9 Gy; p < 0.001) and had a lower incidence of chronic xerostomia (grade 0, 43.5% vs. 13.0%; p = 0.023) at 1 year after radiotherapy compared with high RPLN-treated patients. @*Conclusion@#Omission of ipsilateral high RPLN irradiation seems safe, and reduces the incidence of chronic xerostomia in patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

8.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1096-1103, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913815

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Despite curative resection, the 5-year survival for patients with resectable pancreatic cancer is less than 20%. Recurrence occurs both locally and at distant sites and effective multimodality adjuvant treatment is needed. @*Materials and Methods@#Patients with curatively resected stage IB-IIB pancreatic adenocarcinoma were eligible. Treatment consisted of chemotherapy with gemcitabine 1,000 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8 and cisplatin 60 mg/m2 on day 1 every 3 weeks for two cycles, followed by chemoradiotherapy (50.4 Gy/28 fx) with weekly gemcitabine (300 mg/m2/wk), and then gemcitabine 1,000 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8 every 3 weeks for four cycles. The primary endpoint was 1-year disease-free survival rate. The secondary endpoints were disease-free survival, overall survival, and safety. @*Results@#Seventy-four patients were enrolled. One-year disease-free survival rate was 57.9%. Median disease-free and overall survival were 15.0 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 11.6 to 18.4) and 33.0 months (95% CI, 21.8 to 44.2), respectively. At the median follow-up of 32 months, 57 patients (77.0%) had recurrence including 11 patients whose recurrence was during the adjuvant treatment. Most of the recurrences were systemic (52 patients). Stage at the time of diagnosis (70.0% in IIA, 51.2% in IIB, p=0.006) were significantly related with 1-year disease-free survival rate. Toxicities were generally tolerable, with 53 events of grade 3 or 4 hematologic toxicity and four patients with febrile neutropenia. @*Conclusion@#Adjuvant gemcitabine and cisplatin chemotherapy followed by chemoradiotherapy with gemcitabine and maintenance gemcitabine showed efficacy and good tolerability in curatively resected pancreatic cancer.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811200

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Phosphorylated ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (pS6K1) is a major downstream regulator of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Recent studies have addressed the role of S6K1 in adipogenesis. pS6K1 may affect the outcome of estrogen depletion therapy in patients with hormone-sensitive breast cancer due to its association with adipogenesis and increased local estrogen levels. This study aimed to investigate the potential of pS6K1 as a predictive marker of adjuvant aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy outcome in postmenopausal or ovarian function-suppressed patients with hormone-sensitive breast cancer.METHODS: Medical records were retrospectively reviewed in postmenopausal or ovarian function-suppressed patients with estrogen receptor-positive and node-positive primary breast cancer. pS6K1 expression status was scored on a scale from 0 (negative) to 3+ (positive) based on immunohistochemical analysis.RESULTS: A total of 428 patients were eligible. The median follow-up duration was 44 months (range, 1–90). In patients with positive pS6K1 expression, AIs significantly improved disease-free survival (DFS) compared to selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) (5 year-DFS: 83.5% vs. 50.7%, p = 0.016). However, there was no benefit of AIs on DFS in the pS6K1 negative group (5 year-DFS 87.6% vs. 91.4%, p = 0.630). On multivariate analysis, AI therapy remained a significant predictor for DFS in the pS6K1 positive group (hazard ratio, 0.39; 95% confidence interval, 0.16–0.96; p = 0.041). pS6K1 was more effective in predicting the benefit of AI therapy in patients with ages < 50 (p = 0.021) compared to those with ages ≥ 50 (p = 0.188).CONCLUSION: pS6K1 expression may predict AI therapy outcomes and serve as a potential predictive marker for adjuvant endocrine therapy in postmenopausal and ovarian function-suppressed patients with hormone-sensitive breast cancer. AIs may be more effective in patients with pS6K1 positive tumors, while SERM could be considered an alternative option for patients with pS6K1 negative tumors.


Subject(s)
Adipogenesis , Aromatase Inhibitors , Aromatase , Biomarkers, Tumor , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Disease-Free Survival , Estrogens , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Medical Records , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases , Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators , Sirolimus , Tamoxifen
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903908

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to investigate the pathophysiological etiology of osteoarthritis that is mediated by the apoptosis of chondrocytes exposed to 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC), an oxysterol synthesized by the expression of cholesterol-25-hydroxylase (CH25H) under inflammatory conditions. Interleukin-1β induced the apoptosis of chondrocytes in a dose- dependent manner. Furthermore, the production of 25-HC increased in the chondrocytes treated with interleukin-1β through the expression of CH25H. 25-HC decreased the viability of chondrocytes. Chondrocytes with condensed nucleus and apoptotic populations increased by 25- HC. Moreover, the activity and expression of caspase-3 were increased by the death ligand-mediated extrinsic and mitochondria-dependent intrinsic apoptotic pathways in the chondrocytes treated with 25-HC. Finally, 25-HC induced not only caspasedependent apoptosis, but also induced proteoglycan loss in articular cartilage ex vivo cultured rat knee joints. These data indicate that 25-HC may act as a metabolic pathophysiological factor in osteoarthritis that is mediated by progressive chondrocyte death in the articular cartilage with inflammatory condition.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896204

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to investigate the pathophysiological etiology of osteoarthritis that is mediated by the apoptosis of chondrocytes exposed to 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC), an oxysterol synthesized by the expression of cholesterol-25-hydroxylase (CH25H) under inflammatory conditions. Interleukin-1β induced the apoptosis of chondrocytes in a dose- dependent manner. Furthermore, the production of 25-HC increased in the chondrocytes treated with interleukin-1β through the expression of CH25H. 25-HC decreased the viability of chondrocytes. Chondrocytes with condensed nucleus and apoptotic populations increased by 25- HC. Moreover, the activity and expression of caspase-3 were increased by the death ligand-mediated extrinsic and mitochondria-dependent intrinsic apoptotic pathways in the chondrocytes treated with 25-HC. Finally, 25-HC induced not only caspasedependent apoptosis, but also induced proteoglycan loss in articular cartilage ex vivo cultured rat knee joints. These data indicate that 25-HC may act as a metabolic pathophysiological factor in osteoarthritis that is mediated by progressive chondrocyte death in the articular cartilage with inflammatory condition.

12.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835492

ABSTRACT

Acacetin, which is present in damiana (Turnera diffusa) and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia), has several pharmacologic activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative effects on cancer cells. However, the effect of acacetin on head and neck cancers has not been clearly established. This study aimed to examine the effects of acacetin on cell growth and apoptosis induction in FaDu human pharyngeal carcinoma cells. These were investigated by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, Live/Dead cell assay, 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride staining, caspase-3 and caspase-7 activation assay, and immunoblotting in FaDu cells. Acacetin induced FaDu cell death in a dose-dependent manner, with an estimated IC50 value of 41.9 µM, without affecting the viability of L-929 mouse fibroblasts as normal cells. Acacetin treatment resulted in nuclear condensation in the FaDu cells. It promoted the proteolytic cleavage of procaspase-3, -7, -8, and -9 with increasing amounts of the cleaved caspase isoforms in FaDu cells. Acacetin-induced apoptosis in FaDu cells was mediated by the expression of Fas and activation of caspase-8, caspase-3, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Immunoblotting showed downregulation of the anti-apoptotic mitochondrial proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, but upregulation of the mitochondria-dependent pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and Badin FaDu cells after acacetin treatment. These findings indicate that acacetin inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptotic cell death in FaDu human pharyngeal carcinoma cells via both the death receptor-mediated extrinsic apoptotic pathway and the mitochondria-mediated intrinsic apoptotic pathway.

13.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 744-750, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832499

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study estimated the incidence of driving-related adverse events and examined the association of cognitive function with the risk of future driving-related adverse events in the elderly Korean male population. @*Methods@#We analyzed 1,172 male drivers aged 60 years or older in the Korean Longitudinal Study on Cognitive Aging and Dementia (KLOSCAD). Using the data from Korean National Police Agency, we classified the participants into three groups: safe driving (drove for 2 years after baseline without a traffic accident or repeated violations), driving cessation (stopped driving), and risky driving (one or more traffic accidents or repeated violations). We estimated the incidences of driving cessation and risky driving, and examined the effect of cognitive function on their risks. @*Results@#The incidence of driving cessation and risky driving in the Korean male drivers aged 60 years or older was 19.3 and 69.9 per 1,000 person-years respectively and increased in the late 80s. Drivers with better baseline Word List Memory Test scores showed less risky driving (OR=0.94, p=0.039). @*Conclusion@#Driving-related adverse events increased in late 80s, and better memory function was protective against these events.

14.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831078

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical outcomes of postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) patients who underwent radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer. @*Materials and Methods@#Localized prostate cancer patients who received PORT after radical prostatectomy between 2001 and 2012 were identified retrospectively in a multi-institutional database. In total, 1,117 patients in 19 institutions were included. Biochemical failure after PORT was defined as prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≥ nadir+2 after PORT or initiation of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for increasing PSA regardless of its value. @*Results@#Ten-year biochemical failure-free survival, clinical failure-free survival, distant metastasisfree survival, overall survival (OS), and cause-specific survival were 60.5%, 76.2%, 84.4%, 91.1%, and 96.6%, respectively, at a median of 84 months after PORT. Pre-PORT PSA ≤ 0.5 ng/ml and Gleason’s score ≤ 7 predicted favorable clinical outcomes, with 10-year OS rates of 92.5% and 94.1%, respectively. The 10-year OS rate was 82.7% for patients with a PSA > 1.0 ng/mL and 86.0% for patients with a Gleason score of 8-10. The addition of longterm ADT (≥ 12 months) to PORT improved OS, particularly in those with a Gleason score of 8-10 or ≥ T3b. @*Conclusion@#Clinical outcomes of PORT in a Korean prostate cancer population were very similar to those in Western countries. Lower Gleason score and serum PSA level at the time of PORT were significantly associated with favorable outcomes. Addition of long-term ADT (≥ 12 months) to PORT should be considered, particularly in unfavorable risk patients with Gleason scores of 8-10 or ≥ T3b.

15.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 176-184, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761012

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: It is unclear whether adding concurrent chemotherapy (CT) to definitive radiotherapy (RT) following induction CT is a tolerable and cost effective treatment for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients aged 70 years or older with comorbidities. This study evaluated the actual clinical outcomes between concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) and RT alone following induction CT or not in patients (≥70 years) in a single institution’s clinical practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 82 patients with unresectable stage III NSCLC between 2004 and 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. Their treatment tolerance and clinical outcomes such as overall survival (OS), locoregional recurrence (LRR), treatment toxicities and distant metastasis (DM) were evaluated. Early mortality rates were also evaluated as 4-month mortality after RT. RESULTS: Fifty-four patients received CCRT and 28 patients received RT alone. Induction CT before RT was performed for 68.5% and 50.0% in CCRT and RT alone groups. Treatment tolerance was significantly worse in CCRT (p = 0.046). The median survival was 21.1 and 18.1 months for CCRT and RT alone, which was not statistically significant. LRR and DM were also not different. Most early deaths after CCRT were attributed to non-cancer-related mortality. Acute esophagitis of grade ≥2 occurred more following CCRT (p = 0.017). In multivariate analysis, a Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) of ≥5 and a weight loss of ≥5% after RT were associated with poor OS. The factors adversely affecting 4-month survival were a CCI of ≥5 and CCRT. CONCLUSION: There were no significant differences in OS, LRR, and DM between CCRT and RT alone treatment in elderly patients. However, there was a poorer tolerance and higher incidence of acute esophagitis in the CCRT group. Specifically, when the patients had a CCI of ≥5, RT alone seems to be reasonable with a low probability of early death.


Subject(s)
Aged , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Chemoradiotherapy , Comorbidity , Drug Therapy , Esophagitis , Humans , Incidence , Induction Chemotherapy , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Mortality , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Radiotherapy , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Weight Loss
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760989

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We evaluated failure pattern and treatment outcomes of observational approach on regional lymph node (LN) in cutaneous melanoma of extremities and sought to find clinico-pathologic factors related to LN metastases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 73 patients with cutaneous melanoma of extremities between 2005 and 2016. If preoperative 18-F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) findings were non-specific for regional LNs, surgical resection of primary tumors with adequate margins was performed without sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and/or complete lymph node dissection (CLND), irrespective of tumor thickness or size. In patients with suspicious or positive findings on PET/CT or CT, SLNB followed by CLND or CLND was performed at the discretion of the surgeon. We defined LN dissection (LND) as SLNB and/or CLND. RESULTS: With a median follow-up of 38 months (range, 6 to 138 months), the dominant pattern of failure was regional failure (17 of total 23 events, 74%) in the observation group (n = 56). Pathologic LN metastases were significant factor for poor regional failure-free survival (hazard ration [HR] = 3.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03–10.33; p = 0.044) and overall survival (HR = 3.62; 95% CI, 1.02–12.94; p = 0.047) in multivariate analysis. In subgroup analysis for cN0 patients according to the preoperative PET/CT findings, LND group showed the better trend of LRFFS (log rank test, p = 0.192) and RFFS (p = 0.310), although which is not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Observational approach on regional LNs on the basis of the PET/CT in patients with cutaneous melanoma of extremities showed the dominant regional failure pattern compared to upfront LND approach. To reveal regional lymph node status, SLND for cN0 patients may of importance in managing cutaneous melanoma patients.


Subject(s)
Extremities , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes , Melanoma , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Retrospective Studies , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739565

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study evaluated the oncologic impact of obesity, as determined by body mass index (BMI), in patients who underwent laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer. METHODS: The records of 483 patients with stage I–III rectal cancer who underwent laparoscopic surgery between June 2003 and December 2011 were reviewed. A matching model based on BMI was constructed to balance obese and nonobese patients. Cox hazard regression models for overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were used for multivariate analyses. Additional analysis using visceral fat area (VFA) measurement was performed for matched patients. The threshold for obesity was BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 or VFA ≥ 130 cm2. RESULTS: The score matching model yielded 119 patients with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 (the obese group) and 119 patients with a BMI < 25 kg/m2 (the nonobese group). Surgical outcomes including operation time, estimated blood loss, nil per os periods, and length of hospital stay did not differ between the obese and the nonobese group. The retrieved lymph node numbers and pathologic CRM positive rate were also similar in between the 2 groups. After a median follow-up of 48 months (range, 3–126 months), OS and DFS rates were similar between the 2 groups. A tumor location-adjusted model for overall surgical complications showed that a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 were not risk factors. Multivariable analyses for OS and DFS showed no significant association with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. CONCLUSION: Obesity was not associated with long-term oncologic outcomes in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer in the Asian population.


Subject(s)
Asians , Body Mass Index , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Intra-Abdominal Fat , Laparoscopy , Length of Stay , Lymph Nodes , Multivariate Analysis , Obesity , Rectal Neoplasms , Risk Factors
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914292

ABSTRACT

The intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii has unique dense granule antigens (GRAs) that are crucial for host infection. Emerging evidence suggests that GRA8 of T. gondii is a promising serodiagnostic marker in toxoplasmosis. However, little is known about the intracellular regulatory mechanisms involved in GRA8-induced host responses. We found that GRA8 interacts with host proteins involved in mitochondria activation and might be useful as a therapeutic strategy for sepsis. Here, we show that protein kinase-Cα (PKCα)-mediated phosphorylation of T. gondii GRA8 (Thr220) is required for mitochondrial trafficking and regulates the interaction of C terminal of GRA8 with nucleotide binding domain of ATP5A1. Furthermore, GRA8 interacts with SIRT3 in mitochondria, facilitating ATP5A1 deacetylation (K506 and K531), adenosine triphosphate production and subsequent anti-septic activity in vivo. Taken together, these results demonstrate a new anti-sepsis therapeutic strategy using T. gondii GRA8-induced mitochondrial metabolic resuscitation. This strategy represents an urgently needed paradigm shift for therapeutic intervention.

19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740076

ABSTRACT

Resveratrol (3,4′,5,-trihydroxystilbene), a phytoalexin present in grapes, exerts a variety of actions to reduce superoxides, prevents diabetes mellitus, and inhibits inflammation. Resveratrol acts as a chemo-preventive agent and induces apoptotic cell death in various cancer cells. However, the role of resveratrol in odontoblastic cell differentiation is unclear. In this study, the effect of resveratrol on regulating odontoblast differentiation was examined in MDPC-23 mouse odontoblastic cells derived from mouse dental papilla cells. Resveratrol significantly accelerated mineralization as compared with the control culture in differentiation of MDPC-23 cells. Resveratrol significantly increased expression of ALP mRNA as compared with the control in differentiation of MDPC-23 cells. Resveratrol significantly accelerated expression of ColImRNA as compared with the control in differentiation of MDPC-23 cells. Resveratrol significantly increased expressions of DSPP and DMP-1 mRNAs as compared with the control in differentiation of MDPC-23 cells. Treatment of resveratrol did not significantly affect cell proliferation in MDPC-23 cells. Results suggest resveratrol facilitates odontoblast differentiation and mineralization in differentiation of MDPC-23 cells, and may have potential properties for development and clinical application of dentin regeneration materials.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Death , Cell Differentiation , Cell Proliferation , Dental Papilla , Dentin , Diabetes Mellitus , Inflammation , Mice , Miners , Odontoblasts , Regeneration , RNA, Messenger , Superoxides , Vitis
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741933

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate interobserver variation in target volume delineations for prostate cancer salvage radiotherapy using planning computed tomography (CT) versus combined planning CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten radiation oncologists independently delineated a target volume on the planning CT scans of five cases with different pathological status after radical prostatectomy. Two weeks later, this was repeated with the addition of planning MRI. The volumes obtained with CT only and combined CT and MRI were compared, and the effect of the addition of planning MRI on interobserver variability was assessed. RESULTS: There were large differences in clinical target volume (CTV) delineated by each observer, regardless of the addition of planning MRI (9.44–139.27 cm³ in CT only and 7.77–122.83 cm³ in CT plus MRI) and no significant differences in the mean and standard deviation of CTV. However, there were decreases in mean volume and standard deviation as a result of using the planning MRI. CONCLUSION: This study showed substantial interobserver variation in target volume delineation for salvage radiotherapy. The combination of planning MRI with CT tended to decrease the target volume and the variation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Observer Variation , Prostate , Prostatectomy , Prostatic Neoplasms , Radiotherapy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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