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1.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 376-388, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832464

ABSTRACT

ymptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD) caused by loss of dopaminergic neurons are accompanied by movement disorders, including tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia, and akinesia. Non-human primate (NHP) models with PD play an essential role in the analysis of PD pathophysiology and behavior symptoms. As impairments of hand dexterity function can affect activities of daily living in patients with PD, research on hand dexterity function in NHP models with chronic PD is essential. Traditional rating scales previously used in the evaluation of animal spontaneous behavior were insufficient due to factors related to subjectivity and passivity. Thus, experimentally designed applications for an appropriate apparatus are necessary. In this study, we aimed to longitudinally assess hand dexterity function using hand dexterity task (HDT) in NHP-PD models. To validate this assessment, we analyzed the alteration in Parkinsonian tremor signs and the functionality of presynaptic dopaminergic neuron using positron emission tomography imaging of dopamine transporters in these models. In addition, a significant inverse correlation between HDT and DAT level was identified, but no local bias was found. The correlation with intention tremor signs was lower than the resting tremor. In conclusion, the evaluation of HDT may reflect behavioral symptoms of NHP-PD models. Furthermore, HDT was effectively used to experimentally distinguish intention tremors from other tremors.

2.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 300-313, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832446

ABSTRACT

Ischemic stroke results from arterial occlusion and can cause irreversible brain injury. A non-human primate (NHP) model of ischemic stroke was previously developed to investigate its pathophysiology and for efficacy testing of therapeutic candidates; however, fine motor impairment remains to be well-characterized. We evaluated hand motor function in a cynomolgus monkey model of ischemic stroke. Endovascular transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) with an angiographic microcatheter induced cerebral infarction. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging mapped and measured the ischemia-induced infarct lesion. In vivo diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the stroke lesion to assess the neuroplastic changes and fiber tractography demonstrated three-dimensional patterns in the corticospinal tract 12 weeks after MCAO. The hand dexterity task (HDT) was used to evaluate fine motor movement of upper extremity digits. The HDT was modified for a home cage-based training system, instead of conventional chair restraint training. The lesion was localized in the middle cerebral artery territory, including the sensorimotor cortex. Maximum infarct volume was exhibited over the first week after MCAO, which progressively inhibited ischemic core expansion, manifested by enhanced functional recovery of the affected hand over 12 weeks after MCAO. The total performance time decreased with increasing success rate for both hands on the HDT. Compensatory strategies and retrieval failure improved in the chronic phase after stroke. Our findings demonstrate the recovery of fine motor skill after stroke, and outline the behavioral characteristics and features of functional disorder of NHP stroke model, providing a basis for assessing hand motor function after stroke.

3.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831751

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between clinical risk factors of post-extubation dysphagia (PED) and the severity of impaired pharyngeal swallowing function assessed via videofluoroscopic swallowing studies (VFSSs). @*Methods@#This study was a retrospective review of medical records. Of 116 patients who were admitted to the intensive care unit and underwent VFSS, 32 who had non-neurologic disorders and experienced prolonged intubation (for more than 48 hours) were diagnosed with PED. The severity of PED was evaluated by using a functional dysphagia scale (FDS) and a penetration aspiration scale (PAS), on the basis of VFSS. @*Results@#The Simplified Acute Physiology Score 3 and total FDS score were positively correlated (r = 0.40, p = 0.02). Intubation duration was positively correlated with total PAS and FDS scores (r = 0.62, p < 0.001; r = 0.65, p < 0.001, respectively). The amounts of residue in the valleculae (RV) and pyriform sinuses (RP) were associated with intubation duration (r = 0.58, p < 0.001; r = 0.57, p < 0.001, respectively). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that intubation duration was significantly associated with the total FDS score, RV and RP subscales of the FDS, and total PAS score. @*Conclusions@#The severity of impaired swallowing function, particularly the amount of residue in the pharyngeal recesses assessed via VFSS, was strongly associated with both severity of medical illness and intubation duration. Intubation duration could be a prognostic factor for assessing impaired swallowing function on the basis of VFSS.

4.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 134-139, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836889

ABSTRACT

To date, researchers have developed various animal models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) to investigate its mechanisms and to identify potential therapeutic treatments. A widely recognized model that mimics the pathology of human sporadic AD involves intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection with streptozotocin (STZ). However, ICV injections are an invasive approach, which creates limitations in generalizing the results. In this study, we produced a rodent model of AD using STZ (3 mg/kg) injection via the cisterna magna (CM) once every week for 4 weeks, and analyzed at 4 weeks and 16 weeks after final injection. In the CM-STZ rodent model of AD, we observed increase in extracellular amyloid-beta (Aβ) deposition and decrease and abnormal morphology of post-synaptic protein, PSD95 in 16 weeks STZ-injected group. The model developed using our less-invasive method induced features of AD-like pathology, including significantly increased extracellular amyloid-beta deposition, and decreased synaptic protein in the hippocampus. These findings supporting the success of this alternative approach, and thus, we suggest this is a promising, less invasive model for use in future AD research.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918400

ABSTRACT

Nonhuman primate models are valuable in biomedical research. However, reference data for clinical pathology parameters in cynomolgus and rhesus monkeys are limited. In the present study, we established hematologic and biochemical reference intervals for healthy cynomolgus and rhesus monkeys anesthetized with ketamine hydrochloride. A total of 142 cynomolgus monkeys (28 males and 114 females) and 42 rhesus monkeys (22 males and 20 females) were selected and analyzed in order to examine reference intervals of 20 hematological and 16 biochemical parameters. The effects of sex were also investigated. Reference intervals for hematological and biochemical parameters were separately established by species (cynomolgus and rhesus) and sex (male and female). No sex-related differences were determined in erythrocyte-related parameters for cynomolgus and rhesus monkey housed in indoor laboratory conditions. Alkaline phosphatase and gamma glutamyltransferase were significantly lower in females than males in both cynomolgus and rhesus monkeys aged 48–96 months. The reference values for hematological and biochemical parameters established herein might provide valuable information for researchers using cynomolgus and rhesus monkeys in experimental conditions for biomedical studies.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765161

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Gross anatomy and sectional anatomy of a monkey should be known by students and researchers of veterinary medicine and medical research. However, materials to learn the anatomy of a monkey are scarce. Thus, the objective of this study was to produce a Visible Monkey data set containing cross sectional images, computed tomographs (CTs), and magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of a monkey whole body. METHODS: Before and after sacrifice, a female rhesus monkey was used for 3 Tesla MRI and CT scanning. The monkey was frozen and sectioned at 0.05 mm intervals for the head region and at 0.5 mm intervals for the rest of the body using a cryomacrotome. Each sectioned surface was photographed using a digital camera to obtain horizontal sectioned images. Segmentation of sectioned images was performed to elaborate three-dimensional (3D) models of the skin and brain. RESULTS: A total of 1,612 horizontal sectioned images of the head and 1,355 images of the remaining region were obtained. The small pixel size (0.024 mm × 0.024 mm) and real color (48 bits color) of these images enabled observations of minute structures. CONCLUSION: Due to small intervals of these images, continuous structures could be traced completely. Moreover, 3D models of the skin and brain could be used for virtual dissections. Sectioned images of this study will enhance the understanding of monkey anatomy and foster further studies. These images will be provided to any requesting researcher free of charge.


Subject(s)
Anatomy, Cross-Sectional , Brain , Dataset , Female , Haplorhini , Head , Humans , Macaca mulatta , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Primates , Skin , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Veterinary Medicine
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764078

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Proficient differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into specific lineages is required for applications in regenerative medicine. A growing amount of evidences had implicated hormones and hormone-like molecules as critical regulators of proliferation and lineage specification during in vivo development. Therefore, a deeper understanding of the hormones and hormone-like molecules involved in cell fate decisions is critical for efficient and controlled differentiation of hPSCs into specific lineages. Thus, we functionally and quantitatively compared the effects of diverse hormones (estradiol 17-β (E2), progesterone (P4), and dexamethasone (DM)) and a hormone-like molecule (retinoic acid (RA)) on the regulation of hematopoietic and neural lineage specification. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used 10 nM E2, 3 μM P4, 10 nM DM, and 10 nM RA based on their functional in vivo developmental potential. The sex hormone E2 enhanced functional activity of hematopoietic progenitors compared to P4 and DM, whereas RA impaired hematopoietic differentiation. In addition, E2 increased CD34⁺CD45⁺ cells with progenitor functions, even in the CD43⁻ population, a well-known hemogenic marker. RA exhibited lineage-biased potential, preferentially committing hPSCs toward the neural lineage while restricting the hematopoietic fate decision. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reveal unique cell fate potentials of E2 and RA treatment and provide valuable differentiation information that is essential for hPSC applications.


Subject(s)
Dexamethasone , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , Pluripotent Stem Cells , Progesterone , Regenerative Medicine , Tretinoin
8.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 458-473, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763781

ABSTRACT

The function of microglia/macrophages after ischemic stroke is poorly understood. This study examines the role of microglia/macrophages in the focal infarct area after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rhesus monkeys. We measured infarct volume and neurological function by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and non-human primate stroke scale (NHPSS), respectively, to assess temporal changes following MCAO. Activated phagocytic microglia/macrophages were examined by immunohistochemistry in post-mortem brains (n=6 MCAO, n=2 controls) at 3 and 24 hours (acute stage), 2 and 4 weeks (subacute stage), and 4, and 20 months (chronic stage) following MCAO. We found that the infarct volume progressively decreased between 1 and 4 weeks following MCAO, in parallel with the neurological recovery. Greater presence of cluster of differentiation 68 (CD68)-expressing microglia/macrophages was detected in the infarct lesion in the subacute and chronic stage, compared to the acute stage. Surprisingly, 98~99% of transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) was found colocalized with CD68-expressing cells. CD68-expressing microglia/macrophages, rather than CD206⁺ cells, may exert anti-inflammatory effects by secreting TGFβ after the subacute stage of ischemic stroke. CD68⁺ microglia/macrophages can therefore be used as a potential therapeutic target.


Subject(s)
Brain , Haplorhini , Immunohistochemistry , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery , Inflammation , Macaca mulatta , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Microglia , Middle Cerebral Artery , Primates , Stroke , Transforming Growth Factor beta
9.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 414-424, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763764

ABSTRACT

Mitochondria continuously fuse and divide to maintain homeostasis. An impairment in the balance between the fusion and fission processes can trigger mitochondrial dysfunction. Accumulating evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction is related to neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD), with excessive mitochondrial fission in dopaminergic neurons being one of the pathological mechanisms of PD. Here, we investigated the balance between mitochondrial fusion and fission in the substantia nigra of a non-human primate model of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD. We found that MPTP induced shorter and abnormally distributed mitochondria. This phenomenon was accompanied by the activation of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), a mitochondrial fission protein, through increased phosphorylation at S616. Thereafter, we assessed for activation of the components of the cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling cascades, which are known regulators of Drp1(S616) phosphorylation. MPTP induced an increase in p25 and p35, which are required for CDK5 activation. Together, these findings suggest that the phosphorylation of Drp1(S616) by CDK5 is involved in mitochondrial fission in the substantia nigra of a non-human primate model of MPTP-induced PD.


Subject(s)
1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 , Cyclin-Dependent Kinases , Dopaminergic Neurons , Homeostasis , Mitochondria , Mitochondrial Dynamics , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Parkinson Disease , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Primates , Substantia Nigra
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758919

ABSTRACT

Microorganisms play important roles in obesity; however, the role of the gut microbiomes in obesity is controversial because of the inconsistent findings. This study investigated the gut microbiome communities in obese and lean groups of captive healthy cynomolgus monkeys reared under strict identical environmental conditions, including their diet. No significant differences in the relative abundance of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Prevotella were observed between the obese and lean groups, but a significant difference in Spirochetes (p < 0.05) was noted. Microbial diversity and richness were similar, but highly variable results in microbial composition, diversity, and richness were observed in individuals, irrespective of their state of obesity. Distinct clustering between the groups was not observed by principal coordinate analysis using an unweighted pair group method. Higher sharedness values (95.81% ± 2.28% at the genus level, and 79.54% ± 5.88% at the species level) were identified among individual monkeys. This paper reports the association between the gut microbiome and obesity in captive non-human primate models reared under controlled environments. The relative proportion of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes as well as the microbial diversity known to affect obesity were similar in the obese and lean groups of monkeys reared under identical conditions. Therefore, obesity-associated microbial changes reported previously appear to be associated directly with environmental factors, particularly diet, rather than obesity.


Subject(s)
Bacteroidetes , Diet , Environment, Controlled , Firmicutes , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Haplorhini , Macaca fascicularis , Methods , Microbiota , Obesity , Prevotella , Primates , Spirochaetales
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739815

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of family caregiving on depression in the first 3 months after spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out on 76 patients diagnosed with an SCI from January 2013 to December 2016 at the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation of Kyungpook National University Hospital, Korea. Clinical characteristics including age, gender, level of injury, completeness of the injury, time since injury, caregiver information, etiology, and functional data were collected through a retrospective review of medical records. Depression was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Patients with 14 or more points were classified as depressed and those with scores of 13 or less as non-depressed group. RESULTS: Of the 76 patients, 33 were in the depressed group with an average BDI of 21.27±6.17 and 43 patients included in the non-depressed group with an average BDI of 4.56±4.20. The BDI score of patients cared by unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP) was significantly higher than that of patients cared by their families (p=0.020). Univariate regression analysis showed that motor complete injury (p=0.027), UAP caregiving (p=0.022), and Ambulatory Motor Index (p=0.019) were associated with depression after SCI. Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis showed that motor completeness (p=0.002) and UAP caregiving (p=0.002) were independent risk factors. CONCLUSION: Compared with UAP, family caregivers lowered the prevalence of depression in the first 3 months after SCI.


Subject(s)
Caregivers , Depression , Humans , Korea , Logistic Models , Medical Records , Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Spinal Cord Injuries , Spinal Cord
12.
Clinical Pain ; (2): 41-44, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786700

ABSTRACT

Septic arthritis of the hip joint after radiotherapy is a rare complication with distinctive features. It is difficult to recognize this complication because of its late onset and lack of significant fever. We describe three cases of patients with septic arthritis in the hip joint who had a history of radiotherapy in the pelvic region. Our patients developed septic arthritis 1, 2, and 3 years after radiotherapy and these occurrence intervals were relatively shorter when compared to previous literature. Hip joint destruction was noted in all cases. Resection of the femoral head was required to control the infection in two cases. Careful attention is requested to detect septic arthritis when patient experiences pain in joint where underwent radiotherapy. For this case, prompt laboratory study, radiological evaluation, and joint fluid aspiration and culture are required. If there is evidence of infection in these results, a proper and immediate treatment must be started.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Infectious , Fever , Head , Hip Joint , Hip , Humans , Joints , Pelvis , Radiotherapy
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-149862

ABSTRACT

Patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease have significant morbidity due to large kidney size. Surgical extirpation of polycystic kidneys is frequently necessary to treat the morbidity or to obtain intraabdominal space for a graft kidney. Simultaneous bilateral nephrectomy and kidney transplantation are performed in many transplant centers to avoid the complications associated with anephric states such as anemia requiring blood transfusion, osteodystrophy, fluid overload, hyperkalemia, and congestive heart failure. However, the risk of postoperative complications after combined bilateral nephrectomy with kidney transplantation is relatively high, especially for cases in which the polycystic kidneys are huge. Here, we report two cases of severe and persistent hypotension during and after combined surgery which may have been caused by adrenal insufficiency or by sympathetic denervation and splanchnic vasculature decompression after the removal of huge polycystic kidneys.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Insufficiency , Anemia , Blood Transfusion , Decompression , Heart Failure , Humans , Hyperkalemia , Hypotension , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Kidney Transplantation , Kidney , Nephrectomy , Polycystic Kidney Diseases , Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Dominant , Postoperative Complications , Sympathectomy , Transplants
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-217561

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This post-marketing surveillance study (NCT00750360) assessed the safety and reactogenicity of an inactivated, trivalent split-virion influenza vaccine licensed for use in the Korea since 2002. METHODS: Eight hundred and eighty three subjects aged > or =6 months received a single dose of the vaccine; an additional dose was administered to those aged or =6 years: 34.7%), fever ( or =6 years: 13.9%) were the most frequently recorded solicited local and general adverse events. Grade 3 solicited adverse events were reported by < or =4.0% subjects. No vaccine-related SAEs were recorded (KFDA criteria). CONCLUSION: Considering the vaccine's well-established immunogenicity and its favourable safety and reactogenicity profile across all age groups and its high coverage rate in Korea, it may be recommended as a candidate to facilitate annual seasonal influenza vaccination for all ages as part of the Korean National Immunization Program.


Subject(s)
Aged , Fever , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunization Programs , Incidence , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Korea , Seasons , Vaccination
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-117729

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have reported that the immune response of hepatitis B vaccine is decreased in preterm or low birth weight babies compared to healthy term babies. To evaluate this notion, we investigated the positive seroconversion rate of hepatitis B antibody after hepatitis B vaccination according to gestational age and birth weight. METHODS: We retrospectively studied medical records about the positive seroconversion rate of a total of 968 infants who were given DNA recombinant hepatitis B vaccine as scheduled at Il Sin Christian Hospital, Busan from January 2002 to Mar 2007. RESULTS: The postive seroconversion failure rate (non-responder or poor-responder) of hepatitis B antibody by gestational age was 15.6% (28 weeks, 32 weeks, 1,000 g, 1,500 g, 2,000 g). CONCLUSION: The seropositive rate of hepatitis B antibody after hepatitis B vaccination decreased as the gestational age and the birth weight decreased. And gestational age more than 37 weeks and birth weight above 2,000 g were independently associated with a higher seropositive rate of hepatitis B antibody after hepatitis B vaccination.


Subject(s)
Birth Weight , DNA , Gestational Age , Hepatitis , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B Vaccines , Humans , Infant , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Infant, Newborn , Medical Records , Parturition , Retrospective Studies , Vaccination
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-86433

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the natural history and perinatal outcomes of twin gestations according to chorionicity. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 99 monochorionic (MC) and 206 dichorionic (DC) twin gestations delivered at Il Sin Christian Hospital in Busan between January 2002 and December 2007. The incidences of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTS) and selective intrauterine growth restriction (sIUGR), as well as perinatal morbidity and mortality, were evaluated. RESULTS: MC twins had a lower gestational age (35.7 vs. 36.6 weeks, P=0.03) at birth and a higher incidence of intrauterine fetal loss (10% vs. 1.5%, P<0.001) than DC twins. The incidence of intrauterine fetal loss was higher in MC sIUGR than in DC sIUGR (19% vs. 2.5%, P=0.025) twins. The number of admissions to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU; 31% vs. 16%, P=0.042), and the incidence of periventricular leukomalacia (7% vs. 0%, P=0.031), and respiratory distress syndrome with surfactant treatment (27% vs. 11%, P=0.049) were higher in MC than DC twins. The incidences of sIUGR and TTS were 21 and 9% among the MC twins. The incidences of intrauterine fetal loss were higher in MC twins with TTS [6 of 9 (67%)] or sIUGR [4 of 21 (19%)] than uncomplicated MC twins (P<0.001). The frequency of admission to the NICU (P=0.001), the length of hospital stay (P=0.033), the prevalence of periventricular leukomalacia (P=0.011), and intraventricular hemorrhage (P=0.007) were also higher in MC with TTS or sIUGR than in uncomplicated MC twins. CONCLUSION: The incidence of neonatal complications was higher in MC twins, especially those gestations complicated by TTS or sIUGR.


Subject(s)
Chorion , Female , Fetofetal Transfusion , Gestational Age , Hemorrhage , Humans , Incidence , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care, Neonatal , Length of Stay , Leukomalacia, Periventricular , Medical Records , Natural History , Parturition , Pregnancy , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-227235

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify factors influencing premature infants who are small for their gestational ago. METHODS: The medical records of 1,010 premature infants of 26 to 35 weeks of gestational age born at Il-Sin Christian Hospital, Busan from January 2000 to August 2006 were reviewed. We collected data on gestational age, birth weight, infant gender, birth order, maternal age and previous abortion history and analyzed the factors influencing premature infants who were small for their gestational ago at birth. RESULTS: In our study more female than male (P=0.042) in premature infants who were small for their gestational ago were born from mothers aged younger than 20 or older than 35 (P=0.041). But association between smallness for gestational age and birth order or maternal previous abortion history was statistically insignificant (P=0.228, P=0.129). CONCLUSION: Considering the association of birth weight and the survival rate of premature infants, it is thought that maternal age had an influence on the survival rate of premature infants. Social and political support to lower the teenager pregnancy and older pregnancy is expected to increase the survival rate of premature infants and the birth of healthy normal neonates.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Induced , Adolescent , Birth Order , Birth Weight , Female , Gestational Age , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Male , Maternal Age , Medical Records , Mothers , Parturition , Pregnancy , Survival Rate
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-216258

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common bacterial infectious disease in childhood. Especially UTI in infant and young children is associated with urinary tract anomalies such as hydronephrosis, vesicoureteral reflux. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and laboratory characteristics, and uroradiologic findings of UTI caused by pathogens other than E. coli with UTI caused by E. coli in infant and young children. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 170 infants and children, who had been admitted for UTI to Il Sin Christian Hospital from January 2003 to December 2005. All patients were divided into two groups; E. coli and non-E. coli UTI, and they were compared for demographic data, clinical data (degree and duration of fever, time to defervescence, and length of hospital stay), underlying urinary tract anomalies (by history and ultrasonography), recurrent infection (by history and past medical records), and laboratory data [urinalysis, white blood cells (WBC) count in peripheral blood, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and serum creatinine level]. RESULTS: Of the 170 UTI patients, the number of non-E. coli UTI was 114 (67.1%) and E. coli UTI was 56 (32.9%). As compared to E. coli group, non-E. coli group was younger in age (0.52+/-0.59 years vs 0.84+/-1.39years, P<0.05), had higher rates of urinary tract anomalies [n=46 (82.1%) vs n=53 (46.5%), P<0.001], higher recurrence rate, shorter time to defervescence, less peripheral blood WBC count, lower level of CRP, lower level of ESR. CONCLUSION: The characteristics of non-E. coli UTI compared to E. coli UTI was younger age, milder clinical symptoms and signs, higher rates of urinary tract anomalies and higher recurrence rate.


Subject(s)
Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein , Child , Communicable Diseases , Creatinine , Fever , Humans , Hydronephrosis , Infant , Leukocytes , Medical Records , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Urinary Tract Infections , Urinary Tract , Vesico-Ureteral Reflux
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-196112

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The anthropometric data of newborns published by Lubchenco et al in the 1960's have been most commonly used in Korea as a standard of newborn growth. We hypothesized that Lubchenco's data have limitations for Korean premature infants born in the 2000's. We analyzed and compared the data of birth weight, length, and head circumference. METHODS: The medical records of 1,159 premature infants of 26 to 35 weeks of gestational age born at Il-Sin Christian Hospital of Busan from January 2,000 to August 2,006 were reviewed. The anthropometric data from total 1,010 premature infants were analyzed after excluding the data from infants whose gestational age were estimated by other than ultrasonogram, and infants with major congenital anomalies or chromosomal anomaly, born from foreign parent, and extreme outliers. RESULTS: In the birth weights by gestational age, our 90 percentile values were lower than Lubchenco's 90 percentile values for all gestational age studied, particularly for less than 30 weeks the 90 percentile curve was drawn at the area as that of Lubchenco' 75 percentile. And our 10 percentile values were higher than Lubchenco's 10 percentile values for all gestational age studied. In the birth length and head circumference by gestational age, our 90 percentile values were lower than Lubchenco's 90 percentile values for all gestational age studied, and the 90 percentile curve was drawn at the area as that of Lubchenco's 75 percentile. And our 10 percentile values were higher than Lubchenco's 10 percentile values for all gestational age studied. CONCLUSION: It is unreasonable to apply Lubchenco's data published before 4th decades to present Korean premature infants and have a risk to underestimate intrauterine growth retardation or small for gestational age and large for gestational age. Considering for the possibility of increasing the mortality and morbidity of premature infants due to delayed diagnosis and treatment by these underestimating, our anthropometric data of premature infant is expected to contribute to lower the mortality and morbidity of premature infants.


Subject(s)
Birth Weight , Delayed Diagnosis , Fetal Growth Retardation , Gestational Age , Head , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Korea , Medical Records , Mortality , Parents , Parturition , Pregnancy , Ultrasonography
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-66795

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Enteroviruses are the most common cause of aseptic meningitis in patients of all ages. A definite diagnosis of enteroviral meningitis can be established by detection of virus directly in CSF specimens. But this is time-consuming and lacks sensitivity, so polymerase chain reaction(PCR) detecting of viral RNA in patient specimens such as CSF, stool has been demonstrated. But little is known about the influence of sampling time on the results of CSF PCR and stool PCR. We investigated diagnostic utility of PCR of CSF and stool according to sampling time after the onset of symptoms. METHODS: PCR results were analyzed according to sampling time for 42 patients diagnosed aseptic meningits in our hospital from 11(th) January to 30(th) August, 2005. RESULTS: The diagnostic yield of the test was higher of CSF specimens obtained 2 days after onset(positive PCR results 1/24, 4.2 percent)(P=0.001). Instead, positive PCR results of fecal specimens maintained highly(average 90.5 percent), 10 cases had also positive PCR results even 5-6 days after onset. 10 cases of CSF specimens had positive enterovirus PCR results containing coxsackievirus B5 (n=6), coxsackievirus B3(n=3). 38 cases of stool specimens had positive enterovirus PCR results containing echovirus 18(n=7), echovirus 9(n=3), coxsackievirus B5(n=8), coxsackievirus B3(n=3). 6 cases(coxackie B5) had positive CSF PCR and stool PCR, both. CONCLUSION: Stool PCR was clinically sensitive for detecting enterovirus during enteroviral meningits and could give a presumptive diagnosis throughout the disease course. A definite diagnosis was obtained by CSF PCR, but its utility was clearly lower for samples obtained >2 days after clinical onset. Therefore, it is recommended that, in addition to performance of CSF PCR, fecal samples obtained from patients with suspected enteroviral meningitis should be tested by PCR, especially when the duration of symptoms is >2 days.


Subject(s)
Cerebrospinal Fluid , Diagnosis , Enterovirus , Enterovirus B, Human , Humans , Meningitis , Meningitis, Aseptic , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Viral
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