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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902994

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#This study analyzed trends in foodborne and waterborne diseases in South Korea between 2015 and 2019. @*Methods@#The data consisted of information on outbreaks of waterborne and foodborne infectious diseases reported through the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(KCDC) system. We analyzed the trends and epidemiological aspects of outbreaks by month, place of occurrence, and causative pathogens in this observational study. @*Results@#The number of outbreaks has steadily increased over the last 5 years, but the number of cases per outbreak has followed a decreasing trend. Incidence at daycare centers and preschools has been steadily increasing over consecutive years. @*Conclusion@#The steady number of patients and decreasing number of cases per outbreak,even as the number of outbreaks has been increasing, suggest that the KCDC’s professional management system is operating effectively. It is necessary to continue improving the objectivity and efficiency of the management system and to carefully examine the increasing number of outbreaks in smaller-scale group catering facilities, such as daycare centers and preschools. Outbreaks can be prevented by closely examining those caused by unidentified pathogens and group outbreaks caused by other diseases, identifying problems, and supplementing the management system.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895290

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#This study analyzed trends in foodborne and waterborne diseases in South Korea between 2015 and 2019. @*Methods@#The data consisted of information on outbreaks of waterborne and foodborne infectious diseases reported through the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(KCDC) system. We analyzed the trends and epidemiological aspects of outbreaks by month, place of occurrence, and causative pathogens in this observational study. @*Results@#The number of outbreaks has steadily increased over the last 5 years, but the number of cases per outbreak has followed a decreasing trend. Incidence at daycare centers and preschools has been steadily increasing over consecutive years. @*Conclusion@#The steady number of patients and decreasing number of cases per outbreak,even as the number of outbreaks has been increasing, suggest that the KCDC’s professional management system is operating effectively. It is necessary to continue improving the objectivity and efficiency of the management system and to carefully examine the increasing number of outbreaks in smaller-scale group catering facilities, such as daycare centers and preschools. Outbreaks can be prevented by closely examining those caused by unidentified pathogens and group outbreaks caused by other diseases, identifying problems, and supplementing the management system.

3.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 1189-1200, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914246

ABSTRACT

Background@#Epidemiological data have shown that vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in Korea. Genetic factors influencing vitamin D deficiency in humans have been studied in Europe but are less known in East Asian countries, including Korea. We aimed to investigate the genetic factors related to vitamin D levels in Korean people using a genome-wide association study (GWAS). @*Methods@#We included 12,642 subjects from three different genetic cohorts consisting of Korean participants. The GWAS was performed on 7,590 individuals using linear or logistic regression meta- and mega-analyses. After identifying significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we calculated heritability and performed replication and rare variant analyses. In addition, expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis for significant SNPs was performed. @*Results@#rs12803256, in the actin epsilon 1, pseudogene (ACTE1P) gene, was identified as a novel polymorphism associated with vitamin D deficiency. SNPs, such as rs11723621 and rs7041, in the group-specific component gene (GC) and rs11023332 in the phosphodiesterase 3B (PDE3B) gene were significantly associated with vitamin D deficiency in both meta- and mega-analyses. The SNP heritability of the vitamin D concentration was estimated to be 7.23%. eQTL analysis for rs12803256 for the genes related to vitamin D metabolism, including glutamine-dependent NAD(+) synthetase (NADSYN1) and 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR7), showed significantly different expression according to alleles. @*Conclusion@#The genetic factors underlying vitamin D deficiency in Korea included polymorphisms in the GC, PDE3B, NADSYN1, and ACTE1P genes. The biological mechanism of a non-coding SNP (rs12803256) for DHCR7/NADSYN1 on vitamin D concentrations is unclear, warranting further investigations.

4.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836252

ABSTRACT

To develop a clinical practice guideline for vaccination in patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic disease (AIIRD), the Korean College of Rheumatology and the Korean Society of Infectious Diseases developed a clinical practice guideline according to the clinical practice guideline development manual. Since vaccination is unlikely to cause AIIRD or worsen disease activities, required vaccinations are recommended. Once patients are diagnosed with AIIRD, treatment strategies should be established and, at the same time, monitor their vaccination history. It is recommended to administer vaccines when the disease enters the stabilized stage. Administering live attenuated vaccines in patients with AIIRD who are taking immunosuppressants should be avoided. Vaccination should be considered in patients with AIIRD, prior to initiating immunosuppressants. It is recommended to administer influenza, Streptococcus pneumoniae, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, herpes zoster, measles-mumps-rubella virus, human papillomavirus, and tetanus-diphtheria-pertussis vaccines in patients with AIIRD; such patients who planned to travel are generally recommended to be vaccinated at the recommended vaccine level of healthy adults. Those who live in a household with patients with AIIRD and their caregivers should also be vaccinated at levels that are generally recommended for healthy adults.

5.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 252-280, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834238

ABSTRACT

To develop a clinical practice guideline for vaccination in patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic disease (AIIRD), the Korean College of Rheumatology and theKorean Society of Infectious Diseases developed a clinical practice guideline according to the clinical practice guideline development manual. Since vaccination is unlikely to cause AIIRD or worsen disease activities, required vaccinations are recommended. Once patients are diagnosed with AIIRD, treatment strategies should be established and, at the same time, monitor their vaccination history. It is recommended to administer vaccines when the disease enters the stabilized stage. Administering live attenuated vaccines in patients with AIIRD who are taking immunosuppressants should be avoided. Vaccination should be considered in patients with AIIRD, prior to initiating immunosuppressants. It is recommended to administer influenza, Streptococcus pneumoniae, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, herpes zoster, measlesmumps- rubella virus, human papillomavirus, and tetanus-diphtheria-pertussis vaccines in patients with AIIRD; such patients who planned to travel are generally recommended to be vaccinated at the recommended vaccine level of healthy adults. Those who live in a household with patients with AIIRD and their caregivers should also be vaccinated at levels that are generally recommended for healthy adults.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719428

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: With the emergence of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, profiling a wide range of genomic alterations has become a possibility resulting in improved implementation of targeted cancer therapy. In Asian populations, the prevalence and spectrum of clinically actionable genetic alterations has not yet been determined because of a lack of studies examining high-throughput cancer genomic data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To address this issue, 1,071 tumor samples were collected from five major cancer institutes in Korea and analyzed using targeted NGS at a centralized laboratory. Samples were either fresh frozen or formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded (FFPE) and the quality and yield of extracted genomic DNA was assessed. In order to estimate the effect of sample condition on the quality of sequencing results, tissue preparation method, specimen type (resected or biopsied) and tissue storage time were compared. RESULTS: We detected 7,360 non-synonymous point mutations, 1,164 small insertions and deletions, 3,173 copy number alterations, and 462 structural variants. Fifty-four percent of tumors had one or more clinically relevant genetic mutation. The distribution of actionable variants was variable among different genes. Fresh frozen tissues, surgically resected specimens, and recently obtained specimens generated superior sequencing results over FFPE tissues, biopsied specimens, and tissues with long storage duration. CONCLUSION: In order to overcome, challenges involved in bringing NGS testing into routine clinical use, a centralized laboratory model was designed that could improve the NGS workflows, provide appropriate turnaround times and control costs with goal of enabling precision medicine.


Subject(s)
Academies and Institutes , Asians , DNA , Humans , Korea , Methods , Paraffin , Point Mutation , Precision Medicine , Prevalence
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762444

ABSTRACT

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is currently used in the clinical setting for targeted therapies and diagnosis of hematologic malignancies. Accurate detection of somatic variants is challenging because of tumor purity, heterogeneity, and the complexity of genetic alterations, with various issues ranging from high detection design to test implementation. This article presents guidelines developed through consensus among a panel of experts from the Korean Society for Genetic Diagnostics. They are based on experiences with the validation processes of NGS-based somatic panels for hematologic malignancies, with reference to previous international recommendations. These guidelines describe basic parameters with emphasis on the design of a validation protocol for NGS-based somatic panels to be used in practice. In addition, they suggest thresholds of key metrics, including minimum coverage, mean coverage with uniformity index, and minimum variant allele frequency, for the initial diagnosis of hematologic malignancies.


Subject(s)
Clothing , Consensus , Diagnosis , Gene Frequency , Hematologic Neoplasms , Population Characteristics
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762440

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: von Willebrand disease (VWD), characterized by quantitative or qualitative defects of von Willebrand factor (VWF), is the most common inheritable bleeding disorder. Data regarding the genetic background of VWD in Korean patients is limited. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive molecular genetic investigation of Korean patients with VWD. METHODS: Twenty-two unrelated patients with VWD were recruited from August 2014 to December 2017 (age range 28 months–64 years; male:female ratio 1.2:1). Fifteen patients had type 1, six had type 2, and one had type 3 VWD. Blood samples were collected for coagulation analyses and molecular genetic analyses from each patient. Direct sequencing of all exons, flanking intronic sequences, and the promoter of VWF was performed. In patients without sequence variants, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) was performed to detect dosage variants. We adapted the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics guidelines for variant interpretation and considered variants of uncertain significance, likely pathogenic variants, and pathogenic variants as putative disease-causing variants. RESULTS: VWF variants were identified in 15 patients (68%): 14 patients with a single heterozygous variant and one patient with two heterozygous variants. The variants consisted of 13 missense variants, one small insertion, and one splicing variant. Four variants were novel: p.S764Efs*16, p.C889R, p.C1130Y, and p.W2193C. MLPA analysis in seven patients without reportable variants revealed no dosage variants. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed the spectrum of VWF variants, including novel ones, and limited diagnostic utility of MLPA analyses in Korean patients with VWD.


Subject(s)
Exons , Genetic Background , Genetics, Medical , Genomics , Hemorrhage , Humans , Introns , Korea , Molecular Biology , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , von Willebrand Disease, Type 3 , von Willebrand Diseases , von Willebrand Factor
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761820

ABSTRACT

Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) and its receptor, nociceptin opioid peptide (NOP) receptor, are localized in brain areas implicated in depression including the amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, habenula, and monoaminergic nuclei in the brain stem. N/OFQ inhibits neuronal excitability of monoaminergic neurons and monoamine release from their terminals by activation of G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying K⁺ channels and inhibition of voltage sensitive calcium channels, respectively. Therefore, NOP receptor antagonists have been proposed as a potential antidepressant. Indeed, mounting evidence shows that NOP receptor antagonists have antidepressant-like effects in various preclinical animal models of depression, and recent clinical studies again confirmed the idea that blockade of NOP receptor signaling could provide a novel strategy for the treatment of depression. In this review, we describe the pharmacological effects of N/OFQ in relation to depression and explore the possible mechanism of NOP receptor antagonists as potential antidepressants.


Subject(s)
Amygdala , Antidepressive Agents , Brain , Brain Stem , Calcium Channels , Depression , Habenula , Models, Animal , Neurons , Neuropeptides , Opioid Peptides , Receptors, Drug , Septal Nuclei
10.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 247-254, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-102700

ABSTRACT

The Korean influenza national immunization program was first established as an interim program in 1997, administering the influenza vaccine to low-income elderly adults. In 2005, the program assumed its present form of providing free influenza vaccination to adults aged ≥65 years. After turning over the influenza vaccination for elderly adults to the private sectors in 2015, the influenza vaccination coverage rate among this population increased to >80%. In addition, after the 2009 H1N1 influenza epidemic crisis, the vaccine was domestically produced. By reaching a 75% vaccination coverage rate in the target groups, it was possible to put an end to the influenza pandemic and fix the shortcomings of the system that existed at that time. The influenza vaccination program, provided free of cost, was extended to include infants aged < 12 months in 2016 and ≤59 months in 2017 in order to reduce the influenza burden in these populations. However, the vaccine effectiveness remains low despite the high vaccination rates in elderly adults. Therefore, several areas, such as the adoption of quadrivalent influenza vaccine, adjuvanted influenza vaccine, and high-dose influenza vaccine and the expansion of vaccination target groups, still need to be addressed.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Humans , Immunization Programs , Immunization , Infant , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Korea , Pandemics , Private Sector , Vaccination
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-34232

ABSTRACT

Predicting cancer mortality is important to estimate the needs of cancer-related services and to prevent cancer. Despite its significance, a long-term future projection of cancer mortality has not been conducted; therefore, our objective was to estimate future cancer mortality in Korea by cancer site through 2032. The specially designed Nordpred software was used to estimate cancer mortality. The cancer death data from 1983 to 2012 and the population projection data from 1983 to 2032 were obtained from the Korean National Statistics Office. Based on our analysis, age-standardized rates with the world standard population of all cancer deaths were estimated to decline from 2008-2012 to 2028-2032 (men: -39.8%, women: -33.1%). However, the crude rates are predicted to rise (men: 29.8%, women: 24.4%), and the overall number of the cancer deaths is also estimated to increase (men: 35.5%, women: 32.3%). Several cancer deaths are projected to increase (lung, liver and gallbladder, colon and rectum, pancreas and leukemia in both sexes; prostate cancer in men; and breast and ovarian cancer in women), whereas other cancer deaths are expected to decrease (stomach, esophagus and larynx in both sexes and cervical cancer in women). The largest contribution to increasing cancer deaths is due to the aging of the Korean population. In conclusion, a strategy for primary prevention, early detection, and early treatment to cope with the rapidly increasing death of cancer due to population aging is urgently required.


Subject(s)
Age Factors , Female , Humans , Male , Models, Theoretical , Neoplasms/mortality , Republic of Korea , Survival Analysis
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-58425

ABSTRACT

Deprivation indices have been widely used to evaluate neighborhood socioeconomic status and therefore examine individuals within their regional context. Although some studies on the development of deprivation indices were conducted in Korea, additional research is needed to construct a more valid and reliable deprivation index. Therefore, a new deprivation index, named the K index, was constructed using principal component analysis. This index was compared with the Carstairs, Townsend and Choi indices. A possible association between infant death and deprivation was explored using the K index. The K index had a higher correlation with the infant mortality rate than did the other three indices. The regional deprivation quintiles were unequally distributed throughout the country. Despite the overall trend of gradually decreasing infant mortality rates, inequalities in infant deaths according to the deprivation quintiles persisted and widened. Despite its significance, the regional deprivation variable had a smaller effect on infant deaths than did individual variables. The K index functions as a deprivation index, and we may use this index to estimate the regional socioeconomic status in Korea. We found that inequalities in infant deaths according to the time trend persisted. To reduce the health inequalities among infants in Korea, regional deprivation should be considered.


Subject(s)
Adult , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant Death , Male , Parents , Poverty , Principal Component Analysis , Proportional Hazards Models , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , Social Class
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-69713

ABSTRACT

Forecasting cause-specific mortality can help estimate the future burden of diseases and provide a clue for preventing diseases. Our objective was to forecast the mortality for causes of death in the future (2013-2032) based on the past trends (1983-2012) in Korea. The death data consisted of 12 major causes of death from 1983 to 2012 and the population data consisted of the observed and estimated populations (1983-2032) in Korea. The modified age-period-cohort model with an R-based program, nordpred software, was used to forecast future mortality. Although the age-standardized rates for the world standard population for both sexes are expected to decrease from 2008-2012 to 2028-2032 (males: -31.4%, females: -32.3%), the crude rates are expected to increase (males: 46.3%, females: 33.4%). The total number of deaths is also estimated to increase (males: 52.7%, females: 41.9%). Additionally, the largest contribution to the overall change in deaths was the change in the age structures. Several causes of death are projected to increase in both sexes (cancer, suicide, heart diseases, pneumonia and Alzheimer’s disease), while others are projected to decrease (cerebrovascular diseases, liver diseases, diabetes mellitus, traffic accidents, chronic lower respiratory diseases, and pulmonary tuberculosis). Cancer is expected to be the highest cause of death for both the 2008-2012 and 2028-2032 time periods in Korea. To reduce the disease burden, projections of the future cause-specific mortality should be used as fundamental data for developing public health policies.


Subject(s)
Age Factors , Cause of Death/trends , Female , Forecasting , Humans , Male , Models, Theoretical , Neoplasms/mortality , Republic of Korea , Sex Factors
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-208415

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clostridial bacteremia (CB) is the second most frequent anaerobic bacteremia, and CB patients show high mortality without prompt antimicrobial therapy. We retrospectively reviewed 11 years of CB cases in a tertiary care hospital to describe the clinical and microbiological characteristics of CB and to define the risk factors of fatal CB. METHODS: All patients with CB from January 2002 to December 2012 were included in the study. Age, sex, underlying diseases, antibiotic use, and clinical outcome were reviewed. Antibiotic therapy was classified as either 'appropriate' or 'inappropriate' based on the activity against Clostridium species. RESULTS: A total of 118 Clostridium isolates (0.79% of all blood culture isolates) were recovered from the blood cultures of 114 patients. The underlying conditions of patients with CB were neoplasm in 87 cases (76.3%), gastrointestinal symptoms in 84 cases (73.7%), diabetes in 17 cases (14.9%), and hemodialysis in six cases (5.3%). Of the 118 Clostridium isolates, C. perfringens was the most frequent species (42 isolates, 35.6%). Thirty-two patients (28.1%) showed polymicrobial bacteremia, which was most commonly combined with Escherichia coli. Two patients harbored more than two Clostridium species. 'Appropriate' antibiotics were given to 97 (85.1%) patients. The mortality rate of CB at days 2, 8, and 30 was 7.9% (9/114), 14.0% (16/114), and 26.3% (30/114), respectively. CONCLUSION: Neoplasm, especially in the gastrointestinal tract or of hematologic origin, and hemodialysis were considered to be risk factors of blood stream clostridial infection. Early appropriate antibiotic coverage of CB was not definitely associated with lower mortality in our study.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bacteremia , Bacteria, Anaerobic , Clostridium , Escherichia coli , Gastrointestinal Tract , Humans , Korea , Mortality , Renal Dialysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Rivers , Sepsis , Tertiary Healthcare
15.
Gut and Liver ; : 417-422, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-163965

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The use of self-expandable metallic stents (SEMS) is an established palliative treatment for malignant stenosis in the gastrointestinal tract; therefore, its application to benign stenosis is expected to be beneficial because of the more gradual and sustained dilatation in the stenotic portion. We aimed in this prospective observational study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of temporary SEMS placement in benign pyloric stenosis. METHODS: Twenty-two patients with benign stenosis of the prepylorus, pylorus, and duodenal bulb were enrolled and underwent SEMS placement. We assessed symptom improvement, defined as an increase of at least 1 degree in the gastric-outlet-obstruction scoring system after stent insertion. RESULTS: No major complications were observed during the procedures. After stent placement, early symptom improvement was achieved in 18 of 22 patients (81.8%). During the follow-up period (mean 10.2 months), the stents remained in place successfully for 6 to 8 weeks in seven patients (31.8%). Among the 15 patients (62.5%) with stent migration, seven (46.6%) showed continued symptomatic improvement without recurrence of obstructive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the symptomatic improvement, temporary SEMS placement is premature as an effective therapeutic tool for benign pyloric stenosis unless a novel stent is developed to prevent migration.


Subject(s)
Constriction, Pathologic , Dilatation , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hypogonadism , Mitochondrial Diseases , Ophthalmoplegia , Palliative Care , Prospective Studies , Pyloric Stenosis , Pylorus , Recurrence , Stents
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-178342

ABSTRACT

Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome (ARS) is characterized by anomalies of the anterior segment of the eye and systemic abnormalities. Mutations in the FOXC1 and PITX2 genes are underlying causes of ARS, but there has been few reports on genetically confirmed ARS in Korea. We identified a novel PITX2 mutation (c.300_301delinsT) in 2 Korean patients from a family with ARS. We expand the spectrum of PITX2 mutations and, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first confirmed family of PITX2-related ARS in Korea.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anterior Eye Segment/abnormalities , Base Sequence , Child, Preschool , Eye Abnormalities/genetics , Female , Heterozygote , Homeodomain Proteins/chemistry , Humans , Mutation , Pedigree , Republic of Korea , Transcription Factors/chemistry
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-147877

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is accepted as a standard treatment of early gastric cancer (EGC) and gastric adenoma. Occasionally, tumorous lesion is not found and pathologic discrepancies can occur after ESD. The aim of this study was to analyze the factors affecting the negative pathologic results after ESD. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the data from all patients with gastric neoplasm (276 EGC and 516 gastric adenomas) who were treated with ESD during past 3 years and enrolled the patients who had negative pathologic results. RESULTS: Out of 792 patients treated with ESD, 27 patients (3.4%) were eligible for inclusion. Among the 27 patients, factors affecting the negative pathologic results were, most commonly, the focal lesion (n=13, 48.2%) which was small enough to be removed completely during pre-ESD biopsy, followed by pathologic discrepancies (n=11, 40.7%) between pathologists and lastly the operator factor (n=3, 11.1%) dissecting incorrect lesions. Of the focal lesions, the initial pathologic diagnoses were adenocarcinoma in 11 cases (84.6%). In cases with pathologic discrepancies, all the pretreatment diagnoses were adenoma with low grade dysplasia. In cases caused by operator factors, intestinal metaplasia was accompanied by elevated adenoma in all cases. CONCLUSIONS: To decrease negative pathologic results after ESD, an endoscopist should perform ESD after sufficient communication with pathologists, especially for adenoma with low grade dysplasia, and choose correct lesion, especially located at the antrum and associated with intestinal metaplasia. The possibility of total removal of small lesions even by forcep biopsy should be considered.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma/diagnosis , Aged , Dissection , Female , Gastric Mucosa/pathology , Gastroscopy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Stomach Neoplasms/diagnosis
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-147873

ABSTRACT

Recent advances in endoscopic instruments, including narrow-band imaging (NBI) and magnification endoscopy, allowed dramatic increase in the early diagnosis of hypopharyngeal cancers. In addition, endoscopic mucosal resection or endoscopic submucosal dissection has recently been used for the treatment of hypopharyngeal cancer at an early stage, especially in Japan. However, to date, there is no published report in Korea. A 68-year-old man was admitted for preoperative evaluation and treatment for known esophageal cancer initially diagnosed at a local clinic. During the evaluation, magnifying endoscopy combined with the NBI system revealed a concurrent hypopharyngeal cancer not detected by initial conventional endoscopy. In this case report, we describe for the first time in Korea a case of early stage hypopharyngeal carcinoma that was successfully treated by endoscopic submucosal dissection with a review of literature.


Subject(s)
Aged , Carcinoma/diagnosis , Dissection , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Humans , Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Male , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-162710

ABSTRACT

The -D- phenotype is a rare Rh phenotype that strongly expresses D antigen without C, c, E, or e antigens. In -D- phenotype individuals, anti-Rh17 (Hro) is commonly found if there is a history of pregnancy or transfusion with red blood cells (RBCs) that express C, c, E, or e antigens. We report the first case of a -D- phenotype patient with multiple Rh antibodies including anti-Rh17 who had a history of two occasions of transfusion with eight random donor platelet concentrates two and six years ago. We found that a trivial amount of RBCs in the platelet components was able to trigger sensitization to RBC antigens, especially the highly immunogenic and clinically significant Rh antigens, including C, c, E, e or CcEe polypeptides. To avoid unnecessary sensitization and to minimize the risk of hemolytic transfusion reactions in patients with this rare Rh phenotype, a modified strategy for pretransfusion screenings needs to be discussed in the field of transfusion medicine.

20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-215300

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has been widely performed. However, procedure related-complications and the risk of tumor recurrence are limitations. We analyzed the clinicopathological characteristics of patients who underwent curative additional gastrectomy (gastrectomy) after ESD. METHODS: The clinical characteristics of cases underwent gastrectomy after ESD were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: Between January 2002 and August 2010, 1,512 cases underwent ESD for early gastric cancer (n=511) or adenoma (n=1,001). Thirty-two cases (2.1%) underwent gastrectomy after ESD. Thirty cases (2.0%) were EGC and 2 cases (0.1%) were adenoma. Extended indication, larger tumor size and piecemeal resection were risk factors for gastrectomy after ESD. According to the causes of gastrectomy, 13 cases underwent gastrectomy due to complications (40.6%; bleeding in 9, perforation in 4), and 19 cases based on pathological results (incomplete resection in 13, lymphatic invasion in 6). In cases with incomplete resection, the rate of residual tumor and lymph node metastasis after gastrectomy was 69.2% (75% lateral margin, 60% deep and 75% both) and 7.7%, respectively. Three (50%) of the 6 cases with lymphatic invasion had lymph node metatstasis. CONCLUSIONS: The causes of gastrectomy after ESD were the procedure-related complications, the incomplete resection and lymphatic invasion. For complete and curative ESD, endoscopists should try to minimize complications and determine the depth of invasion accurately before ESD.


Subject(s)
Adenoma/pathology , Aged , Female , Gastrectomy , Gastric Mucosa/pathology , Gastroscopy , Humans , Lymphatic Metastasis , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging , Neoplasm, Residual , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology
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