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1.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 653-661, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009797

ABSTRACT

The final analysis of the phase 3 Targeted Investigational Treatment Analysis of Novel Anti-androgen (TITAN) trial showed improvement in overall survival (OS) and other efficacy endpoints with apalutamide plus androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) versus ADT alone in patients with metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer (mCSPC). As ethnicity and regional differences may affect treatment outcomes in advanced prostate cancer, a post hoc final analysis was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of apalutamide in the Asian subpopulation. Event-driven endpoints were OS, and time from randomization to initiation of castration resistance, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression, and second progression-free survival (PFS2) on first subsequent therapy or death. Efficacy endpoints were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional-hazards models without formal statistical testing and adjustment for multiplicity. Participating Asian patients received once-daily apalutamide 240 mg ( n = 111) or placebo ( n = 110) plus ADT. After a median follow-up of 42.5 months and despite crossover of 47 placebo recipients to open-label apalutamide, apalutamide reduced the risk of death by 32% (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.42-1.13), risk of castration resistance by 69% (HR: 0.31; 95% CI: 0.21-0.46), PSA progression by 79% (HR: 0.21; 95% CI: 0.13-0.35) and PFS2 by 24% (HR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.44-1.29) relative to placebo. The outcomes were comparable between subgroups with low- and high-volume disease at baseline. No new safety issues were identified. Apalutamide provides valuable clinical benefits to Asian patients with mCSPC, with an efficacy and safety profile consistent with that in the overall patient population.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Castration , Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant/drug therapy
2.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 1-11, 2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926793

ABSTRACT

Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARP inhibitor) is a new targeted drug for metastatic prostate cancer in which the patient has a mutation on homologous repair gene including BRCA1/2 gene. This drug was the first gene-based targeted agent in prostate cancer and there were more than 5 available drugs for PARP inhibitors. Only 4 were approved for clinical use for patients with cancer from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. This review article deals with the overview of the PARP inhibitors and their use in future research and clinical fields.

3.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 491-514, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895992

ABSTRACT

In 2017, Korean Society of Medical Oncology (KSMO) published the Korean management guideline of metastatic prostate cancer. This paper is the 2nd edition of the Korean management guideline of metastatic prostate cancer. We updated recent many changes of management in metastatic prostate cancer in this 2nd edition guideline. The present guideline consists of the three categories: management of metastatic hormone sensitive prostate cancer; management of metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer; and clinical consideration for treating patients with metastatic prostate cancer. In category 1 and 2, levels of evidence (LEs) have been mentioned according to the general principles of evidence-based medicine. And grades of recommendation (GR) was taken into account the quality of evidence, the balance between desirable and undesirable effects, the values and preferences, and the use of resources and GR were divided into strong recommendations (SR) and weak recommendations (WR). A total of 16 key questions are selected. And we proposed recommendations and described key evidence for each recommendation. The treatment landscape of metastatic prostate cancer is changing very rapid and many trials are ongoing. To verify the results of the future trials is necessary and should be applied to the treatment for metastatic prostate cancer patients in the clinical practice. Especially, many prostate cancer patients are old age, have multiple underlying medical comorbidities, clinicians should be aware of the significance of medical management as well as clinical efficacy of systemic treatment.

4.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 491-514, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903696

ABSTRACT

In 2017, Korean Society of Medical Oncology (KSMO) published the Korean management guideline of metastatic prostate cancer. This paper is the 2nd edition of the Korean management guideline of metastatic prostate cancer. We updated recent many changes of management in metastatic prostate cancer in this 2nd edition guideline. The present guideline consists of the three categories: management of metastatic hormone sensitive prostate cancer; management of metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer; and clinical consideration for treating patients with metastatic prostate cancer. In category 1 and 2, levels of evidence (LEs) have been mentioned according to the general principles of evidence-based medicine. And grades of recommendation (GR) was taken into account the quality of evidence, the balance between desirable and undesirable effects, the values and preferences, and the use of resources and GR were divided into strong recommendations (SR) and weak recommendations (WR). A total of 16 key questions are selected. And we proposed recommendations and described key evidence for each recommendation. The treatment landscape of metastatic prostate cancer is changing very rapid and many trials are ongoing. To verify the results of the future trials is necessary and should be applied to the treatment for metastatic prostate cancer patients in the clinical practice. Especially, many prostate cancer patients are old age, have multiple underlying medical comorbidities, clinicians should be aware of the significance of medical management as well as clinical efficacy of systemic treatment.

5.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 48-59, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875300

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to analyze the overall survival (OS) in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) treated with either combination or only secondary hormone therapy (2ndHTx) or docetaxel chemotherapy. @*Materials and Methods@#Between 2005 and 2018, 307 mCRPC patients’ medical records were retrospectively reviewed treated with either 2ndHTx (HTx [N=73, 23.8%] either abiraterone acetate or enzalutamide), docetaxel+2ndHTx (CTx-HTx [N=90, 29.3%]) or only docetaxel therapy (CTx-only [N=144, 46.9%]). The Cox proportional hazard model for risk factors of OS and Kaplan-Meier analysis with log-rank test for OS comparison among three therapeutic groups with a statistical significance of p<0.05. @*Results@#During a median 49.6-month follow-up and a median 22 months of OS, the worst OS was observed in CTx-only (17.7 months) followed by the CTx-HTx (22.9 months), and only-HTx (42.6 months) groups (p<0.001). The baseline comparison showed that age, body mass index, TN stagings, and prostate specific antigen level were significantly different between groups (p<0.05). In the multivariable analysis for the risk factors of OS, age (hazard ratio [HR], 0.978), cT3–4 stage (HR, 1.606), and HTx (HR, 0.482) were significant factors. With the HTx agents, enzalutamide was the only left risk factor for OS regardless of underlying diseases (HR, 0.511; p<0.001). The group analyses for the OS showed that only-CTx group (HR, 2.696) and CTx-HTx group (HR, 1.434) were unfavorable factors for OS with a reference of HTx group (p<0.001). @*Conclusions@#2ndHTx was a significant prognostic factor for OS regardless of underlying diseases in patients with mCRPC and improved OS in comparison with docetaxel.

6.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1242-1250, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831132

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to examine the causes of death in Korean patients who underwent radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer and investigate the relationship between comorbidity and mortality. @*Materials and Methods@#We conducted a retrospective multicenter cohort study including 4,064 consecutive patients who had prostate cancer and underwent radical prostatectomy between January 1998 and June 2013. The primary endpoint of this study was all-cause mortality, and the secondary endpoints were cancer-specific mortality (CSM) and other-cause mortality (OCM). Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) was calculated to assess the comorbidities of each patient. @*Results@#Of 4,064 patients, 446 (11.0%) died during follow-up. The cause of death was prostate cancer in 132 patients (29.6%), other cancers in 121 patients (27.1%), and vascular disease in 57 patients (12.8%) in our cohort. The overall 10-year CSM rate was lower than the OCM rate (4.6% vs. 10.5%). The 10-year CSM rate was lower than the OCM rate in low- to intermediate-risk group patients (1.2% vs. 10.6%), whereas they were similar in high-risk group patients (11.8% vs. 10.1%). In the multivariable analysis, CCI was independently associated with all-cause mortality after radical prostatectomy, regardless of age and pathologic features. @*Conclusion@#Death from prostate cancer was rare in Korean men who underwent radical prostatectomy. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of overtreatment of low-risk prostate cancer in men with significant comorbidity. Our findings may help to facilitate counseling and plan management in this patient group.

7.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 128-138, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831081

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was to identify prognostic tissue markers for several survival outcomes after radical nephroureterectomy among patients with upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma using tissue microarray and immunohistochemistry. @*Materials and Methods@#Retrospectively, data of 162 non-metastatic patients with upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma after radical nephroureterectomy between 2004 and 2016 were reviewed to determine intravesical recurrence-free survival (IVRFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS). The expression of 27 tissue markers on a tissue microarray of radical nephroureterectomy samples and prognostic values of clinicopathological parameters were evaluated using immunohistochemistry and Cox proportional hazard models after adjusting for significant prognostic clinicopathological variables. The expression of all tissue markers was categorized into a binary group with continuous H-scores (0-300). @*Results@#Median follow-up was 53.4 months (range, 3.6 to 176.5 months); and, 58 (35.8%), 48 (29.6%), and 19 (11.7%) bladder recurrence, disease progression, and all cause death, respectively, were identified. After adjusting for significant clinicopathological factors including intravesical instillation for bladder recurrence-free survival, pathologic T category and intravesical instillation for disease progression-free survival , and pathologic T category for OS (p < 0.05), IVRFS was associated with epithelial cadherin (hazard ratio [HR], 0.49), epidermal growth factor receptor/erythroblastosis oncogene B (c-erb) (HR, 2.59), and retinoblastoma protein loss (HR, 1.85); DFS was associated with cyclin D1 (HR, 2.16) and high-molecular-weight cytokeratin (HR, 0.42); OS was associated with E-cadherin (HR, 0.34) and programmed cell death 1 ligand (HR, 13.42) (p < 0.05). @*Conclusion@#Several significant tissue markers were associated with survival outcomes in upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma patients treated with radical nephroureterectomy.

8.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 910-918, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763188

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether histologic inflammation (HI) in initial and repeat prostate biopsy specimens was significantly associated with the detection of prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 2005 and 2017, the clinicopathological records of patients with high prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels who underwent initial and repeat prostate biopsies were retrospectively reviewed. The presence of HI and its degree in each biopsied specimen were interpreted by one uropathologist with 20 years of experience. The association between HI and cancer diagnosis was statistically assessed, with p 0%) on biopsied specimens, respectively. Comparison of the cancer and noncancer groups revealed that a greater rate of HI specimens in the initial biopsy was associated with fewer prostate cancer diagnoses following repeat biopsy (p < 0.001). Other comparisons between the cancer and non-cancer groups showed that the cancer group had a significantly higher rate of hypertension, whereas those non-cancer group had a significantly higher rate of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: A finding of a lesser degree of HI in the initial and a greater degree of HI in the repeat biopsied specimens was associated with the higher probability of cancer diagnosis in patients with high PSA levels.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biopsy , Diagnosis , Hypertension , Inflammation , Prostate , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatic Hyperplasia , Prostatic Neoplasms , Prostatitis , Retrospective Studies
9.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 126-134, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741479

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to compare the radiation therapy (RT) and radical prostatectomy (RP) of high-risk or locally advanced prostate cancer (PC) patients after neoadjuvant hormonal therapy (NHT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated patients underwent RT (42 patients) or RP (152 patients) after NHT at a single center during 2003–2014. Times to biochemical recurrence (BCR), pelvic local recurrence (PLR), metastasis, clinical painful symptom progression (CPSP), castration-resistant PC (CRPC), and overall survival were compared between the RT and RP groups, after adjustment for TN stage, using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. RESULTS: Significant inter-group differences were observed for age, Gleason score, initial PSA, and clinical and pathological T stages (all p 0.05). The independent predictor of CPSP was RP (hazard ratio, 0.291; p=0.013). CONCLUSIONS: Despite significantly different baseline parameters, RP provided better CPSP-free survival than RT among patients with localized high-risk or locally advanced PC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Follow-Up Studies , Incidence , Methods , Neoplasm Grading , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prostate , Prostatectomy , Prostatic Neoplasms , Radiotherapy , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
10.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 7-14, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741469

ABSTRACT

For the several decades, the treatment of clinically localized prostate cancers has been largely represented by surgery, radiotherapy, and observation. Until recently, this has not changed much. In particular, curative treatment through surgery or radiotherapy is considered to be of no great benefit in elderly patients with low-risk groups. Thus, these strategies are recommended only in moderate or high-risk patients with a life expectancy of 10 years or more. In general, surgery and radiotherapy have been reported to be similar in terms of oncologic outcomes, but the level 1 evidence was lacking to support this to date. Recent advances in imaging modalities have led to the introduction of treatments for the concept of focal therapy, such as high-intensity frequency ultrasound or cryotherapy. Subsequently, positive results have been reported in terms of functional outcomes. However, the level of evidence is not high due to the short follow-up period and the absence of large-scale prospective studies. For the reasons described above, counseling and decision-making were not straightforward. Consequently, the treatment strategy for each individual patient was determined mainly on the risk of incontinence, erectile dysfunction, or other adverse effects of radiotherapy. To overcome these limitations, substantial studies have been reported evaluating survival outcomes and complications following treatments of localized prostate cancer for the past several years. In this review, we aimed to summarize recent literatures on surgery, radiotherapy, and expectant management, which have been the mainstays of treatment for localized prostate cancer; and introduce several treatments for the concept of focal therapy.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Counseling , Cryotherapy , Erectile Dysfunction , Follow-Up Studies , Life Expectancy , Prospective Studies , Prostate , Prostatic Neoplasms , Radiotherapy , Ultrasonography
11.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 293-301, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739607

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Secondary primary cancers (SPCs) commonly arise in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We designed the present study to estimate the SPC incidence in Korean patients with RCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study cohort was population-based and consisted of 40,347 individuals from the Korean Central Cancer Registry who were diagnosed with primary renal cancer between 1993 and 2013. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for SPCs were estimated for different ages at diagnosis, latencies, diagnostic periods, and treatments. RESULTS: For patients with primary RCC, the risk of developing a SPC was higher than the risk of developing cancer in the general population (SIR, 1.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.08 to 1.18). Most cancer types showed higher incidences in patients with RCC than in the general population. However, the relative incidence of gastric cancer as an SPC varied by age. Gastric cancer incidence was elevated in young patients (< 30 years) with RCC, but reduced in older (≥ 30) patients with RCC. Patients with advanced RCC died prematurely, regardless of SPC development. In contrast, those with early-stage RCC survived for longer periods, although SPC development affected their post-RCC survival. After SPC development, women had better survival than men. CONCLUSION: In Korean patients with primary RCC, the incidence of SPC was 13% higher than the incidence of cancer in the general population. These findings may play important roles in the conduct of follow-up evaluations and education for patients with RCC.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Cohort Studies , Diagnosis , Education , Follow-Up Studies , Incidence , Kidney Neoplasms , Kidney , Korea , Neoplasms, Second Primary , Prognosis , Stomach Neoplasms
12.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1194-1202, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717748

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The use of prostate-specific antigen as a biomarker for prostate cancer (PC) has been controversial and is, therefore, not used by many countries in their national health screening programs. The biological characteristics of PC in East Asians including Koreans and Japanese are different from those in the Western populations. Potential lifestyle risk factors for PC were evaluated with the aim of developing a risk prediction model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1,179,172 Korean men who were cancer free from 1996 to 1997, had taken a physical examination, and completed a lifestyle questionnaire, were enrolled in our study to predict their risk for PC for the next eight years, using the Cox proportional hazards model. The model’s performance was evaluated using the C-statistic and Hosmer–Lemeshow type chi-square statistics. RESULTS: The risk prediction model studied age, height, body mass index, glucose levels, family history of cancer, the frequency of meat consumption, alcohol consumption, smoking status, and physical activity, which were all significant risk factors in a univariate analysis. The model performed very well (C statistic, 0.887; 95% confidence interval, 0.879 to 0.895) and estimated an elevated PC risk in patients who did not consume alcohol or smoke, compared to heavy alcohol consumers (hazard ratio [HR], 0.78) and current smokers (HR, 0.73) (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: This model can be used for identifying Korean and other East Asian men who are at a high risk for developing PC, as well as for cancer screening and developing preventive health strategies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Alcohol Drinking , Asian People , Body Height , Decision Support Techniques , Early Detection of Cancer , Forecasting , Glucose , Life Style , Mass Screening , Meat , Motor Activity , Physical Examination , Population Characteristics , Proportional Hazards Models , Prostate , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatic Neoplasms , Risk Factors , Smoke , Smoking
13.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 377-381, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-193546

ABSTRACT

One of the most significant risk factors for prostate cancer (PC) is a family history of the disease, with germ-line mutations in the breast cancer predisposition gene (BRCA) 2 conferring the highest risk. We here report a 56-year-old man presented with painful gait disturbance and diagnosed PC with multiple disseminated bone metastases. The patient had a strong family history of breast cancer with his 2 nieces affected. Furthermore, his aunts and uncles from both sides were diagnosed with stomach, ovarian, and colorectal cancers. His genomic sequencing analysis of the BRCA genes revealed the same BRCA2 deleterious mutation that his breast cancer-affected nieces carried. Previous studies have suggested that BRCA2-mutated PC is associated with a more aggressive phenotype and poor prognosis. Our experience in the present case also indicated the urgent needs for novel treatment modality and PC screening in this high-risk group of patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Breast , Breast Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms , Gait , Germ-Line Mutation , Mass Screening , Neoplasm Metastasis , Phenotype , Prognosis , Prostate , Prostatic Neoplasms , Risk Factors , Stomach
14.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 111-120, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-90014

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic significance of smoking status in muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) and non-MIBC in recurrence-free (RFS), progression-free (PFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and cancer-specific survival (CSS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 541 patients with MIBC and non-MIBC who were surgically treated during 2002–2013. Smoking status was defined as never smokers (NS; n=160, 30%), former smokers (FS; smoking cessation for ≥1 year, n=176, 33%), and current smokers (CS; >100 cigarettes, n=198, 37%). We statistically compared these groups' clinicopathological facCtors for the predictive factors for RFS and PFS for non-MIBC (NMIBC) and DFS for MIBC, and CSS using multivariate model. RESULTS: The CS, FS, and NS groups exhibited insignificantly different pathological staging, grades, and immunohistological characteristics (p>0.05). Among the 441 patients with NMIBC, pathologic tumor size was a significant risk factor for RFS (1–3 cm: hazard ratio [HR], 1.88; >3 cm: HR, 2.21; p < 0.05); age (HR, 1.06), intravesical therapy (HR, 0.25), and high-grade cancer (HR, 8.33) significant for PFS; and age (HR, 1.08), intravesical instillation (HR, 0.26), and smoking status (FS: HR, 0.40; CS: HR, 0.44) significant for CSS (p < 0.05). The 93 patients with MIBC had no significant risk factors for DFS, although their significant risk factors for CSS were age (HR, 1.05), female sex (HR, 2.64), and carcinoma in situ (HR, 4.72) (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Smoking status only significantly affected CSS in patients with NMIBC.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Administration, Intravesical , Carcinoma in Situ , Disease-Free Survival , Muscles , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Smoke , Smoking Cessation , Smoking , Tobacco Products , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms , Urinary Bladder
15.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 607-615, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-167307

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This descriptive study assessed the current trends in the incidence of urological cancers and patient survival in Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this nationwide retrospective observational study based on the data from the Korea National Cancer Incidence Database (KNCIDB), this study analyzed the age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) and annual percentage changes (APCs) of kidney, bladder, prostate, testicular, and penile cancers as well as cancer of the renal pelvis and ureter between 1999 and 2012. The relative survival rates (RSRs) were calculated for urological cancer patients diagnosed between 1993 and 2012 from the KNCIDB data. RESULTS: Prostate cancer was diagnosed in 66,812 individuals followed by bladder (41,549) and kidney (36,836) cancers. The overall ASR (18.26 per 100,000) increased with age because of the higher ASRs of bladder and prostate cancers in the elderly. The ASR for kidney cancer was highest in the 40-59-year-old group, whereas testicular cancer occurred most frequently before the age of 40. The incidence of most urological cancers increased (overall APC, 6.39%; p < 0.001), except for penile (APC, –2.01%; p=0.05) and bladder (APC, –0.40%; p=0.25) cancers. The overall survival increased steadily (5-year RSR, 66.4% in 1993-1995 vs. 84.2% in 2008-2012; p < 0.001), particularly for prostate (by 34.10%) and kidney (by 16.30%) cancers, but not for renal pelvis and ureter cancers (–7.20%). CONCLUSION: The most common urological cancer in Korea was prostate cancer followed by bladder and kidney cancers. The incidence of most urological cancers, except for penile and bladder cancers, increased. Survival also increased, particularly for prostate and kidney cancers.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Incidence , Kidney , Kidney Neoplasms , Kidney Pelvis , Korea , Observational Study , Penile Neoplasms , Prostate , Prostatic Neoplasms , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Testicular Neoplasms , Ureter , Ureteral Neoplasms , Urinary Bladder , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms , Urologic Neoplasms
16.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 838-842, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-26776

ABSTRACT

Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma (MC) of the kidney is a rare epithelial tumor originating from the renal pelvic urothelium and few study cases have been reported. Because of the rarity of these tumors and their unknown histogenesis, its diagnosis is difficult until surgical exploration. We report here on a 55-year-old man referred to the urology department from the hepatology department because of a cystic renal mass measuring approximately 5 cm in size, which was detected incidentally under ultrasonography during the routine examination of liver. The renal mass was finally diagnosed as MC originating from kidney after partial nephrectomy and the patient still showed no evidence of recurrence until 12 months postoperatively. This is the first report on a case of renal MC in a patient who underwent partial nephrectomy. The aim of this report is to present our unusual case of MC and also review the previous literature on the pathological and radiological aspects of MC of kidney.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous , Diagnosis , Gastroenterology , Kidney , Liver , Mucins , Nephrectomy , Recurrence , Ultrasonography , Urology , Urothelium
17.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 152-158, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-25169

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The study was aimed to determine the correlations of tissue-based biomarker expressions between primary and metastatic specimens of renal cell carcinoma and with several well-known prognostic clinicopathological parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to determine the expression levels of 9 tissue-based markers calculated in H-score expressed by percentage of expression multiplied by the intensity score (0, 1, 2, and 3 points). Using 17 patients' 38 specimens paired with primary renal lesion and its metastatic lesions collected between 2004 and 2015, Tissue microarray with IHC was performed with BAP1, PBRM1, pS6, PTEN, TGase2, PD-L1, CA9, PSMA, and Ki-67 on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections. Pearson correlation and accuracy test were performed to analyze the correlation between primary and metastatic tissues. RESULTS: The 17 patients' mean age was 56.9 years old, mean tumor size was 7.9 cm, and the male to female ratio was 13:4 (76.5%:23.5%), respectively. Three patients had 2, 3, and 3 metastatic tissues, and the rest of 14 patients had only one metastatic tissue. The H-score (PSMA and Ki67) and intensity score (pS6 and PSMA) showed that some differential significant markers were identified which had statistical correlations of expression levels between primary and metastatic lesions among 9 markers. However, no real correlation of PSMA, Ki67, and pS6 markers were found their expressions of between primary and metastatic tissues because of their skewed expressions. CONCLUSIONS: Tissue markers failed to correlate their expression levels in primary lesions with those of metastatic lesions.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Biomarkers , Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Immunohistochemistry , Neoplasm Metastasis
18.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1092-1101, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-68885

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to compare the outcomes of first-line systemic targeted therapy (TT) and immunotherapy (IT) in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a retrospective review of the data of 262 patients treated with systemic IT or TT with tyrosine kinase inhibitors between 2003 and 2013. The objective response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were assessed using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumor ver. 1.0 criteria and the Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank test. RESULTS: During the median 4.3-month treatment and the 24-month follow-up period, the ORR/PFS/OS of the overall first-line and second-line therapy were 41.9%/8.1 months/16.8 months and 27.5%/6.5 months/15.3 months, respectively. The first-line TT/IT/sequential IT had a PFS of 9.3/6.4/5.7 months and an OS of 15.8/16.5/40.6 months (all p < 0.05). The second-line of TT/IT had a PFS of 7.1/2.1 months (both p < 0.05) and an OS of 16.6/8.6 months (p=0.636), respectively. Pazopanib provided the best median PFS of 11.0 months (p < 0.001) and a quadruple IT regimen had a superior PFS (p=0.522). For OS, sequential treatment with IT and TT was superior compared to treatment with either IT or TT alone (40.6/16.5/15.8 months, p=0.014). The prognosis according to the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center model showed that favorable/intermediate/poor risk groups had a PFS of 8.5/10.4/2.3 months, and an OS of 43.1/20.4/5.6 months, respectively. The prognosis calculated using the Heng model showed that the favorable/intermediate/poor risk groups had a PFS of 9.2/3.9/2.7 months, and an OS of 32.4/16.5/6.1months, respectively (all p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In patients with mRCC, TT provided a better PFS and OS compared with IT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Immunotherapy , Methods , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prognosis , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Retrospective Studies
19.
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 437-445, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-89626

ABSTRACT

Pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) is the most accurate and reliable staging procedure for detecting lymph node invasion (LNI) in prostate cancer. Recently, [11C]-choline positron emission tomography imaging and magnetic resonance imaging with lymphotropic superpara-magnetic nanoparticles have shown potential for detecting LNI but are still under investigation. The risk of LNI in low-risk groups could be underestimated by use of the current nomograms, which rely on data collected from patients who underwent only limited PLND. Extended PLND (ePLND) shows higher lymph node yield, which leads to the removal of more positive nodes and fewer missed positive nodes. It may be possible to refrain from performing PLND on low-risk patients with a prostate-specific antigen value <10 ng/ml and a biopsy Gleason score < or =6, but the risk of biopsy-related understaging should be kept in mind. Theoretically, meticulous ePLND may also impact prostate cancer survival by clearing low-volume diseases and occult micrometastasis even in pN0. The therapeutic role of PLND in prostate cancer patients is still an open question, especially in individuals with low-risk disease. Patients with intermediate- to high-risk disease are more likely to benefit from ePLND.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biopsy , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Nanoparticles , Neoplasm Grading , Neoplasm Micrometastasis , Nomograms , Positron-Emission Tomography , Prostate , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatectomy , Prostatic Neoplasms
20.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 807-813, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-58118

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the prognostic roles of the prostate volume, tumor volume, and tumor percentage as a function of the pathologic T stage in radical prostatectomy specimens. This study included 259 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy between 2005 and 2010. The mean follow-up period was 41.2 months. In all of the specimens, prostate volume (P = 0.021), the Gleason score (P = 0.035), and seminal vesicle invasion (P = 0.012) were independent predictors of biochemical recurrence (BCR). In the T2 group, multivariate analysis showed that the BCR was significantly associated with prostate specific antigen (PSA) (P = 0.028), a lower prostate volume (P = 0.004), and the Gleason score (P = 0.040). The Kaplan-Meier survival curve showed that a smaller prostate volume was significantly associated with a greater risk of BCR ( or = 30 mL; P = 0.010). In the T3 group, patients with seminal vesicle invasion had a significantly shorter mean BCR-free survival (P = 0.030). In this study, tumor volume and tumor percentage did not predict BCR. Notably, a lower prostate volume is an independent predictor for BCR only in the organ-confined radical prostatectomy specimens. But, prostate volume could not predict BCR in most locally advanced tumors.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Follow-Up Studies , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/diagnosis , Neoplasm Staging , Organ Size , Predictive Value of Tests , Prostate/pathology , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Prostatectomy , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
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