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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898701

ABSTRACT

This study summarizes the recent cutting-edge approaches for dentin regeneration that still do not offer adequate solutions. Tertiary dentin is formed when odontoblasts are directly affected by various stimuli. Recent preclinical studies have reported that stimulation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway could facilitate the formation of reparative dentin and thereby aid in the structural and functional development of the tertiary dentin. A range of signaling pathways, including the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, is activated when dental tissues are damaged and the pulp is exposed. The application of small molecules for dentin regeneration has been suggested as a drug repositioning approach. This study reviews the role of Wnt signaling in tooth formation, particularly dentin formation and dentin regeneration. In addition, the application of the drug repositioning strategy to facilitate the development of new drugs for dentin regeneration has been discussed in this study.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890997

ABSTRACT

This study summarizes the recent cutting-edge approaches for dentin regeneration that still do not offer adequate solutions. Tertiary dentin is formed when odontoblasts are directly affected by various stimuli. Recent preclinical studies have reported that stimulation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway could facilitate the formation of reparative dentin and thereby aid in the structural and functional development of the tertiary dentin. A range of signaling pathways, including the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, is activated when dental tissues are damaged and the pulp is exposed. The application of small molecules for dentin regeneration has been suggested as a drug repositioning approach. This study reviews the role of Wnt signaling in tooth formation, particularly dentin formation and dentin regeneration. In addition, the application of the drug repositioning strategy to facilitate the development of new drugs for dentin regeneration has been discussed in this study.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916032

ABSTRACT

Extraction of impacted third molars is a routine procedure performed by oral and maxillofacial surgeons. However, extractions in middle-aged or elderly individuals are not easy, and there are several factors that need to be considered. These factors include decreased healing potential and the risk of complications increasing with age. In addition, third molars can often be fully or deeply impacted in middle-aged individuals, and pathologic changes, such as cysts, caries, or periodontitis of the adjacent second molar, can develop. Furthermore, the rate of ankylosis and systemic disease increases after middle age. It is considered that these factors acting alone or in combination increase the difficulty of extraction.

4.
Journal of Stroke ; : 113-123, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874951

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose To evaluate the outcome events and bleeding complications of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guideline-matched oral anticoagulant therapy for patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation (AF). @*Methods@#Patients with acute ischemic stroke and AF from a nationwide multicenter registry (Korean ATrial fibrillaTion EvaluatioN regisTry in Ischemic strOke patieNts [K-ATTENTION]) between January 2013 and December 2015 were included in the study. Patients were divided into the ESC guideline-matched and the non-matched groups. The primary outcome was recurrence of any stroke during the 90-day follow-up period. Secondary outcomes were major adverse cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events, ischemic stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, acute coronary syndrome, allcause mortality, and major hemorrhage. Propensity score matching and logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the effect of the treatments administered. @*Results@#Among 2,321 eligible patients, 1,126 patients were 1:1 matched to the ESC guidelinematched and the non-matched groups. As compared with the non-matched group, the ESC guideline-matched group had a lower risk of any recurrent stroke (1.4% vs. 3.4%; odds ratio [OR], 0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.18 to 0.95). The risk of recurrent ischemic stroke was lower in the ESC guideline-matched group than in the non-matched group (0.9% vs. 2.7%; OR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.11 to 0.88). There was no significant difference in the other secondary outcomes between the two groups. @*Conclusions@#ESC guideline-matched oral anticoagulant therapy was associated with reduced risks of any stroke and ischemic stroke as compared with the non-matched therapy.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898691

ABSTRACT

Several factors, including genetic and environmental insults, impede protein folding and secretion in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Accumulation of unfolded or mis-folded protein in the ER manifests as ER stress. To cope with this morbid condition of the ER, recent data has suggested that the intracellular event of an unfolded protein response plays a critical role in managing the secretory load and maintaining proteostasis in the ER. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is a chemical chaperone and hydrophilic bile acid that is known to inhibit apoptosis by attenuating ER stress. Numerous studies have revealed that TUDCA affects hepatic diseases, obesity, and inflammatory illnesses. Recently, molecular regulation of ER stress in tooth development, especially during the secretory stage, has been studied. Therefore, in this study, we examined the developmental role of ER stress regulation in tooth morphogenesis using in vitro organ cultivation methods with a chemical chaperone treatment, TUDCA. Altered cellular events including proliferation, apoptosis, and dentinogenesis were examined using immunostaining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay. In addition, altered localization patterns of the formation of hard tissue matrices related to molecules, including amelogenin and nestin, were examined to assess their morphological changes. Based on our findings, modulating the role of the chemical chaperone TUDCA in tooth morphogenesis, especially through the modulation of cellular proliferation and apoptosis, could be applied as a supporting data for tooth regeneration for future studies.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890987

ABSTRACT

Several factors, including genetic and environmental insults, impede protein folding and secretion in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Accumulation of unfolded or mis-folded protein in the ER manifests as ER stress. To cope with this morbid condition of the ER, recent data has suggested that the intracellular event of an unfolded protein response plays a critical role in managing the secretory load and maintaining proteostasis in the ER. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is a chemical chaperone and hydrophilic bile acid that is known to inhibit apoptosis by attenuating ER stress. Numerous studies have revealed that TUDCA affects hepatic diseases, obesity, and inflammatory illnesses. Recently, molecular regulation of ER stress in tooth development, especially during the secretory stage, has been studied. Therefore, in this study, we examined the developmental role of ER stress regulation in tooth morphogenesis using in vitro organ cultivation methods with a chemical chaperone treatment, TUDCA. Altered cellular events including proliferation, apoptosis, and dentinogenesis were examined using immunostaining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay. In addition, altered localization patterns of the formation of hard tissue matrices related to molecules, including amelogenin and nestin, were examined to assess their morphological changes. Based on our findings, modulating the role of the chemical chaperone TUDCA in tooth morphogenesis, especially through the modulation of cellular proliferation and apoptosis, could be applied as a supporting data for tooth regeneration for future studies.

7.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834142

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#In East Asian countries, there are only a few epidemiologic studies of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and no studies in children. We investigated the incidence and compared the clinical characteristics of EoE and eosinophilic gastroenteritis involving the esophagus (EGEIE) in Korean children. @*Methods@#A total of 910 children, who had symptoms of esophageal dysfunction, from 10 hospitals in Korea were included. EoE was diagnosed according to diagnostic guidelines and EGEIE was diagnosed when there were >15 eosinophils in the esophagus per high power field (HPF) and >20 eosinophils per HPF deposited in the stomach and duodenum with abnormal endoscopic findings. @*Results@#Of the 910 subjects, 14 (1.5%) were diagnosed with EoE and 12 (1.3%) were diagnosed with EGEIE. Vomiting was the most common symptom in 57.1% and 66.7% of patients with EoE and EGEIE, respectively. Only diarrhea was significantly different between EoE and EGEIE (p=0.033). In total, 61.5% of patients had allergic diseases. Exudates were the most common endoscopic findings in EoE and there were no esophageal strictures in both groups. The median age of patients with normal endoscopic findings was significantly younger at 3.2 years, compared to the median age of 11.1 years in those with abnormal endoscopic findings (p=0.004). @*Conclusion@#The incidence of EoE in Korean children was lower than that of Western countries, while the incidence of EGEIE was similar to EoE. There were no clinical differences except for diarrhea and no differences in endoscopic findings between EoE and EGEIE.

8.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833719

ABSTRACT

Background@#Canine parvovirus (CPV) and feline panleukopenia (FPV) cause severe intestinal disease and leukopenia. @*Objectives@#In Korea, there have been a few studies on Korean FPV and CPV-2 strains. We attempted to investigate several genetic properties of FPV and CPV-2. @*Methods@#Several FPV and CPV sequences from around world were analyzed by Bayesian phylo-geographical analysis. @*Results@#The parvoviruses strains were newly classified into FPV, CPV 2-I, CPV 2-II, and CPV 2-III genotypes. In the strains isolated in this study, Gigucheon, Rara and Jun belong to the FPV, while Rachi strain belong to CPV 2-III. With respect to CPV type 2, the new genotypes are inconsistent with the previous genotype classifications (CPV-2a, -2b, and -2c). The root of CPV-I strains were inferred to be originated from a USA strain, while the CPV-II and III were derived from Italy strains that originated in the USA. Based on VP2 protein analysis, CPV 2-I included CPV-2a-like isolates only, as differentiated by the change in residue S297A/N. Almost CPV-2a isolates were classified into CPV 2-III, and a large portion of CPV-2c isolates was classified into CPV 2-II. Two residue substitutions F267Y and Y324I of the VP2 protein were characterized in the isolates of CPV 2-III only. @*Conclusions@#We provided an updated insight on FPV and CPV-2 genotypes by molecular-basedand our findings demonstrate the genetic characterization according to the new genotypes.

9.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831502

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is known to be a rare disease, its prevalence and incidence have not yet been studied in Korea. We performed a population-based study to examine the prevalence and incidence of NMOSD in Korea using data from the Korean National Health Insurance (NHI) claims database. @*Methods@#Data from 2013 to 2017 were obtained, with a washout period set as 2013 and 2014. The prevalence and incidence of NMOSD in 2016 and 2017 were calculated using population census data. Subjects were divided into 5 groups at 15-year intervals, depending on the age at which the diagnostic code was entered. The relative risk (RR) for each age group was compared with the oldest (≥ 60 years) age group. @*Results@#The overall prevalence was estimated to be 3.36 and 3.56 per 100,000 individuals, with an incidence of 0.41 and 0.65 per 100,000 individuals-year in 2016 and 2017, respectively. The mean age was 43.08 (standard deviation, 14.56) years, and the ratio of male to females was 1:4.7. The incidence was higher in female individuals aged between 30 and 59 years (RR, 2.8–3.05; P < 0.05). @*Conclusion@#Nationwide prevalence of NMOSD in Korea was 3.36 and 3.56/100,000 and its incidence was 0.41 and 0.65/100,000-year in 2016 and 2017 respectively.

10.
11.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835485

ABSTRACT

Enamel knot (EK)—a signaling center—refers to a transient morphological structure comprising epithelial tissue. EK is believed to regulate tooth development in early organogenesis without its own cellular alterations, including proliferation and differentiation. EKs show a very simple but conserved structure and share functions with teeth of recently evolved vertebrates, suggesting conserved signaling in certain organs, such as functional teeth, through the course of evolution. In this study, we examined the expression patterns of key EK-specific genes including Dusp26 , Fat4, Meis2, Sln , and Zpld1 during mice embryogenesis. Expression patterns of these genes may reveal putative differentiation mechanisms underlying tooth morphogenesis.

12.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834998

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The aim of this study was to compare the discrepancy of alignment categorization in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) between the anatomical femorotibial angle (aFTA) measured on short knee radiographs and the mechanical hip– knee–ankle axis angle (mHKA) measured on full-length radiographs in knees with and without bowing. @*Methods@#From January 2014 to June 2017, 107 of 526 osteoarthritic knees at our hospital were found to have femoral or tibial bowing. Bowing was defined as a femoral bowing angle (FBA) > 3° or 2° or 7° , mHKA> 3°) alignments. We compared the categorization of alignments between knees with and without bowing using the McNemar test and used logistic regression to find factors for the alignment discordance. @*Results@#Coronal alignment was discordant in 26.2% of the knees with bowing and 13.1% of the knees without bowing (p < 0.001). FBAs were a significant factor affecting the discordance of alignment categorization (OR = 1.152, 95%CI 1.038– 1.279, p = 0.008). @*Conclusion@#Short knee radiographs are insufficient for estimating coronal alignment after TKA, particularly in knees with femoral bowing.Level of evidence: III: Retrospective comparative study.

13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764828

ABSTRACT

Despite the increasing number of osteochondral lesions of the talus, there are a lack of definite evidence-based treatment protocols. Several types of treatments are available, each having their advantages and disadvantages. First-line therapy consists of well-conducted conservative treatment. Surgical treatment is the second choice. Treatments are chosen based on the size of the lesion, location, chronicity, and the condition of the neighboring cartilage. This article reviews the current updates in the treatment of osteochondral lesions of the talus to help clinicians use the available treatment strategies more efficiently.


Subject(s)
Cartilage , Chondrocytes , Clinical Protocols , Joints , Talus
14.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 85-103, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739528

ABSTRACT

Cell replacement therapy using neural progenitor cells (NPCs) following ischemic stroke is a promising potential therapeutic strategy, but lacks efficacy for human central nervous system (CNS) therapeutics. In a previous in vitro study, we reported that the overexpression of human arginine decarboxylase (ADC) genes by a retroviral plasmid vector promoted the neuronal differentiation of mouse NPCs. In the present study, we focused on the cellular mechanism underlying cell proliferation and differentiation following ischemic injury, and the therapeutic feasibility of NPCs overexpressing ADC genes (ADC-NPCs) following ischemic stroke. To mimic cerebral ischemia in vitro , we subjected the NPCs to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). The overexpressing ADC-NPCs were differentiated by neural lineage, which was related to excessive intracellular calcium-mediated cell cycle arrest and phosphorylation in the ERK1/2, CREB, and STAT1 signaling cascade following ischemic injury. Moreover, the ADC-NPCs were able to resist mitochondrial membrane potential collapse in the increasingly excessive intracellular calcium environment. Subsequently, transplanted ADC-NPCs suppressed infarct volume, and promoted neural differentiation, synapse formation, and motor behavior performance in an in vivo tMCAO rat model. The results suggest that ADC-NPCs are potentially useful for cell replacement therapy following ischemic stroke.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arginine , Brain Ischemia , Calcium , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Cell Proliferation , Central Nervous System , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial , Mice , Models, Animal , Neurons , Phosphorylation , Plasmids , Stem Cells , Stroke , Synapses , Zidovudine
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719611

ABSTRACT

The Committee on Pediatric Obesity of the Korean Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition newly developed the first Korean Guideline on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Obesity in Children and Adolescents to deliver an evidence-based systematic approach to childhood obesity in South Korea. The following areas were systematically reviewed, especially on the basis of all available references published in South Korea and worldwide, and new guidelines were established in each area with the strength of recommendations based on the levels of evidence: 1) definition and diagnosis of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents; 2) principles of treatment of pediatric obesity; 3) behavioral interventions for children and adolescents with obesity, including diet, exercise, lifestyle, and mental health; 4) pharmacotherapy; and 5) bariatric surgery.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Bariatric Surgery , Child , Diagnosis , Diet , Drug Therapy , Gastroenterology , Humans , Korea , Life Style , Mental Health , Obesity , Overweight , Pediatric Obesity
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719433

ABSTRACT

The Committee on Pediatric Obesity of the Korean Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition newly developed the first Korean Guideline on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Obesity in Children and Adolescents to deliver an evidence-based systematic approach to childhood obesity in South Korea. The following areas were systematically reviewed, especially on the basis of all available references published in South Korea and worldwide, and new guidelines were established in each area with the strength of recommendations based on the levels of evidence: (1) definition and diagnosis of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents; (2) principles of treatment of pediatric obesity; (3) behavioral interventions for children and adolescents with obesity, including diet, exercise, lifestyle, and mental health; (4) pharmacotherapy; and (5) bariatric surgery.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Bariatric Surgery , Child , Diagnosis , Diet , Drug Therapy , Gastroenterology , Humans , Korea , Life Style , Mental Health , Obesity , Overweight , Pediatric Obesity
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741583

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Botulinum toxin injection on the masticatory muscle induces the osteopenic condition on the ipsilateral condyle. Bisphosphonate suppresses bone resorption and is used to treat osteopenic or osteoporotic condition. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of bisphosphonate administration on prevention of condylar resorption and botulinum toxin A-induced disuse osteopenia in rats. RESULTS: The volume of the condyle and bone volume/tissue volume (BV/TV, %) showed a strong tendency towards statistical significance (p = 0.052 and 0.058). Trabecular thickness (Tb.Th, mm) and trabecular number (Tb.N, 1/mm) were significantly smaller in the Botox group than in the other groups (p < 0.05). The volume of the condyle and BV/TV in the bisphosphonate 100 and bisphosphonate 200 groups showed similar values when compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: Bisphosphonate administration after botulinum toxin A injection in the masticatory muscles appears to prevent condyle resorption and botulinum toxin-induced disuse osteopenia in rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bone Diseases, Metabolic , Bone Resorption , Botulinum Toxins , Mandibular Condyle , Masticatory Muscles , Rats , Temporomandibular Joint
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786160

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of the existing classification and difficulty index of impacted mandibular third molars in clinical situations and propose a more practical classification system.MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 204 impacted mandibular third molars in 154 patients; panoramic x-ray images were obtained before tooth extraction. Factors including age, sex, and pattern of impaction were investigated. All impacted third molars were classified and scored for spatial relationship (1–5 points), depth (1–4 points), and ramus relationship (1–3 points). All variables were measured twice by the same observer at a minimum interval of one month. Finally, the difficulty index was defined based on the total points scored as slightly difficult (3–4 points), moderately difficult (5–7 points), very difficult (8–10 points), and extremely difficult (11–12 points).RESULTS: The strength of agreement of the total points scored and difficulty index were 0.855 and 0.746, respectively. Most cases were classified as moderately difficult (73.0%). Although only 13 out of 204 cases (6.4%) were classified as extremely difficult, patients classified as extremely difficult were the oldest (P < 0.05).CONCLUSION: For difficulty classification, the authors propose one more difficult category beyond the existing three-step difficulty index: the clinician should consider the patient's age in the difficulty index evaluation.


Subject(s)
Classification , Humans , Molar, Third , Tooth Extraction , Tooth, Impacted
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915992

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of the existing classification and difficulty index of impacted mandibular third molars in clinical situations and propose a more practical classification system.@*MATERIALS AND METHODS@#This study included 204 impacted mandibular third molars in 154 patients; panoramic x-ray images were obtained before tooth extraction. Factors including age, sex, and pattern of impaction were investigated. All impacted third molars were classified and scored for spatial relationship (1–5 points), depth (1–4 points), and ramus relationship (1–3 points). All variables were measured twice by the same observer at a minimum interval of one month. Finally, the difficulty index was defined based on the total points scored as slightly difficult (3–4 points), moderately difficult (5–7 points), very difficult (8–10 points), and extremely difficult (11–12 points).@*RESULTS@#The strength of agreement of the total points scored and difficulty index were 0.855 and 0.746, respectively. Most cases were classified as moderately difficult (73.0%). Although only 13 out of 204 cases (6.4%) were classified as extremely difficult, patients classified as extremely difficult were the oldest (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#For difficulty classification, the authors propose one more difficult category beyond the existing three-step difficulty index: the clinician should consider the patient's age in the difficulty index evaluation.

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