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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913833

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a rare disease in children and there are some different characteristics between children and adult. We aimed to evaluate incidence, clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of pediatric APL in Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#Seventy-nine pediatric APL patients diagnosed from January 2009 to December 2016 in 16 tertiary medical centers in Korea were reviewed retrospectively. @*Results@#Of 801 acute myeloid leukemia children, 79 (9.9%) were diagnosed with APL. The median age at diagnosis was 10.6 years (range, 1.3 to 18.0). Male and female ratio was 1:0.93. Thirty patients (38.0%) had white blood cell (WBC) count greater than 10×109/L at diagnosis. All patients received induction therapy consisting of all-trans retinoic acid and chemotherapy. Five patients (6.6%) died during induction chemotherapy and 66 patients (86.8%) achieved complete remission (CR) after induction chemotherapy. The causes of death were three intracranial hemorrhage, one cerebral infarction, and one sepsis. Five patients (7.1%) suffered a relapse during or after maintenance chemotherapy. The estimated 4-year event-free survival and overall survival (OS) rates were 82.1%±4.4%, 89.7%±5.1%, respectively. The 4-year OS was significantly higher in patients with initial WBC < 10×109/L than in those with initial WBC ≥ 10×109/L (p=0.020). @*Conclusion@#This study showed that the CR rates and survival outcomes in Korean pediatric APL patients were relatively good. The initial WBC count was the most important prognostic factor and most causes of death were related to serious bleeding in the early stage of treatment.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896936

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The incidence of hip fractures is increasing worldwide with the aging population, causing a challenge to healthcare systems due to the associated morbidities and high risk of mortality. After hip fractures in frail geriatric patients, existing comorbidities worsen and new complications are prone to occur. Comprehensive rehabilitation is essential for promoting physical function recovery and minimizing complications, which can be achieved through a multidisciplinary approach. Recommendations are required to assist healthcare providers in making decisions on rehabilitation post-surgery. Clinical practice guidelines regarding rehabilitation (physical and occupational therapies) and management of comorbidities/complications in the postoperative phase of hip fractures have not been developed. This guideline aimed to provide evidence-based recommendations for various treatment items required for proper recovery after hip fracture surgeries. Methods Reflecting the complex perspectives associated with rehabilitation post-hip surgeries, 15 key questions (KQs) reflecting the complex perspectives associated with post-hip surgery rehabilitation were categorized into four areas: multidisciplinary, rehabilitation, community-care, and comorbidities/complications. Relevant literature from four databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and KoreaMed) was searched for articles published up to February 2020. The evidence level and recommended grade were determined according to the grade of recommendation assessment, development, and evaluation method. Results A multidisciplinary approach, progressive resistance exercises, and balance training are strongly recommended. Early ambulation, weigh-bearing exercises, activities of daily living training, community-level rehabilitation, management of comorbidities/complication prevention, and nutritional support were also suggested. This multidisciplinary approach reduced the total healthcare cost. @*Conclusion@#This guideline presents comprehensive recommendations for the rehabilitation of adult patients after hip fracture surgery.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889232

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The incidence of hip fractures is increasing worldwide with the aging population, causing a challenge to healthcare systems due to the associated morbidities and high risk of mortality. After hip fractures in frail geriatric patients, existing comorbidities worsen and new complications are prone to occur. Comprehensive rehabilitation is essential for promoting physical function recovery and minimizing complications, which can be achieved through a multidisciplinary approach. Recommendations are required to assist healthcare providers in making decisions on rehabilitation post-surgery. Clinical practice guidelines regarding rehabilitation (physical and occupational therapies) and management of comorbidities/complications in the postoperative phase of hip fractures have not been developed. This guideline aimed to provide evidence-based recommendations for various treatment items required for proper recovery after hip fracture surgeries. Methods Reflecting the complex perspectives associated with rehabilitation post-hip surgeries, 15 key questions (KQs) reflecting the complex perspectives associated with post-hip surgery rehabilitation were categorized into four areas: multidisciplinary, rehabilitation, community-care, and comorbidities/complications. Relevant literature from four databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and KoreaMed) was searched for articles published up to February 2020. The evidence level and recommended grade were determined according to the grade of recommendation assessment, development, and evaluation method. Results A multidisciplinary approach, progressive resistance exercises, and balance training are strongly recommended. Early ambulation, weigh-bearing exercises, activities of daily living training, community-level rehabilitation, management of comorbidities/complication prevention, and nutritional support were also suggested. This multidisciplinary approach reduced the total healthcare cost. @*Conclusion@#This guideline presents comprehensive recommendations for the rehabilitation of adult patients after hip fracture surgery.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811183

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Alarm services in the Order Communication System improve awareness for related physicians including orthopaedic surgeons, internal medicine doctors, and other relevent doctors. This prospective observational multicenter study was to compare the diagnostic and treatment rates of osteoporosis between an alarm service group and a no alarm service group.METHODS: From January 2017 to december 2017, The subjects included patients aged 50 years or older with hip fractures from 16 hospital-based multicenter cohorts. Among the 16 hospitals, 5 university hospitals established an alarm service for osteoporosis management (i.e., Alarm group) and 11 university hospitals did not set-up alarm services (i.e., Control group). The rate of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) test and the initiation rate of antiosteoporosis medications between the 2 groups were compared at enrollment and at 6 months follow-up.RESULTS: During the study period, 1,405 patients were enrolled. The DXA examination rate and initiation rate of osteoporosis treatment between the Alarm group and the Control group were 484 patients (89.8%) vs. 642 patients (74.1%) (P<0.001) and 355 patients (65.9%) versus 294 patients (33.9%) (P<0.001), respectively. At 6 months follow-up, the rate of anti-osteoporosis management between the 2 groups decreased (57.8% vs. 29.4%).CONCLUSIONS: This prospective multicenter study demonstrates that alarm services can improve awareness of physicians, and it resulted in a significantly higher rate of examination of DXA and initiation of anti-osteoporosis medication in the Alram group. Therefore, alarm service is a simple and effective tool to increase anti-osteoporosis management as part of the fractuure liaison service in South Korea.


Subject(s)
Absorptiometry, Photon , Cohort Studies , Diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Hip Fractures , Hip , Hospitals, University , Humans , Internal Medicine , Korea , Osteoporosis , Prospective Studies , Surgeons
5.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835596

ABSTRACT

Osteoporosis and osteoporosis related fractures contribute a large part of the medical cost in developed countries. Considering the preventive effect of osteoporotic medications, high rate of mortality and complications, poor quality of life after osteoporosis related fractures, the growing trend of older populations in the future, osteoporosis and osteoporosis related fractures are important targets of preventive treatment and also targets of socioeconomic cost reduction. Treating osteoporosis and preventing osteoporosis related fractures have become an essential element in Korean medical system. Despite the various differences in the health care system, hospitals in many other countries are operating fracture liaison service and they have confirmed its cost-effectiveness. In Korea's health care system, further research on cost-effectiveness as well as its clinical effects is needed.

6.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834152

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Sodium is an essential nutritional electrolyte that affects growth. A low serum sodium concentration in healthy premature infants beyond 2 weeks of life is called lateonset hyponatremia (LOH). Here, we investigated the association between LOH severity and growth outcomes in premature infants. @*Methods@#Medical records of premature infants born at ≤32 weeks of gestation were reviewed. LOH was defined as a serum sodium level <135 mEq/L regardless of sodium replacement after 14 days of life. Cases were divided into two groups, <130 mEq/L (severe) and ≥130 mEq/L (mild). Characteristics and growth parameters were compared between the two groups. @*Results@#A total of 102 premature infants with LOH were included. Gestational age ([GA] 27.7 vs. 29.5 weeks, p<0.001) and birth weight (1.04 vs. 1.34 kg, p<0.001) were significantly lower in the severe group. GA was a risk factor of severe LOH (odds ratio [OR], 1.328, p=0.022), and severe LOH affected the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (OR, 2.950, p=0.039) and led to a poor developmental outcome (OR, 9.339, p=0.049). Growth parameters at birth were lower in the severe group, and a lower GA and sepsis negatively affected changes in growth for 3 years after adjustment for time. However, severe LOH was not related to growth changes in premature infants. @*Conclusion@#Severe LOH influenced the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and developmental outcomes. However, LOH severity did not affect the growth of premature infants beyond the neonatal period.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831569

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) constitutes 10%–20% of all malignant lymphomas and has a high cure rate (5-year survival, around 90%). Recently, interest has increased concerning preventing secondary complications (secondary cancer, endocrine disorders) in long-term survivors. We aimed to study the epidemiologic features and therapeutic outcomes of HL in children, adolescents, and young adults in Korea. @*Methods@#We performed a multicenter, retrospective study of 224 patients aged < 25 years diagnosed with HL at 22 participating institutes in Korea from January 2007 to August 2016. @*Results@#A higher percentage of males was diagnosed at a younger age. Nodular sclerosis histopathological HL subtype was most common, followed by mixed cellularity subtype.Eighty-one (36.2%), 101 (45.1%), and 42 (18.8%) patients were classified into low, intermediate, and high-risk groups, respectively. Doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine was the most common protocol (n = 102, 45.5%). Event-free survival rate was 86.0% ± 2.4%, while five-year overall survival (OS) rate was 96.1% ± 1.4%: 98.7% ± 1.3%, 97.7% ± 1.6%, and 86.5% ± 5.6% in the low, intermediate, and high-risk groups, respectively (P = 0.021). Five-year OS was worse in patients with B-symptoms, stage IV disease, highrisk, splenic involvement, extra-nodal lymphoma, and elevated lactate dehydrogenase level.In multivariate analysis, B-symptoms and extra-nodal involvement were prognostic factors for poor OS. Late complications of endocrine disorders and secondary malignancy were observed in 17 and 6 patients, respectively. @*Conclusion@#This is the first study on the epidemiology and treatment outcomes of HL in children, adolescents, and young adults in Korea. Future prospective studies are indicated to develop therapies that minimize treatment toxicity while maximizing cure rates in children, adolescents, and young adults with HL.

8.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831542

ABSTRACT

Background@#The objective of this study was to examine changes in the prevalence of cytotoxic-associated gene A (CagA) positive Helicobacter pylori infection in Jinju, Korea, over the last 20 years. @*Methods@#Three cross-sectional analyses were conducted concurrently. A total of 1,305 serum samples were collected from 1994–1995, 2004–2005, and 2014–2015, respectively. The presence of immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgA, and IgM antibodies against H. pylori CagA protein was examined by western blotting. @*Results@#Overall, seropositivity for anti-CagA IgG antibody was significantly decreased from 63.2% to 42.5% over the last 20 years (P < 0.001). Anti-CagA IgG seropositivities in children and young adults aged 10–29 years decreased from 1994 (60.0%–85.0%) to 2015 (12.5%– 28.9%). The age when plateau of increasing IgG seropositivity was reached in each study period shifted from the 15–19 year-old group in 1994–1995 (85.0%) to the 40–49 year-old group in 2014–2015 (82.5%). Overall seropositive rates of anti-CagA IgA and IgM antibodies did not change significantly either over the last 20 years. @*Conclusion@#H. pylori infection rate in children and young adults declined over 20 years in Jinju, probably due to improved sanitation, housing, or economy.

9.
Childhood Kidney Diseases ; : 131-137, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831206

ABSTRACT

Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare disease in which the patient cannot concentrate urine despite appropriate or high secretion of antidiuretic hormone. Congenital nephrogenic DI is caused by the arginine vasopressin receptor 2 (AVPR2) or aquaporin 2 (AQP2) gene mutation; the AVPR2 genetic mutation accounts for 90% of the cases. National health screening for infants and children was launched in 2007 in order to prevent accidents and promote public health in infants and children in Korea. The program has been widely used as a primary clinical service in Korea. We treated an infant with faltering growth and delayed development detected by the National health screening program, and diagnosed the problem as nephrogenic DI caused by a rare missense mutation of c.490T>C on the AVPR2 gene. This case can be a good educational nephrogenic DI with a rare AVPR2 mutation, which was well screened and traced by the national health screening program for infants and children in Korea.

10.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830512

ABSTRACT

Objective@# To evaluate the current status of pain severity and quality of life (QoL) in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), and to assess both their perceived needs and any unmet needs of current rehabilitation services. @*Methods@# A single-center questionnaire-based survey was conducted on 47 patients with CRPS who were diagnosed based on Budapest’s criteria. It collected demographic and clinical data, and the structured questionnaire included the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), the Korean version of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHODAS-K II), as well as the 5-Level EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D-5L) for measuring the QoL. @*Results@# The average value of BPI and WHODAS-K II were 7.69%±2.26% and 70.49%±19.22%, respectively. In the evaluation of their perceived needs and unmet needs for rehabilitation, patients had the highest rehabilitation needs in terms of pain (95.74%), followed by bodyaches (80.85%). Regarding their unmet needs, patients had the highest unmet needs in terms of memory impairment (83.33%), followed by weight management (72.00%). According to the regression analysis, only the overall BPI was significantly associated with QoL (p=0.01), and a higher BPI value led to poorer results for QoL. @*Conclusion@# In Korea, patients with CRPS do not receive adequate rehabilitation, and they are not satisfied with current received treatments. A more structured and individualized rehabilitation treatment plan is required to manage every aspect related to chronic pain, and provision should be made for improved care guidelines for future CRPS management.

11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919850

ABSTRACT

Taurodontism is an anomaly characterized by a long and broad pulpal cavity and consumed apical location of the furcation area. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of taurodontism in deciduous molars based on digital panoramic radiographs of children. The study was performed on a sample of panoramic radiographs taken from 2,473 Korean children who visited the department of pediatric dentistry, Yonsei University Dental Hospital between Nov. 2005 and Mar. 2018. Taurodontism was mainly categorized by Daito’s method. Using panoramic radiographs, taurodontism was also categorized into mesotaurodontism, hypotaurodontism, and hypertaurodontism. Mesotaurodontism was the most prevalent type. A total of 2,473 panoramic radiographs were evaluated. The prevalence of taurodontism was 5.7% in general, 51.5% in the left quadrant, 48.5% in the right quadrant, 6.3% in the maxilla, and 93.7% in the mandible. The distribution of taurodontism stratified by gender showed a higher prevalence in males. This is a comprehensive study on the prevalence of taurodontism in children using the largest sample size to date.

12.
Hip & Pelvis ; : 119-124, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898546

ABSTRACT

The aging of the Korean population is expected to result in an increase in the prevalence of hip fractures. The aim of this review is to evaluate potential hip-fracture trends in Korea during the last few decades. Data from a hip fracture-related epidemiology study informed by: (1) a cohort study; (2) hospital-based cohort study; and (3) claims database, were reviewed and summarized. The incidence of hip fractures rose from 159.1/100,000 in 2008 to 181.5/100,000 in 2012, and the total number of hip fractures is estimated to increase by 1.4 times over the next 10 years (35,729 in 2016 to 51,259 in 2025). The use of intramedullary nails has greatly surpassed the use of plates for the treatment of intertrochanteric fractures. The 1-year cumulative mortality rates in patients aged ≥50 years after hip fractures based on National Health Insurance Service data were 17.2% (3,575/20,849) in 2008 and 16.0% (4,547/28,426) in 2012; the decrease was mainly observed among women. In addition, the mean 1-year mortality rates were 21% for men and 15% for women, indicating that mortality was 1.4 times higher in men than in women. The number of hip fractures is rapidly increasing, and the incidence of hip fractures demonstrated a slightly increasing trend until 2012. Trends in the use of varying surgical options for treatments for femoral neck and intertrochanteric fractures follow global trends. Although the high mortality rate after hip fractures in Korea remains concerning, a decrease in these rates over the study period was observed.

13.
Hip & Pelvis ; : 119-124, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890842

ABSTRACT

The aging of the Korean population is expected to result in an increase in the prevalence of hip fractures. The aim of this review is to evaluate potential hip-fracture trends in Korea during the last few decades. Data from a hip fracture-related epidemiology study informed by: (1) a cohort study; (2) hospital-based cohort study; and (3) claims database, were reviewed and summarized. The incidence of hip fractures rose from 159.1/100,000 in 2008 to 181.5/100,000 in 2012, and the total number of hip fractures is estimated to increase by 1.4 times over the next 10 years (35,729 in 2016 to 51,259 in 2025). The use of intramedullary nails has greatly surpassed the use of plates for the treatment of intertrochanteric fractures. The 1-year cumulative mortality rates in patients aged ≥50 years after hip fractures based on National Health Insurance Service data were 17.2% (3,575/20,849) in 2008 and 16.0% (4,547/28,426) in 2012; the decrease was mainly observed among women. In addition, the mean 1-year mortality rates were 21% for men and 15% for women, indicating that mortality was 1.4 times higher in men than in women. The number of hip fractures is rapidly increasing, and the incidence of hip fractures demonstrated a slightly increasing trend until 2012. Trends in the use of varying surgical options for treatments for femoral neck and intertrochanteric fractures follow global trends. Although the high mortality rate after hip fractures in Korea remains concerning, a decrease in these rates over the study period was observed.

14.
Journal of Bone Metabolism ; : 207-211, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785911

ABSTRACT

The elderly population growth rate is extremely high in Korean society, and life expectancy is close to 85 years old for women and 80 for men as of people born in 2015. The future hip fracture prediction model of Korea shows that the elderly hip fracture rate will increase by 1.4 times by 2025, which will impose a serious socioeconomic burden on Korean society and become a key issue of public health management. The fracture liaison service (FLS) is defined adequate treatment and services for patients over 50 years old with fragility fractures, enabling systematic identification and decreasing the risk of subsequent osteoporotic fractures. In Korean society, the introduction of FLS, which is verified not only in the socioeconomic aspects but also in the treatment of patients, is thought to be essential. However, the challenges that need to be addressed in order to implement FLS include the lack of awareness regarding the necessity of this system, the lack of healthcare systems, and inadequate policies. In the future, further studies on the FLS and its clinical and socioeconomic effects for the Korean medical system will be necessary.


Subject(s)
Aged , Delivery of Health Care , Female , Hip , Hip Fractures , Humans , Korea , Life Expectancy , Male , Osteoporotic Fractures , Population Growth , Public Health , Secondary Prevention
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785420

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the correlation between mechanography and clinical parameters in older people at 3 and 6 months after hip fracture surgery.METHODS: A longitudinal follow-up study was conducted in university hospitals with 38 patients at 3 months and 29 patients at 6 months after hip fracture surgery. Subjects 65 years and older completed measurements on the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Functional Ambulation Category (FAC), walking ability by Koval, Korean version of the fatigue, resistance, ambulation, illnesses, and loss of weight (K-FRAIL) scale, and hand grip strength. The Romberg test with center of foot pressure (COP), chair rise test (CRT), and maximal power (W/kg) were conducted using the Leonardo Mechanograph.RESULTS: COP area and pathway length were correlated with BBS at 3 and 6 months. Change in BBS was correlated with change in COP area, but not with change in COP length. COP area and pathway length were correlated with K-FRAIL at 3 months after hip fracture surgery. The same COP variables showed correlations with FAC and walking ability by Koval at 6 months after surgery. Maximal power during CRT had correlation with chair rise time but not with other clinical parameters.CONCLUSION: The study revealed correlations between mechanography and clinical parameters in older people at 3 and 6 months after hip fracture surgery. Both the clinical assessment and objective test with mechanography may be required for the quantitative and sensitive measurement of postural balance and lower limb muscle power.


Subject(s)
Dependent Ambulation , Fatigue , Follow-Up Studies , Foot , Hand , Hand Strength , Hip Fractures , Hip , Hospitals, University , Humans , Lower Extremity , Muscle Strength , Postural Balance , Walking
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739749

ABSTRACT

Ultrasound diathermy is widely used for the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders and other soft tissue injuries. Its use as a therapeutic modality is believed to be safe, with very few reported complications. Here, we report two patients who developed focal bone marrow abnormalities after receiving ultrasound diathermy. Both patients' magnetic resonance (MR) evaluations revealed linear subchondral bone lesions of the superolateral humeral head similar to those in osteonecrosis. The patients' symptoms subsequently improved, and available follow-up MR evaluation revealed near complete resolution of bone lesions. These findings suggest that ultrasound diathermy, and its interaction with bone tissue through thermal mechanisms, can cause focal bone marrow abnormalities. Furthermore, the bone marrow abnormalities seem to be transient, resolving upon cessation of ultrasound diathermy, therefore osteonecrosis should be differentiated from this temporal lesion.


Subject(s)
Bone and Bones , Bone Marrow , Diathermy , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Humeral Head , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Osteonecrosis , Soft Tissue Injuries , Ultrasonography
17.
Journal of Bone Metabolism ; : 201-206, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764250

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Treating patients with osteopetrosis is very challenging even in very skilled surgeons with many experiences. We present an account of 5 patients treated for hip fracture related problems occurring throughout their life due to this disease. Difficulties encountered during their treatment prompted us to present some general management principles. METHODS: From January 2003 to December 2016, 5 patients with osteopetrosis (9 hips; 3 men, 2 women), who underwent operative or conservative treatment were retrospectively reviewed. We evaluated their clinical features and rate of union, malunion and post-operative infection. RESULTS: Four of 5 patients (80%) suffered bilateral fracture, and 8 of 9 fractures (89%) are transverse and occurred at subtrochanteric area resulted from minor trauma. Among 9 hips, surgery was performed in seven hips. Nonunion were found in 3 hips (33%), malunion in 1 hip (11%) and oteomyelitis was developed in 2 hips (22%) at a median of 8.1 years. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical features of hip fracture in osteopetrosis are very similar to atypical subtrochanteric femoral fractures. Patients should be informed of the possibilities of several anticipated complications including the risk of nonunion and infection after surgery.


Subject(s)
Femoral Fractures , Fracture Fixation, Internal , Hip Fractures , Hip , Humans , Male , Osteopetrosis , Retrospective Studies , Surgeons
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715531

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate medical comorbidities and needs for medical and rehabilitation services of adults with cerebral palsy (CP) in Korea. METHODS: This was a prospective cross-sectional study. One hundred fifty-four adults with CP were enrolled in the study between February 2014 and December 2014. Information was obtained from participants regarding functional status, demographic and socioeconomic data, medical problems, and requirements for and utilization of medical and rehabilitation services. RESULTS: The participants included 93 males and 61 females with a mean age of 40.18±9.15 years. The medical check-up rate of adults with CP was lower than that of healthy adults and the total population with disabilities (53.2% vs. 58.6% vs. 70.4%). A quarter of the subjects failed to visit the hospital during the past year, and the main reason was the financial burden. Due to a cost burden and lack of knowledge, more than one-third of the subjects had unmet needs for rehabilitation services; the majority reported needs for rehabilitation services, such as physical therapy for pain management. CONCLUSION: The medical check-up rate was lower in the adults with CP, even though their medical comorbidities were not less than those of healthy people. Several non-medical reasons hindered them from receiving proper medical and rehabilitation services. Such barriers should be managed effectively.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cerebral Palsy , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Korea , Male , Pain Management , Prospective Studies , Rehabilitation
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717638

ABSTRACT

Cytomegalovirus is a common virus that is mostly asymptomatic when infected, but rarely causes life-threatening hemolysis especially in immunocompromised children. We report a case of antiglobulin test negative severe hemolytic anemia caused by cytomegalovirus infection developed in an immune competent 9-year-old girl. The patient's hemoglobin level was 4.8 g/dL on the day of admission. The diagnosis was achieved by exclusion of other causes of hemolytic anemia and serological evidence of recent CMV infection. The patient was successfully treated with anti-viral agents and steroids resulting in recovery from anemia. Clinicians should consider cytomegalovirus infection in the differential diagnosis of hemolytic anemia in pediatric patients.


Subject(s)
Anemia , Anemia, Hemolytic , Child , Coombs Test , Cytomegalovirus , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Hemolysis , Humans , Steroids
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741357

ABSTRACT

We report the case of a 12-year-old girl who had mild encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion (MERS) associated with acutepyelonephritis caused by Escherichia coli. The patient was admitted with a high fever, and she was diagnosed with acute pyelonephritis based on pyuria and the results of urine culture, which detected cefotaxime-sensitive E. coli. Although intravenous cefotaxime and tobramycin were administered, her fever persisted and her C-reactive protein level increased to 307 mg/L. On day 3 of admission, she demonstrated abnormal neuropsychiatric symptoms, such as delirium, ataxia, and word salad. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain performed on day 4 showed marked hyperintensities in the bilateral corpus callosum and deep white matter on diffusion-weighted images, with corresponding diffusion restriction on apparent diffusion coefficient mapping. No abnormalities or pathogens were detected in the cerebrospinal fluid; however, lipopolysaccharides (LPS, endotoxin) were detected in plasma (41.6 pg/mL), associated with acute neurological deterioration. Her clinical condition gradually improved, and no neurological abnormalities were observed on day 6. Follow-up brain MRI performed 2 weeks later showed near-disappearance of the previously noted hyperintense lesions. In this patient, we first proved endotoxemia in a setting of MERS. The release of LPS following antibiotic administration might be related to the development of MERS in this patient. The possibility of MERS should be considered in patients who present with acute pyelonephritis and demonstrate delirious behavior.


Subject(s)
Ataxia , Brain , Brain Diseases , C-Reactive Protein , Cefotaxime , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Child , Corpus Callosum , Delirium , Diffusion , Endotoxemia , Escherichia coli , Female , Fever , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lipopolysaccharides , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Plasma , Pyelonephritis , Pyuria , Tobramycin , White Matter
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