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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926954

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance efficiency of two different drill combinations according to the heat generated and drilling time. @*Materials and methods@#. In this study, cow ribs were used as research materials. To test the specimen, cow bones were rid of fascia and muscles, and a temperature sensor was mounted around the drilling area. The experimental group was divided into a group using a guide drill and a group using a Lindmann drill according to the drill used before the initial drilling. The drilling sequence of the guide drilling group is as follows; guide drill (ø 2.25), initial drill (ø 2.25), twist drill (ø 2.80), and twist drill (ø 3.20). The drilling sequence of the Lindmann drilling group is as follows; Lindmann drill (ø 2.10), initial drill (ø 2.25), twist drill (ø 2.80), and twist drill (ø 3.20). The temperature was measured after drilling. For statistical analysis, the difference between the groups was analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test and the Friedman test was used (α = .05). @*Results@#. The average performance efficiency for each specimen of guide drilling group ranged from 0.3861 to 1.1385 mm3/s and that of Lindmann drilling group ranged from 0.1700 to 0.4199 mm3/s. The two drill combinations contained a guide drill and Lindmann drill as their first drills. The combination using the guide drill demonstrated excellent performance efficiency when calculated using the drilling time (P < .001). @*Conclusion@#. Since the guide drill group showed better performance efficiency than the Lindmann drill group, the use of the guide drill was more suitable for the primary drilling process.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924889

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to verify the effect of protocatechuic acid (PCA) on tendon healing and fatty degeneration in a chronic rotator cuff model. Methods: Twenty-eight Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly allocated into two groups: Saline+repair (SR) and PCA+repair (PR). The right shoulder was used for experimental interventions, and the left served as a control. PCA (30 mg/kg/day) was administered intraperitoneally at the site of infraspinatus tendon detachment in rats in the PR group, and the same volume of saline was administered to the same site in the SR group. The torn tendon was repaired 4 weeks after infraspinatus detachment. Four weeks after repair, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), S100, and CD68 stains were performed to evaluate the degree of fatty degeneration and H&E and Masson trichrome stains were performed to assess tendon healing. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) was measured to test the efficacy of PCA as an antioxidant. Results: Results from histological evaluation indicated that SOD and CD68 levels at the musculotendinous region and collagen fiber parallel to the orientation at the tendon-to-bone junction were not significantly different between the SR and PR groups. The mean load-to-failure of the PR group (20.32±9.37 N) was higher than that of the SR group (16.44±6.90 N), although this difference was not statistically significant (p=0.395). The SOD activity in the operative side infraspinatus muscle of the PR group was higher than that of the SR group, but the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.053). Conclusions: The use of PCA could improve tendon healing and decrease fatty degeneration after rotator cuff repair.

3.
Mycobiology ; : 454-460, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918569

ABSTRACT

Daecheongdo and Socheongdo Islands are located in the West Sea of Korea, 210 km away from land, and are military border areas very close to North Korea, making them difficult to access. Although the ecosystem of the islands is relatively well preserved due to the lack of accessibility, research on fungi of the regions is insufficient. Therefore, we aimed to investigate indigenous fungi in these geographically and geopolitically constrained regions. A survey of the indigenous fungal diversity of the islands was conducted in 2018. All specimens were identified at the species level based on morphological and molecular analyses. Among them, six macrofungi—namely, Agaricus menieri, Crepidotus praecipuus, Dichomitus squalens, Hortiboletus amygdalinus, Melanoleuca friesii, and Trametes lactinea—were not previously reported in Korea. Considering that the proportion of unrecorded species is high in the survey area and period as well as the number of samples collected, similar research on adjacent islands may be necessary.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904115

ABSTRACT

Background@#Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) plays an essential role in maintaining cartilage homeostasis. TGFβ1 is known to upregulate anabolic processes in articular cartilage, but the role of TGFβ1 in chondrocyte catabolism remains unclear. Thus, we examined whether TGFβ1 increases catabolic processes in the osteoarthritic joint via transglutaminase 2 (TG2). In this study, we investigated whether interplay between TGFβ1 and TG2 mediates chondrocyte catabolism and cartilage degeneration in osteoarthritis. @*Methods@#To investigate the role of TGFβ1 and TG2 in osteoarthritis, we performed immunostaining to measure the levels of TGFβ1 and TG2 in 6 human non-osteoarthritic and 16 osteoarthritic joints. We conducted quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis to investigate the relationship between TGFβ1 and TG2 in chondrocytes and determined whether TG2 regulates the expressions of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13, type II, and type X collagen. We also examined the extent of cartilage degradation after performing anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) and destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) surgery in TG2 knock-out mice. @*Results@#We confirmed the overexpression of TGFβ1 and TG2 in human osteoarthritic cartilage compared with non-osteoarthritic cartilage. TGFβ1 treatment significantly increased the expression of TG2 via p38 and ERK activation. TGFβ1-induced TG2 also elevated the level of MMP-13 and type X collagen via NF-κB activation in chondrocytes. Cartilage damage after ACLT and DMM surgery was less severe in TG2 knock-out mice compared with wild-type mice. @*Conclusion@#TGFβ1 modulated catabolic processes in chondrocytes in a TG2-dependent manner. TGFβ1-induced TG2 might be the therapeutic target for treating cartilage degeneration and osteoarthritis.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903864

ABSTRACT

A 12-year nationwide survey (2008-2019) was performed to investigate the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis infection among preschool children in Seoul, 4 large cites (Busan, Incheon, Daegu, and Ulsan), and 9 provinces (grouped into 5 localities) in the Republic of Korea (=Korea). The survey was carried out once a year by 16 regional offices of the Korea Association of Health Promotion. The cello-tape perianal swab method (1 smear per child) was applied to detect eggs of E. vermicularis and other helminths. According to the results, the egg positive rate of E. vermicularis infection in 2008-2009 was 1.8-2.0%, but it decreased gradually to 0.6% in 2019 (P<0.05). The prevalence was significantly higher in boys (0.7-5.0%, mean 1.8%) than in girls (0.5-2.8%, mean 1.3%) (P<0.05). The 2 most southern localities, Jejudo (Province) and Jeolla-do (inclusive of Jeollabuk-do and Jeollanam-do) and a mid-western province, Gyeonggi-do, revealed higher prevalences, whereas Seoul and Gangwon-do showed lower prevalences. The results indicate that a low-grade prevalence of E. vermicularis infection (less than 4%) has been maintained for the recent 12 years among preschool children in Korea. Continuous monitoring of enterobiasis in the child age group is necessary in Korea.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896411

ABSTRACT

Background@#Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) plays an essential role in maintaining cartilage homeostasis. TGFβ1 is known to upregulate anabolic processes in articular cartilage, but the role of TGFβ1 in chondrocyte catabolism remains unclear. Thus, we examined whether TGFβ1 increases catabolic processes in the osteoarthritic joint via transglutaminase 2 (TG2). In this study, we investigated whether interplay between TGFβ1 and TG2 mediates chondrocyte catabolism and cartilage degeneration in osteoarthritis. @*Methods@#To investigate the role of TGFβ1 and TG2 in osteoarthritis, we performed immunostaining to measure the levels of TGFβ1 and TG2 in 6 human non-osteoarthritic and 16 osteoarthritic joints. We conducted quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis to investigate the relationship between TGFβ1 and TG2 in chondrocytes and determined whether TG2 regulates the expressions of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13, type II, and type X collagen. We also examined the extent of cartilage degradation after performing anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) and destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) surgery in TG2 knock-out mice. @*Results@#We confirmed the overexpression of TGFβ1 and TG2 in human osteoarthritic cartilage compared with non-osteoarthritic cartilage. TGFβ1 treatment significantly increased the expression of TG2 via p38 and ERK activation. TGFβ1-induced TG2 also elevated the level of MMP-13 and type X collagen via NF-κB activation in chondrocytes. Cartilage damage after ACLT and DMM surgery was less severe in TG2 knock-out mice compared with wild-type mice. @*Conclusion@#TGFβ1 modulated catabolic processes in chondrocytes in a TG2-dependent manner. TGFβ1-induced TG2 might be the therapeutic target for treating cartilage degeneration and osteoarthritis.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896160

ABSTRACT

A 12-year nationwide survey (2008-2019) was performed to investigate the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis infection among preschool children in Seoul, 4 large cites (Busan, Incheon, Daegu, and Ulsan), and 9 provinces (grouped into 5 localities) in the Republic of Korea (=Korea). The survey was carried out once a year by 16 regional offices of the Korea Association of Health Promotion. The cello-tape perianal swab method (1 smear per child) was applied to detect eggs of E. vermicularis and other helminths. According to the results, the egg positive rate of E. vermicularis infection in 2008-2009 was 1.8-2.0%, but it decreased gradually to 0.6% in 2019 (P<0.05). The prevalence was significantly higher in boys (0.7-5.0%, mean 1.8%) than in girls (0.5-2.8%, mean 1.3%) (P<0.05). The 2 most southern localities, Jejudo (Province) and Jeolla-do (inclusive of Jeollabuk-do and Jeollanam-do) and a mid-western province, Gyeonggi-do, revealed higher prevalences, whereas Seoul and Gangwon-do showed lower prevalences. The results indicate that a low-grade prevalence of E. vermicularis infection (less than 4%) has been maintained for the recent 12 years among preschool children in Korea. Continuous monitoring of enterobiasis in the child age group is necessary in Korea.

8.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837334

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was to investigate whether obesity indicators are mediated in the association between muscle strength and inflammation levels, and further confirm the association between muscle strength level by sex and age and inflammatory levels. @*Methods@#In this study, 3,234 adults living in rural areas were surveyed from 2007 to 2015 and the data was finally analyzed on 2,149 adults. To identify that obesity indicators are mediated in relation to the association between relative grip strength and C-reactive protein (CRP) level, odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using logistic regression analysis (p< 0.05). @*Results@#As confounding variables were adjusted, the odds ratio for high inflammatory conditions was lower at a high (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.40–0.85) or medium (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.46–0.90) level of relative grip strength than a low level of relative grip strength. However, there were no significant results if the body fat percentage was added for the confounding variable. When the association between relative grip strength and inflammatory conditions was divided by sex, for women, the odds ratio about high inflammatory conditions was gradually decreased as the relative grip level increased (medium level: OR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.35–0.87; high level: OR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.30–0.82). The association of relative grip strength with inflammatory conditions was shown differently in age groups. @*Conclusion@#In conclusion, improvement of muscle strength is a factor that can lower the level of inflammation, and it is important to lower the level of inflammation that can cause cardiovascular disease through resistance exercise differentiated by age and sex.

9.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836788

ABSTRACT

Bladder cancer is the second most common malignant tumor of the urinary tract and is the seventh most commoncancer among men worldwide and 17th among women. Seventy to eighty percent of bladder cancers arenonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) at the first diagnosis, and about 20%–25% of patients progress toinvasive bladder cancer. According to the EORTC (European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer)risk classification study, patients with high-risk NMIBC (T1, high grade/G3, carcinoma in situ) have a 5-year recurrisk of up to 80% and a 50% chance of advance. Treatment options for high-risk NMIBC recommend BacillusCalmette-Guérin (BCG) intrabladder infusion therapy after transurethral resection of bladder tumor, and intrathecalbladder chemotherapy such as mitomycin C or epirubicin, or early radical bladder resection may also be consideredin recurrent high-risk patients. Among them, BCG intrathecal bladder infusion therapy has been demonstratedto reduce progression to mycoinvasive disease and has been used as a primary treatment for high risk NMIBCpatients. BCG intrathecal infusion therapy reported that less than 10%–20% of patients in the responding groupdeveloped myoinvasive disease, while 66% of the patients in the poor response group developed myoinvasivedisease. However, because BCG is made from Mycobacterium bovis, mass production is difficult due to a numberof factors, such as the strength, quality, purity, and potency of BCG vaccines that pharmaceutical companiesneed to control. Most of all, BCG vaccines are prone to bacterial contamination due to long incubation periodsand expensive specialized equipment. These factors eventually led to the closure of the Sanofi Institute for BCGvaccines in 2012, which continues the difficulties Merck has faced due to the lack of BCG supplies. BecauseBCG is a generic drug, the 2003 Medicare Modernization Act limited costs by up to 6% above the Medicareaverage selling price. Therefore, in 2016, Sanofi did not find any party to continue BCG’s manufacturing technologyand acquire the company, as a result, it announced that it will stop production in the United States, Canada,the United Kingdom, and France. In this article, we will discuss how to treat high-risk NMIBC patients underthese BCG deficiencies, along with some of the treatment options that can be implemented in cases of drugshortage.

10.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836783

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The Advanced Prostate Cancer Consensus Conference (APCCC) 2015 was based on topics withcontroversy in the field of advanced prostate cancer. To understand the Korean urologists perspective regardingthe issues, we have conducted a questionnaire named Prostate Cancer Summit (PCAS) 2016, with 9 importantsubtopics. @*Materials and Methods@#Total 9 subtopics have been decided and questions were developed regarding eachsubtopic. The questions were based on that of APCCC 2015 and translated into Korean for better understanding.Total 51 panelists have voted online on 85 different questions. @*Results@#The survey concluded that testosterone should be measured as a diagnostic criterion for castrationresistance prostate cancer (CRPC) and that consensus was reached on issues such as the use of androgenreceptor pathway inhibitors in the treatment of predocetaxel and postdocetaxel in CRPC patients. In addition,76% of the participants agreed that imaging tests were needed before new treatment in CRPC patients, anda majority of participants agreed that periodic imaging tests are necessary regardless of symptoms during treatmentfor CRPC. However, some issues, such as the use of prostate-specific antigen-based triggers for remediationin CRPC patients, the endocrine manipulation in nonmetastatic CRPC patients, and the onset of treatment inasymptomatic metastatic CRPC patients, were not agreed. @*Conclusions@#The results from PCAS 2016 has addressed some of the issues with controversy. Although thevoting results are subjective, it will help guide treatment decisions in topics with less evidence.

11.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836004

ABSTRACT

Objective@#We investigated the frequency of depressive disorders in the elderly with normal cognition (NC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia patients living in the community to find out the association between cognitive disorders and depressive disorders in the community dwelling elderly. @*Methods@#6,262 baseline study subjects from November 2010 through October 2012 were enrolled based on the Korean longitudinal study on cognitive aging and dementia which is the first nationwide multi-center population based prospective cohort study in Korea. Diagnosis of MCI, dementia, major depressive disorder (MDD), minor depressive disorder (mDD) and subsyndromal depression (SSD) was made by psychiatrists with expertise in dementia based on the appropriate diagnostic criteria. @*Results@#4,303 NC, 1,737 MCI, 222 dementia were enrolled. The frequency of MDD, mDD, SSD were highest in dementia and lowest in NC and showed significant difference among three groups. The odds ratio also increased significantly in MCI and dementia compared with NC showing highest odds ratio in dementia. @*Conclusion@#Our findings propose that MCI and dementia in the community dwelling elderly were significantly associated with various types of depressive disorders showing highest association tendency in dementia.

12.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834571

ABSTRACT

Background@#The definitive pathologic diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis requires observation of a granuloma in the myocardial tissue. It is common, however, to receive a “negative” report for a clinically probable case. We would like to advise pathologists and clinicians on how to interpret “negative” biopsies. @*Methods@#Our study samples were 27 endomyocardial biopsies from 25 patients, three cardiac transplantation and an autopsied heart with suspected cardiac sarcoidosis. Pathologic, radiologic, and clinical features were compared. @*Results@#The presence of micro-granulomas or increased histiocytic infiltration was always (6/6 or 100%) associated with fatty infiltration and confluent fibrosis, and they showed radiological features of sarcoidosis. Three of five cases (60%) with fatty change and confluent fibrosis were probable for cardiac sarcoidosis on radiology. When either confluent fibrosis or fatty change was present, one-third (3/9) were radiologically probable for cardiac sarcoidosis. We interpreted cases with micro-granuloma as positive for cardiac sarcoidosis (five of 25, 20%). Cases with both confluent fibrosis and fatty change were interpreted as probable for cardiac sarcoidosis (seven of 25, 28%). Another 13 cases, including eight cases with either confluent fibrosis or fatty change, were interpreted as low probability based on endomyocardial biopsy. @*Conclusions@#The presence of micro-granuloma could be an evidence for positive diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis. Presence of both confluent fibrosis and fatty change is necessary for probable cardiac sarcoidosis in the absence of granuloma. Either of confluent fibrosis or fatty change may be an indirect pathological evidence but they are interpreted as nonspecific findings.

13.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832519

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Cardiovascular diseases are representative risk factors for the onset of cognitive decline. The purpose of this study was to confirm the relationship between diastolic blood pressure and cognitive function in elderly people in Korea. @*Methods@#Data from subjects who were enrolled in the prospective Korean Longitudinal Study on Cognitive Aging and Dementia were used in this study. Data from 701 subjects whose diastolic blood pressure range did not change (≤79 mm Hg or ≥80 mm Hg) over 2 years were analyzed. To analyze the differences in cognitive function between the groups at the 2-year follow-up, an analysis of covariance was performed with covariates, which were significantly different between the two groups, and the baseline cognitive function. @*Results@#Significant differences were observed between the two groups, and the mean scores on the constructional praxis (η2=0.010) and word list recall tests (η2=0.018) in the diastolic blood pressure ≥80 mm Hg group were higher than those in the diastolic blood pressure ≤79 mm Hg group at the 2-year follow-up. @*Conclusion@#These results indicate that maintaining a DBP below 79 mm Hg presents a greater risk of cognitive decline in Korean elderly people.

14.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 744-750, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832499

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study estimated the incidence of driving-related adverse events and examined the association of cognitive function with the risk of future driving-related adverse events in the elderly Korean male population. @*Methods@#We analyzed 1,172 male drivers aged 60 years or older in the Korean Longitudinal Study on Cognitive Aging and Dementia (KLOSCAD). Using the data from Korean National Police Agency, we classified the participants into three groups: safe driving (drove for 2 years after baseline without a traffic accident or repeated violations), driving cessation (stopped driving), and risky driving (one or more traffic accidents or repeated violations). We estimated the incidences of driving cessation and risky driving, and examined the effect of cognitive function on their risks. @*Results@#The incidence of driving cessation and risky driving in the Korean male drivers aged 60 years or older was 19.3 and 69.9 per 1,000 person-years respectively and increased in the late 80s. Drivers with better baseline Word List Memory Test scores showed less risky driving (OR=0.94, p=0.039). @*Conclusion@#Driving-related adverse events increased in late 80s, and better memory function was protective against these events.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764099

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To describe our initial experience with a novel method of adenoma retrieval using a pneumovesicum (PNV) after Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP). METHODS: From January 2016 to April 2018, a total of 93 consecutive patients treated with HoLEP were enrolled in this study. For tissue morcellation, we used the PNV morcellation technique for an initial series of 21 patients and the conventional technique (Lumenis VersaCut) for a consecutive series of 72 patients. We compared efficiency and safety between the novel technique and the traditional technique. Subgroup analysis was performed to assess the effectiveness of the current technique in the large prostate (>70 mL). RESULTS: There were significant differences in mean age and prostate volume between the 2 groups. However, there were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics and preoperative parameters in the subgroup analysis of large prostates (>70 mL). The mean morcellation efficiency was higher (8.50±1.94 minutes vs. 1.76±0.45 minutes, P<0.05) and the time of morcellation (7.81±1.25 minutes vs. 34.04±11.14 minutes, P<0.05) was shorter in the PNV group. Moreover, there were no significant differences between groups in hospitalization period (2.62±1.10 days vs. 2.90±1.26 days, P=0.852) and any other postoperative events, including recatheterization, reoperation, clot retention, and urethral stricture (P-value range, 0.194–0.447). In the PNV group, there were some cases of procedure-related complications, including postoperative extravesical leakage (5th case), clot retention (8th case), and recatheterization (9th case). CONCLUSIONS: This method has a higher tissue retrieval efficacy, with the advantage of excellent visibility compared to conventional morcellation. The current method can be applied when a transurethral morcellator is out of order or cannot be used.


Subject(s)
Adenoma , Holmium , Hospitalization , Humans , Lasers, Solid-State , Methods , Morcellation , Prostate , Prostatic Hyperplasia , Reoperation , Urethral Stricture
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763588

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although microfracture is widely accepted as an effective treatment option for knee chondral lesions, little is known about the deterioration of clinical outcomes and radiological progression in middle-aged patients. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the clinical and radiological changes after microfracture of knee chondral lesions in middle-aged Asian patients. METHODS: A total of 71 patients were included in the study. They were between the ages of 40 and 60 years and underwent arthroscopic microfracture for localized full-thickness cartilage defects of the knee from January 2000 to September 2015. The recovery status of chondral lesions was assessed by using the magnetic resonance observation of cartilage repair tissue (MOCART) score in postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Clinical and radiological results were reviewed, and survival rate with conversion to arthroplasty or osteotomy as an end point was evaluated. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients at surgery was 51.3 ± 4.7 years (range, 40 to 60 years), and the mean follow-up period was 7.2 ± 2.6 years (range, 1.0 to 17.4 years). The MOCART scores of 32 patients at mean postoperative 2.1 years showed three cases (9%) of full recovery, two cases (7%) of hyperplastic recovery, 23 cases (70%) with more than 50% filling, and four cases (14%) with less than 50% filling. Clinical scores improved significantly at 1 year after surgery (p < 0.05); however, the scores deteriorated over time after postoperative 1 year, and the mean values reached preoperative levels at postoperative 10 years. Significant radiological progression of arthritis (Kellgren-Lawrence grade) was observed at 5 years after surgery. Four patients underwent total knee arthroplasty during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Most patients showed more than 50% of defect filling at 2 years after surgery on MRI. Clinical results of microfracture of knee chondral lesion showed the best improvement at postoperative 1 year but gradually worsened thereafter until postoperative 10 years. Radiological progression of arthritis was observed from 5 years after surgery.


Subject(s)
Arthritis , Arthroplasty , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , Asians , Cartilage , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Knee , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Osteotomy , Survival Rate , Treatment Outcome
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763135

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) with cognitive dysfunction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using the National Health Insurance Service database of the entire Korean adult prostate cancer population (n=236,391), data on ADT and cognitive dysfunction between 2008 and 2015 were analyzed. We excluded patients previously diagnosed with cognitive dysfunction, dementia, or a cerebral event history. We tested the effect of ADT on the risk of cognitive dysfunction using propensity score–matched Cox proportional hazards regression models and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Our final cohort comprised of 35,401 individuals with prostate cancer, including 24,567 men (70.6%) who underwent ADT. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up period of 4.1 years, 4,741 patients were newly diagnosed with cognitive dysfunction. A statistically significant association was found between ADT and the risk of cognitive dysfunction (hazard ratio, 1.169; p=0.002). Meanwhile, age (≥ 70 years), diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular history, and peripheral vascular disease were identified as factors that contribute to the increased risk of cognitive dysfunction. In contrast, the use of statins and aspirin was associated with a lower risk of cognitive dysfunction. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that patients aged 70 years or older who underwent ADT had the lowest cumulative probability of remaining cognitive dysfunction-free (log-rank p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Our results revealed an association between the use of ADT for the treatment of prostate cancer and an increased risk of cognitive dysfunction in a nationwide population-based study. This finding should be further evaluated in prospective studies.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aspirin , Cohort Studies , Dementia , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Hypertension , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , National Health Programs , Peripheral Vascular Diseases , Prospective Studies , Prostate , Prostatic Neoplasms
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763120

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium (IMDC) and the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) risk models were developed predominantly with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Accordingly, whether these two models could be applied to metastatic non-clear cell RCC (mNCCRCC) as well has not been well-known and was investigated herein. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From the Korean metastatic RCC registry, a total of 156 patients (8.1%) with mNCCRCC among the entire cohort of 1,922 patients were analyzed. Both models were applied to predict first-line progression-free survival (PFS), total PFS, and cancer-specific survival (CSS). RESULTS: The median first-line PFS, total PFS, and CSS were 5, 6, and 24 months, respectively. The IMDC risk model reliably discriminated three risk groups to predict survival: the median first-line PFS, total PFS, and CSS for the favorable, intermediate, and poor risk groups were 9, 5, and, 2 months (p=0.001); 14, 7, and 2 months (p < 0.001); and 41, 21, and 8 months (p < 0.001), all respectively. The MSKCC risk model also reliably differentiated three risk groups: 9, 5, and, 2 months (p=0.005); 10, 7, and 3 months (p=0.002); and 50, 21, and 8 months (p < 0.001), also all respectively. The concordance indices were 0.632 with the IMDC model and 0.643 with the MSKCC model for first-line PFS: 0.748 and 0.655 for CSS. CONCLUSION: The current IMDC and MSKCC risk models reliably predict first-line PFS, total PFS, and CSS in mNCCRCC.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Cohort Studies , Disease-Free Survival , Humans , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785847

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate seasonal variations of overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms in women who visited hospital clinics.METHODS: Medical records of female patients treated for OAB symptoms from January 2011 to December 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with pyuria at the first visit, those who did not complete the questionnaire, and those with <3 overactive bladder symptom scores (OABSS) were excluded. Uroflowmetric parameters, 3-day micturition diary, and OABSS were analyzed.RESULTS: A total of 582 patients with OAB symptoms who visited the hospital were enrolled in this study. Patients were grouped into 1 of the 3 season groups (cold, intermediate, and hot) depending on the average temperature of the month that the patient first visited the urologic department outpatient clinic. The total OABSS was significantly different between the 3 season groups (cold [7.25±3.20] vs. intermediate [6.24±3.40] vs. hot [5.51±3.20], P=0.001). The proportion of patients who had moderate OAB symptoms (6≤OABSS) was higher in the cold season group (56.2%) than in the other season groups (intermediate, 42.1%; hot, 31.8%; P=0.002). Differences in the number of micturitions (12.12±4.56 vs. 10.95±4.39, P=0.021) and number of urgent urinary incontinence episodes (2.06±0.94 vs. 2.48±0.87, P=0.001) between the cold and hot season groups were also significant. However, differences in the nocturia episode, total daytime voided volume, and mean voided volume between season groups were not significant.CONCLUSIONS: Different urinary symptoms and uroflowmetric parameters were correlated with seasonal variation. OAB symptoms might be worse in cold season than in other seasons.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care Facilities , Female , Humans , Medical Records , Nocturia , Pyuria , Retrospective Studies , Seasons , Urinary Bladder, Overactive , Urinary Incontinence , Urination
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766793

ABSTRACT

Wernicke encephalopathy is a syndrome caused by thiamine deficiency whose three typical symptoms are ophthalomoplegia, ataxia, and confusion. There are also rare reports of bilateral hearing loss, which can be caused by damage to the bilateral inferior colliculus or thalamic lesions, or by energy failure of the cochlea. This case suggests that thiamine should be administered based on the possibility of Wernicke encephalopathy occurring in malnourished or alcoholic patients with sudden bilateral hearing loss.


Subject(s)
Alcoholics , Ataxia , Cochlea , Hearing Loss , Hearing Loss, Bilateral , Humans , Inferior Colliculi , Thiamine , Thiamine Deficiency , Wernicke Encephalopathy
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