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1.
Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research ; : 141-147, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913951

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The aims of the present study were to evaluate the immunogenicity of an inactivated rabies vaccine based on the ERAGS strain @*Materials and Methods@#The ERAGS virus propagated in Vero cells was inactivated with 3 mM binary ethylenimine for 8 hours. Three types of inactivated rabies vaccines were prepared to determine the minimum vaccine virus titers. Four further types of inactivated rabies vaccines were prepared by blending inactivated ERAGS with four different adjuvants; each vaccine was injected into mice, guinea pigs, and dogs to identify the optimal adjuvant. The immunogenicity of a Montanide (IMS) gel-adjuvanted vaccine was evaluated in cats, dogs, and cattle. Humoral immune responses were measured via a fluorescent antibody virus neutralization method and a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. @*Results@#The minimum virus titer of the inactivated rabies vaccine was over 107.0 50% tissue culture infectious doses (TCID50 values)/mL. Of the four kinds of adjuvants, the IMS gel-adjuvanted vaccine induced the highest mean viral neutralizing antibody (VNA) titers of 6.24 and 2.36 IU/mL in guinea pigs and dogs, respectively, and was thus selected as the vaccine for the target animals. Cats, dogs, and cattle inoculated with the IMS gel-adjuvanted vaccine developed protective VNA titers ranging from 3.5 to 1.2 IU/mL at 4 weeks post-inoculation (WPI). @*Conclusion@#Our data indicate that cats, dogs, and cattle inoculated with an inactivated rabies vaccine derived from the ERAGS strain developed protective immune responses that were maintained to 12 WPI.

2.
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research ; : e13-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902556

ABSTRACT

Mammalian reovirus (MRV) causes respiratory and intestinal disease in mammals. Although MRV isolates have been reported to circulate in several animals, there are no reports on Korean MRV isolates from wildlife. We investigated the biological and molecular characteristics of Korean MRV isolates based on the nucleotide sequence of the segment 1 gene. In total, 144 swabs from wild animals were prepared for virus isolation. Based on virus isolation with specific cytopathic effects, indirect fluorescence assays, electron microscopy, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, one isolate was confirmed to be MRV. The isolate exhibited a hemagglutination activity level of 16 units with pig erythrocytes and had a maximum viral titer of 105.7 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50)/mL in Vero cells at 5 days after inoculation. The nucleotide and amino-acid sequences of the partial segment S1 of the MReo2045 isolate were determined and compared with those of other MRV strains. The MReo2045 isolate had nucleotide sequences similar to MRV-3 and was most similar (96.1%) to the T3/Bat/Germany/342/08 strain, which was isolated in Germany in 2008. The MReo2045 isolate will be useful as an antigen for sero-epidemiological studies and developing diagnostic tools.

3.
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research ; : e19-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902551

ABSTRACT

Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) causes leukopenia and severe hemorrhagic diarrhea, killing 50% of naturally infected cats. Although intact FPV can serve as an antigen in the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test, accidental laboratory-mediated infection a concern. A non-infectious diagnostic reagent is required for the HI test. Here, we expressed the viral protein 2 (VP2) gene of the FPV strain currently prevalent in South Korea in a baculovirus expression system; VP2 protein was identified by an indirect immunofluorescence assay, electron microscopy (EM), Western blotting (WB), and a hemagglutination assay (HA). EM showed that the recombinant VP2 protein self-assembled to form virus-like particles. WB revealed that the recombinant VP2 was 65 kDa in size. The HA activity of the recombinant VP2 protein was very high at 1:215. A total of 143 cat serum samples were tested using FPV (HI-FPV test) and the recombinant VP2 protein (HI-VP2 test) as HI antigens. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the HI-VP2 test were 99.3%, 88.9%, and 99.3%, respectively, compared to the HI-FPV test. The HI-VP2 and HI-FPV results correlated significantly (r = 0.978). Thus, recombinant VP2 can substitute for intact FPV as the serological diagnostic reagent of the HI test for FPV.

4.
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : e56-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901426

ABSTRACT

Background@#Fluorescent antibody virus neutralization (FAVN) test is a standard assay for quantifying rabies virus-neutralizing antibody (VNA) in serum. However, a safer rabies virus (RABV) should be used in the FAVN assay. There is a need for a new method that is economical and time-saving by eliminating the immunostaining step. @*Objectives@#We aimed to improve the traditional FAVN method by rescuing and characterizing a new recombinant RABV expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP). @*Methods@#A new recombinant RABV expressing GFP designated as ERAGS-GFP was rescued using a reverse genetic system. Immuno-fluorescence assay, peroxidase-linked assay, electron microscopy and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were performed to confirm the recombinant ERAGS-GFP virus as a RABV expressing the GFP gene. The safety of ERAGS-GFP was evaluated in 4-week-old mice. The rabies VNA titers were measured and compared with conventional FAVN and FAVN-GFP tests using VERO cells. @*Results@#The virus propagated in VERO cells was confirmed as RABV expressing GFP.The ERAGS-GFP showed the highest titer (108.0TCID50/mL) in VERO cells at 5 days postinoculation, and GFP expression persisted until passage 30. The body weight of 4-week-old mice inoculated intracranially with ERAGS-GFP continued to increase and the survival rate was 100%. In 62 dog sera, the FAVN-GFP result was significantly correlated with that of conventional FAVN (r = 0.95). @*Conclusions@#We constructed ERAGS-GFP, which could replace the challenge virus standard-11 strain used in FAVN test.

5.
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research ; : e13-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894852

ABSTRACT

Mammalian reovirus (MRV) causes respiratory and intestinal disease in mammals. Although MRV isolates have been reported to circulate in several animals, there are no reports on Korean MRV isolates from wildlife. We investigated the biological and molecular characteristics of Korean MRV isolates based on the nucleotide sequence of the segment 1 gene. In total, 144 swabs from wild animals were prepared for virus isolation. Based on virus isolation with specific cytopathic effects, indirect fluorescence assays, electron microscopy, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, one isolate was confirmed to be MRV. The isolate exhibited a hemagglutination activity level of 16 units with pig erythrocytes and had a maximum viral titer of 105.7 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50)/mL in Vero cells at 5 days after inoculation. The nucleotide and amino-acid sequences of the partial segment S1 of the MReo2045 isolate were determined and compared with those of other MRV strains. The MReo2045 isolate had nucleotide sequences similar to MRV-3 and was most similar (96.1%) to the T3/Bat/Germany/342/08 strain, which was isolated in Germany in 2008. The MReo2045 isolate will be useful as an antigen for sero-epidemiological studies and developing diagnostic tools.

6.
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research ; : e19-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894847

ABSTRACT

Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) causes leukopenia and severe hemorrhagic diarrhea, killing 50% of naturally infected cats. Although intact FPV can serve as an antigen in the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test, accidental laboratory-mediated infection a concern. A non-infectious diagnostic reagent is required for the HI test. Here, we expressed the viral protein 2 (VP2) gene of the FPV strain currently prevalent in South Korea in a baculovirus expression system; VP2 protein was identified by an indirect immunofluorescence assay, electron microscopy (EM), Western blotting (WB), and a hemagglutination assay (HA). EM showed that the recombinant VP2 protein self-assembled to form virus-like particles. WB revealed that the recombinant VP2 was 65 kDa in size. The HA activity of the recombinant VP2 protein was very high at 1:215. A total of 143 cat serum samples were tested using FPV (HI-FPV test) and the recombinant VP2 protein (HI-VP2 test) as HI antigens. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the HI-VP2 test were 99.3%, 88.9%, and 99.3%, respectively, compared to the HI-FPV test. The HI-VP2 and HI-FPV results correlated significantly (r = 0.978). Thus, recombinant VP2 can substitute for intact FPV as the serological diagnostic reagent of the HI test for FPV.

7.
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : e56-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893722

ABSTRACT

Background@#Fluorescent antibody virus neutralization (FAVN) test is a standard assay for quantifying rabies virus-neutralizing antibody (VNA) in serum. However, a safer rabies virus (RABV) should be used in the FAVN assay. There is a need for a new method that is economical and time-saving by eliminating the immunostaining step. @*Objectives@#We aimed to improve the traditional FAVN method by rescuing and characterizing a new recombinant RABV expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP). @*Methods@#A new recombinant RABV expressing GFP designated as ERAGS-GFP was rescued using a reverse genetic system. Immuno-fluorescence assay, peroxidase-linked assay, electron microscopy and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were performed to confirm the recombinant ERAGS-GFP virus as a RABV expressing the GFP gene. The safety of ERAGS-GFP was evaluated in 4-week-old mice. The rabies VNA titers were measured and compared with conventional FAVN and FAVN-GFP tests using VERO cells. @*Results@#The virus propagated in VERO cells was confirmed as RABV expressing GFP.The ERAGS-GFP showed the highest titer (108.0TCID50/mL) in VERO cells at 5 days postinoculation, and GFP expression persisted until passage 30. The body weight of 4-week-old mice inoculated intracranially with ERAGS-GFP continued to increase and the survival rate was 100%. In 62 dog sera, the FAVN-GFP result was significantly correlated with that of conventional FAVN (r = 0.95). @*Conclusions@#We constructed ERAGS-GFP, which could replace the challenge virus standard-11 strain used in FAVN test.

8.
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : e64-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833751

ABSTRACT

Background@#Canine distemper virus (CDV) infection results in high morbidity and mortality in dogs. There has been no report about Isolation of Korean CDV since 1980 in Korea. @*Objectives@#To investigate the biological properties and the genetic characterization of Korean CDV. @*Methods@#Vero cells expressing dog signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (dSLAM) gene named as Vero/dSLAM were used to isolate CDV using 17 samples. Diagnostic methods such as cytopathic effects, immunofluorescence assay, peroxidase linked assay, electron microscopy, rapid immunodiagnostic assay, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were used to confirm the Korean CDV isolate as a CDV. The genetic analysis was performed through cloning and sequencing of hemagglutinin gene of CDV isolate. @*Results@#A virus propagated in Vero/dSLAM cell was confirmed as CDV (CD1901 strain) based on the above methods. The CD1901 strain showed the highest viral titer (10 5.5 50% tissue culture infectious dose [TCID 50 ]/mL) in the Vero/dSLAM cells at 4 days post inoculation, but did not form a fork on chorioallantoic membrane of 7-day-old egg. Ribavirin, a nucleotide analogue anti-viral agent, inhibits moderately the Korean CDV propagation in the Vero/dSLAM cells. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the H gene of CD1901 strain were compared with those of other CDV strains. The CD1901 strain belonged to Asia 1 group and had the highest similarity (99.9%) with the BA134 strain, which was isolated in China in 2008. @*Conclusions@#We constructed successfully Vero/dSLAM and isolated one Korean CDV isolate (CD1901 strain) from a naturally infected dog. The CD1901 strain belonged to Asia 1 genotype.

9.
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : e22-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833704

ABSTRACT

Rabid raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides koreensis) have been responsible for animal rabies in South Korea since the 1990s. A recombinant rabies vaccine strain, designated as ERAGS, was constructed for use as a bait vaccine. Therefore, new means of differentiating ERAGS from other rabies virus (RABV) strains will be required in biological manufacturing and diagnostic service centers. In this study, we designed two specific primer sets for differentiation between ERAGS and other RABVs based on mutation in the RABV glycoprotein gene. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of the glycoprotein gene revealed two DNA bands of 383 bp and 583 bp in the ERAGS strain but a single DNA band of 383 bp in the field strains. The detection limits of multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were 80 and 8 FAID 50 /reaction for the ERAGS and Evelyn-Rokitnicki-Abelseth strains, respectively. No crossreactions were detected in the non-RABV reference viruses, including canine distemper virus, parvovirus, canine adenovirus type 1 and 2, and parainfluenza virus. The results of multiplex RT-PCR were 100% consistent with those of the fluorescent antibody test. Therefore, one-step multiplex RT-PCR is likely useful for differentiation between RABVs with and those without mutation at position 333 of the RABV glycoprotein gene.

10.
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : e63-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833691

ABSTRACT

Background@#Canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) induces infectious laryngotracheitis in members of the family Canidae, including dogs. To date, no ELISA kits specific for CAV-2 antibody have been commercialized for dogs in Korea. @*Objectives@#We aimed to develop new indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) to perform rapid, accurate serological surveys of CAV-2 in dog serum samples. @*Methods@#In total, 165 serum samples were collected from dogs residing in Chungbuk and Gyeongbuk provinces between 2016 and 2018. The Korean CAV-2, named the APQA1701-40P strain, was propagated in Madin–Darby canine kidney cells and purified in an anion-exchange chromatography column for use as an antigen for I-ELISA. The virus-neutralizing antibody titers of CAV-2 in the dog sera were measured by virus neutralization (VN) test. @*Results@#We compared the results obtained between the VN and new I-ELISA tests. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of new I-ELISA were 98.6%, 86.4% and 97.0% compared with VN test, respectively. New I-ELISA was significantly correlated with VN (r = 0.91). @*Conclusions@#These results indicate that new I-ELISA is useful for sero-surveillance of CAV-2 in dog serum.

11.
Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research ; : 40-47, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-782293

ABSTRACT

0.05). Dogs inoculated with the former vaccine developed a significantly higher immune titer than non-vaccinated dogs.CONCLUSION: The Cabopol-adjuvanted, inactivated CAV-2 vaccine was safe and induced a high VNA titer in dogs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Adenoviruses, Canine , Amino Acids , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Formaldehyde , Guinea Pigs , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Urea , Vaccines
12.
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research ; : 195-202, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902549

ABSTRACT

Feline calicivirus (FCV) infection results in a common upper respiratory disease associated with oral ulceration in cats.Although FCV infection has been reported in cats worldwide, the biologic and genetic features of South Korean FCV are unclear. We aimed to investigate the biological and genetic features of South Korean FCV isolates. Crandell-Rees feline kidney (CRFK) cells were used to isolate FCV from 58 organ homogenate samples. The FCV isolates were confirmed by cytopathic effects, immunofluorescence, electron microscopy, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays. Viral genetic analysis was carried out with VP2 gene and complete genomes of FCVs. Five viruses propagated in CRFK cells were confirmed to be FCVs. The FCV17D283 isolate showed the highest viral titer of 107.2TCID50 /mL at 36 h post-inoculation. Korean FCV isolates did not grow well in Vero, BHK-21, A72, or Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. The FCV17D03 and FCV17D283 isolates had the highest genetic similarity (80.1% and 86.9%) with the UTCVM-H1 and 14Q315 strains, which were isolated in the United States and South Korea in 1995 and 2014, respectively. We isolated five FCVs from cats and detected important genetic differences among them. FCV isolates did not show any virulent effects in mice.

13.
Journal of Bacteriology and Virology ; : 263-272, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898904

ABSTRACT

Feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1) causes respiratory and ocular disease in cats.Although isolates of FHV-1 circulating in cats have been reported worldwide, Korean FHV-1 isolates and their features have not been reported thus far. We aimed to investigate the biological and molecular characterization of two FHV-1 isolates based on the nucleotide sequence of thymidine kinase (TK) and glycoprotein B (gB) gene. In total, 48 samples from 12 cats were prepared for virus isolation.For the diagnosis, virus isolation, indirect fluorescence assay (IFA), electron microscopy (EM), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and for the molecular characterization, cloning and sequencing were used. Based on many methods such as virus isolation with specific cytopathic effects, IFA, EM, and PCR, two isolates were confirmed as FHV-1 and they showed the highest viral titer (108.3 to 108.5 TCID50 /mL) in the Crandell–Rees Feline Kidney cells at 48 h after inoculation, but did not grow in MDCK and Vero cells. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the full TK and gB gene of FHV191071 and FHV191072 isolates were determined and compared with those of other herpesvirus strains. Two isolates possessed the same nucleotide sequences belonging to FHV-1 group and had the highest similarity (99.9%) with the KANS-02 strain, which was isolated from shelter in USA in 2016. Two isolates were confirmed as FHV-1 and they will be a useful basic resource for evaluating current FHV-1 vaccine and developing diagnostic tools.

14.
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research ; : 195-202, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894845

ABSTRACT

Feline calicivirus (FCV) infection results in a common upper respiratory disease associated with oral ulceration in cats.Although FCV infection has been reported in cats worldwide, the biologic and genetic features of South Korean FCV are unclear. We aimed to investigate the biological and genetic features of South Korean FCV isolates. Crandell-Rees feline kidney (CRFK) cells were used to isolate FCV from 58 organ homogenate samples. The FCV isolates were confirmed by cytopathic effects, immunofluorescence, electron microscopy, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays. Viral genetic analysis was carried out with VP2 gene and complete genomes of FCVs. Five viruses propagated in CRFK cells were confirmed to be FCVs. The FCV17D283 isolate showed the highest viral titer of 107.2TCID50 /mL at 36 h post-inoculation. Korean FCV isolates did not grow well in Vero, BHK-21, A72, or Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. The FCV17D03 and FCV17D283 isolates had the highest genetic similarity (80.1% and 86.9%) with the UTCVM-H1 and 14Q315 strains, which were isolated in the United States and South Korea in 1995 and 2014, respectively. We isolated five FCVs from cats and detected important genetic differences among them. FCV isolates did not show any virulent effects in mice.

15.
Journal of Bacteriology and Virology ; : 263-272, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891200

ABSTRACT

Feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1) causes respiratory and ocular disease in cats.Although isolates of FHV-1 circulating in cats have been reported worldwide, Korean FHV-1 isolates and their features have not been reported thus far. We aimed to investigate the biological and molecular characterization of two FHV-1 isolates based on the nucleotide sequence of thymidine kinase (TK) and glycoprotein B (gB) gene. In total, 48 samples from 12 cats were prepared for virus isolation.For the diagnosis, virus isolation, indirect fluorescence assay (IFA), electron microscopy (EM), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and for the molecular characterization, cloning and sequencing were used. Based on many methods such as virus isolation with specific cytopathic effects, IFA, EM, and PCR, two isolates were confirmed as FHV-1 and they showed the highest viral titer (108.3 to 108.5 TCID50 /mL) in the Crandell–Rees Feline Kidney cells at 48 h after inoculation, but did not grow in MDCK and Vero cells. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the full TK and gB gene of FHV191071 and FHV191072 isolates were determined and compared with those of other herpesvirus strains. Two isolates possessed the same nucleotide sequences belonging to FHV-1 group and had the highest similarity (99.9%) with the KANS-02 strain, which was isolated from shelter in USA in 2016. Two isolates were confirmed as FHV-1 and they will be a useful basic resource for evaluating current FHV-1 vaccine and developing diagnostic tools.

16.
Journal of Bacteriology and Virology ; : 124-132, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764239

ABSTRACT

Canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1) infection results in hepatitis in dogs. In this study, we investigated the biologic and genetic characteristics of the CAV-1 vaccine strain (CAV1V) to improve quality control about CAV vaccine. The identity of CAV1V as CAV-1 was confirmed based on its cytopathic effects and the results of hemagglutination (HA) and immunofluorescence assays, and electron microscopy. The CAV1V strain reached 10(7.5) TCID(50)/mL in MDCK cells at 4 days post-inoculation and exhibited hemmagglutination activity of 256 U using guinea pig erythrocytes. Intranuclear fluorescence in the infected cells was observed and typical adenoviruses were observed in electon microscope. CAV1V strain was identified as a CAV-1 strain by nucleotide sequence analysis. In a comparison of the nucleotide sequences of the fiber genes of several CAV strains, CAV1V showed the highest similarity (99.8%) with the GLAXO strain, which was isolated in Canada. Our biological characterization of CAV1V will facilitate quality control of the canine hepatitis vaccine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Adenoviridae , Adenoviruses, Canine , Base Sequence , Canada , Erythrocytes , Fluorescence , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Guinea Pigs , Hemagglutination , Hepatitis , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Microscopy, Electron , Quality Control
17.
Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research ; : 132-135, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763367

ABSTRACT

Since 2000, large amounts of rabies bait vaccine have been distributed in two provinces where raccoon dog-mediated rabies has occurred. A total of 146 raccoon dogs were caught in Gangwon and Gyeonggi Provinces from January 2017 to June 2018, and raccoon dog blood samples were collected. Of the 146 raccoon dogs, 13.7% (20/146) had rabies antibodies. In Gyeonggi and Gangwon provinces, the rate of rabies antibody was 8.5% (5/59) and 17.2% (15/87), respectively. Considering these results, it would be desirable to improve the distribution method or use a new bait vaccine to prevent animal rabies in South Korea.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies , Korea , Methods , Rabies , Raccoon Dogs , Raccoons
18.
Obstetrics & Gynecology Science ; : 565-574, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716666

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the association between preterm birth and epigenetic mechanisms in the amnion. METHODS: We examined the association between differentially methylated regions (DMRs) and differentially expressed genes (DEG) using a cytosine-phosphate-guanine methylation array and whole-transcriptome sequencing from the amnion (preterm birth, n=5; full term, n=5). We enrolled 35 participants for mRNA expression analysis and pyrosequencing: 16 full-term and 19 preterm subjects. We compared the association of integrin subunit alpha 11 (ITGA11) and thrombospondin 2 (THBS2) gene methylation status with mRNA expression in the amnion. RESULTS: In the preterm birth group, methylation of ITGA11 and THBS2 genes was significantly lower (ITGA11 gene: 60.30% vs. 73.16%, P < 0.05; THBS2 gene: 64.59% vs. 73.16%, P < 0.05), and the expression of the genes was significantly higher than that in the full-term group (ITGA11 gene: 14.20 vs. 1.57, P < 0.01; THBS2 gene: 1.18 vs. 10.34, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Methylation of the ITGA11 and THBS2 genes in the amnion was associated with preterm birth. Thus, ITGA11 and THBS2 gene methylation status in the amnion may be valuable in explaining the mechanism underlying preterm birth.


Subject(s)
Amnion , Epigenomics , Gene Expression , Methylation , Parturition , Premature Birth , RNA, Messenger , Thrombospondins
19.
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research ; : 201-204, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-211702

ABSTRACT

A Gram-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive, coccus-shaped bacterium was isolated from a rabbit with keratoconjunctivitis. Colonies of the isolate were round, smooth, and exhibited hemolytic activity on 5% sheep blood agar. Scanning electron microscopy revealed 0.4 to 0.5 µm diameter oval cocci. Partial 16S rRNA gene (1446 bp) sequence analysis demonstrated the isolate had significant homology with the Moraxella cuniculi CCUG2154 strain isolated from a rabbit in Germany in 1973. Our isolate was designated as APQAB1701. Antibiotic susceptibility tests demonstrated that APQAB1701 was sensitive to 24 antibiotics; 3 of the antibiotics (nalidixic acid, spectinomycin, and colistin) had minimal inhibitory concentrations ≥ 32 µg/mL against the isolate.


Subject(s)
Rabbits , Agar , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Genes, rRNA , Germany , Keratoconjunctivitis , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Moraxella , Sequence Analysis , Sheep , Spectinomycin
20.
Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research ; : 111-119, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-184074

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Rabies is one of the most fatal diseases, but it is 100% preventable in animals by vaccination. In this study, we present the epidemiological features of, and national preventive measures against, rabies in Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data related to rabies and the population density of raccoon dogs in Korea were collected from the Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, the Korean Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the National Institute of Environmental Research. Rabies diagnosis was confirmed with a fluorescent antibody test using brain samples of animals in accordance with the procedures described by the World Organization for Animal Health. Serological assays for dogs and cattle were conducted using the fluorescent antibody virus neutralization test. RESULTS: From 1993 to 2016, a total of seven human rabies cases and 437 animal rabies cases in five different species were reported. An increase in the distribution of bait vaccine seemed to be related to a dramatic decrease in rabies prevalence in endemic rabies regions. Two Korean provinces and the capital city, Seoul, were involved in rabies outbreaks. Korean rabies strains are most closely related to the eastern Chinese strain belonging to the Arctic-like lineage. The yearly seropositive rates ranged from 50.4% to 81.2% in dogs and from 25% to 60.5% in cattle residing in endemic rabies regions. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that national preventive measures, including mass vaccination and distribution of bait vaccines, have contributed to a substantial decrease in the number of rabies cases in Korea.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Dogs , Humans , Asian People , Brain , Diagnosis , Disease Eradication , Disease Outbreaks , Epidemiology , Korea , Mass Vaccination , Neutralization Tests , Plants , Population Density , Prevalence , Quarantine , Rabies , Raccoon Dogs , Seoul , Vaccination , Vaccines
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