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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926011

ABSTRACT

Objective@#: This retrospective study investigated the clinical and angiographic characteristics of ruptured true posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysms in comparison with junctional PCoA aneurysms presenting with a subarachnoid hemorrhage. @*Methods@#: The medical records and radiological data of 93 consecutive patients who underwent three-dimensional rotational angiography and surgical or endovascular treatment for a ruptured junctional or true PCoA aneurysm over an 8-year period were examined. @*Results@#: The maximum diameter of the ruptured true PCoA aneurysm (n=13, 14.0%) was significantly smaller than that of the ruptured junctional PCoA aneurysms (n=80, 4.45±1.44 vs. 7.68±3.36 mm, p=0.001). In particular, the incidence of very small aneurysms <4 mm was 46.2% (six of 13 patients) in the ruptured true PCoA aneurysm group, yet only 2.5% (two of 80 patients) in the ruptured junctional PCoA aneurysm group. Meanwhile, the diameter of the PCoA was significantly larger in the true PCoA aneurysm group than that in the junctional PCoA aneurysm group (1.90±0.57 vs. 1.15±0.49 mm, p<0.001). In addition, the ipsilateral PCoA/P1 ratio was significantly larger in the true PCoA aneurysm group than that in the group of a junctional PCoA aneurysm (mean PCoA/P1 ratio±standard deviation, 2.67±1.22 vs. 1.14±0.88; p<0.001). No between-group difference was identified for the modified Fisher grade, clinical grade at admission, and 3-month modified Rankin Scale score. @*Conclusion@#: A true PCoA aneurysm was found to be associated with a larger PCoA and ruptured at a smaller diameter than a junctional PCoA aneurysm. In particular, the incidence of a ruptured aneurysm with a very small diameter <4 mm was significantly higher among the patients with a true PCoA aneurysm.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900109

ABSTRACT

Objective@#: When treating high-positioned anterior communicating artery (ACoA) aneurysms, pterional-transsylvian and interhemispheric approaches are both viable options, yet comparative studies of these two surgical approaches are rare. Accordingly, this retrospective study investigated the surgical results of both approaches. @*Methods@#: Twenty-four patients underwent a pterional approach (n=11) or interhemispheric approach (n=13), including a unilateral low anterior interhemispheric approach or bifrontal interhemispheric approach, for high-positioned ACoA aneurysms with an aneurysm dome height >15 mm and aneurysm neck height >10 mm both measured from the level of the anterior clinoid process. The clinical and radiological data were reviewed to investigate the surgical results and risk factors of incomplete clipping. @*Results@#: The pterional patient group showed a significantly higher incidence of incomplete clipping than the interhemispheric patient group (p=0.031). Four patients (36.4%) who underwent a pterional approach showed a postclipping aneurysm remnant, whereas all the patients who experienced an interhemispheric approach showed complete clipping. In one case, the aneurysm remnant was obliterated by coiling, while follow-up of the other three cases showed the remnants remained limited to the aneurysm base. A multivariate analysis revealed that a pterional approach for a large aneurysm with a diameter >8 mm presented a statistically significant risk factor for incomplete clipping. @*Conclusion@#: For high-positioned ACoA aneurysms with a dome height >15 mm and neck height >10 mm above the level of the anterior clinoid process, a large aneurysm with a diameter >8 mm can be clipped more completely via an interhemispheric approach than via a pterional approach.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900093

ABSTRACT

Symptomatic cerebral vasospasm (CVS) and delayed ischemic neurologic deficit (DIND) after unruptured aneurysm surgery are extremely rare. Its onset timing is variable, and its mechanisms are unclear. We report two cases of CVS with DIND after unruptured aneurysm surgery and review the literature regarding potential mechanisms. The first case is a 51-year-old woman with non-hemorrhagic vasospasm after unruptured left anterior communicating artery aneurysm surgery. She presented with delayed vasospasm on postoperative day 14. The second case is a 45-year-old woman who suffered from oculomotor nerve palsy caused by an unruptured posterior communicatig artery (PCoA) aneurysm. DIND with non-hemorrhagic vasospasm developed on postoperative day 12. To our knowledge, this is the first report of symptomatic CVS with oculomotor nerve palsy following unruptured PCoA aneurysm surgery. CVS with DIND after unruptured aneurysm surgery is very rare and can be triggered by multiple mechanisms, such as hemorrhage, mechanical stress to the arterial wall, or the trigemino-cerebrovascular system. For unruptured aneurysm surgery, although it is rare, careful observation and treatments can be needed for postoperative CVS with DIND.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892405

ABSTRACT

Objective@#: When treating high-positioned anterior communicating artery (ACoA) aneurysms, pterional-transsylvian and interhemispheric approaches are both viable options, yet comparative studies of these two surgical approaches are rare. Accordingly, this retrospective study investigated the surgical results of both approaches. @*Methods@#: Twenty-four patients underwent a pterional approach (n=11) or interhemispheric approach (n=13), including a unilateral low anterior interhemispheric approach or bifrontal interhemispheric approach, for high-positioned ACoA aneurysms with an aneurysm dome height >15 mm and aneurysm neck height >10 mm both measured from the level of the anterior clinoid process. The clinical and radiological data were reviewed to investigate the surgical results and risk factors of incomplete clipping. @*Results@#: The pterional patient group showed a significantly higher incidence of incomplete clipping than the interhemispheric patient group (p=0.031). Four patients (36.4%) who underwent a pterional approach showed a postclipping aneurysm remnant, whereas all the patients who experienced an interhemispheric approach showed complete clipping. In one case, the aneurysm remnant was obliterated by coiling, while follow-up of the other three cases showed the remnants remained limited to the aneurysm base. A multivariate analysis revealed that a pterional approach for a large aneurysm with a diameter >8 mm presented a statistically significant risk factor for incomplete clipping. @*Conclusion@#: For high-positioned ACoA aneurysms with a dome height >15 mm and neck height >10 mm above the level of the anterior clinoid process, a large aneurysm with a diameter >8 mm can be clipped more completely via an interhemispheric approach than via a pterional approach.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892389

ABSTRACT

Symptomatic cerebral vasospasm (CVS) and delayed ischemic neurologic deficit (DIND) after unruptured aneurysm surgery are extremely rare. Its onset timing is variable, and its mechanisms are unclear. We report two cases of CVS with DIND after unruptured aneurysm surgery and review the literature regarding potential mechanisms. The first case is a 51-year-old woman with non-hemorrhagic vasospasm after unruptured left anterior communicating artery aneurysm surgery. She presented with delayed vasospasm on postoperative day 14. The second case is a 45-year-old woman who suffered from oculomotor nerve palsy caused by an unruptured posterior communicatig artery (PCoA) aneurysm. DIND with non-hemorrhagic vasospasm developed on postoperative day 12. To our knowledge, this is the first report of symptomatic CVS with oculomotor nerve palsy following unruptured PCoA aneurysm surgery. CVS with DIND after unruptured aneurysm surgery is very rare and can be triggered by multiple mechanisms, such as hemorrhage, mechanical stress to the arterial wall, or the trigemino-cerebrovascular system. For unruptured aneurysm surgery, although it is rare, careful observation and treatments can be needed for postoperative CVS with DIND.

6.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833468

ABSTRACT

Objective@#: A consensus regarding the ideal regimen for urokinase (UK) thrombolysis subsequent to stereotactic spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage aspiration has yet to be established. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of UK thrombolysis relative to when the regimen is changed. @*Methods@#: Venous blood from 30 heathy volunteers was obtained for this in-vitro study. Various concentrations of UK solution were added to microcentrifuge tubes containing the clotted blood. The efficacy of UK thrombolysis was identified by checking the weight of lysed hematoma following various time intervals with different concentrations of UK solution. Group one, the “3×4” group involved four administrations every 3 hours over 12 hours, and group two, the “6×2” group involved two administrations every 6 hours over 12 hours. @*Results@#: More hematoma was lysed in the 3×4 group than the 6×2 group across all concentration levels (however, the differences were only significant between groups at the 500 and 1000 IU concentration levels, p<0.05). There were no significant differences of lysed hematoma among the various UK solution concentrations within groups. @*Conclusion@#: This study suggests that frequent administrations of UK thrombolysis may result in a greater degree of lysed hematoma in comparison to a higher concentration of UK.

7.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833421

ABSTRACT

For surgical minimalism to reduce iatrogenic traumatization, a supraorbital keyhole approach has already been successfully applied to treat many unruptured anterior circulation aneurysms. However, using this minimal approach also raises several technical concerns due to the small cranial opening and cosmetic impact of a facial incision. Yet, such technical limitations can be overcome by using favorable surgical indications, slender surgical instruments, and optimized surgical techniques, while excellent cosmetic outcomes can be achieved using a short skin incision located <1 cm from the supraorbital margin, reconstruction of any bone defects around the bone flap, and meticulous wound closure. Thus, given such reassuring surgical results, in terms of the clipping status, neurological effects, and cosmetic outcomes, any concerns can be transitioned into confidence.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765383

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: While the risk of aneurysmal rebleeding induced by catheter cerebral angiography is a serious concern and can delay angiography for a few hours after a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), current angiographic technology and techniques have been much improved. Therefore, this study investigated the risk of aneurysmal rebleeding when using a recent angiographic technique immediately after SAH. METHODS: Patients with acute SAH underwent immediate catheter angiography on admission. A four-vessel examination was conducted using a biplane digital subtraction angiography (DSA) system that applied a low injection rate and small volume of a diluted contrast, along with appropriate control of hypertension. Intra-angiographic aneurysmal rebleeding was diagnosed in cases of extravasation of the contrast medium during angiography or increased intracranial bleeding evident in flat-panel detector computed tomography scans. RESULTS: In-hospital recurrent hemorrhages before definitive treatment to obliterate the ruptured aneurysm occurred in 11 of 266 patients (4.1%). Following a univariate analysis, a multivariate analysis using a logistic regression analysis revealed that modified Fisher grade 4 was a statistically significant risk factor for an in-hospital recurrent hemorrhage (p =0.032). Cerebral angiography after SAH was performed on 88 patients ≤3 hours, 74 patients between 3–6 hours, and 104 patients >6 hours. None of the time intervals showed any cases of intra-angiographic rebleeding. Moreover, even though the DSA ≤3 hours group included more patients with a poor clinical grade and modified Fisher grade 4, no case of aneurysmal rebleeding occurred during erebral angiography. CONCLUSION: Despite the high risk of aneurysmal rebleeding within a few hours after SAH, emergency cerebral angiography after SAH can be acceptable without increasing the risk of intra-angiographic rebleeding when using current angiographic techniques and equipment.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Aneurysm, Ruptured , Angiography , Angiography, Digital Subtraction , Catheters , Cerebral Angiography , Emergencies , Hemorrhage , Humans , Hypertension , Intracranial Aneurysm , Logistic Models , Multivariate Analysis , Risk Factors , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785933

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The authors applied maximum external decompression for malignant hemispheric infarction and investigated the functional outcome according to the patient age.METHODS: Twenty-five patients with malignant hemispheric infarction were treated using a hemicraniectomy with maximum external decompression, comprising a larger (>14cm) hemicraniectomy, resection of the temporalis muscle and its fascia, spaciously expansive duraplasty, and approximation of the skin flap. The medical and diagnostic imaging records for the patients were reviewed, and 1-year functional outcome data obtained for the younger group (aged ≤ 60 years) and elderly group (aged > 60 years).RESULTS: The patients (n=25) who underwent maximum surgical decompression revealed a minimal mortality rate (n=2, 8.0%). The patients (n=14) in the younger group all survived with mRS scores of 2 (n=1, 7.1%), 3 (n=7, 50.0%), 4 (n=3, 21.4%), or 5 (n=3, 21.4%). A majority of the younger patients (57.1% with mRS ≤3) lived with functional independence. When the 1-year mRS scores were dichotomized between favorable (mRS ≤3) and unfavorable (mRS ≥4) outcomes, the younger group had significantly more patients with a favorable outcome than the elderly group (57.1% versus 9.1%, p=0.033). In contrast, in the elderly group, most patients showed unfavorable outcomes with the mRS scores of 4 (n=5, 45.5%), 5 (n=3, 27.3%), or 6 (n=2, 18.2%), whereas only one patient showed favorable outcome (mRS 3). A majority of the elderly patients (45.5% with mRS 4) survived with moderately severe disability.CONCLUSION: For malignant hemispheric infarction, a hemicraniectomy with maximum external decompression was found to considerably increase survival with a favorable outcome in functional independence (mRS ≤3) for younger patients aged ≤60 years. It can be optimal surgical treatment for younger patients.


Subject(s)
Aged , Cerebral Infarction , Decompression , Decompression, Surgical , Diagnostic Imaging , Fascia , Humans , Infarction , Mortality , Skin , Treatment Outcome
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788810

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: While the risk of aneurysmal rebleeding induced by catheter cerebral angiography is a serious concern and can delay angiography for a few hours after a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), current angiographic technology and techniques have been much improved. Therefore, this study investigated the risk of aneurysmal rebleeding when using a recent angiographic technique immediately after SAH.METHODS: Patients with acute SAH underwent immediate catheter angiography on admission. A four-vessel examination was conducted using a biplane digital subtraction angiography (DSA) system that applied a low injection rate and small volume of a diluted contrast, along with appropriate control of hypertension. Intra-angiographic aneurysmal rebleeding was diagnosed in cases of extravasation of the contrast medium during angiography or increased intracranial bleeding evident in flat-panel detector computed tomography scans.RESULTS: In-hospital recurrent hemorrhages before definitive treatment to obliterate the ruptured aneurysm occurred in 11 of 266 patients (4.1%). Following a univariate analysis, a multivariate analysis using a logistic regression analysis revealed that modified Fisher grade 4 was a statistically significant risk factor for an in-hospital recurrent hemorrhage (p =0.032). Cerebral angiography after SAH was performed on 88 patients ≤3 hours, 74 patients between 3–6 hours, and 104 patients >6 hours. None of the time intervals showed any cases of intra-angiographic rebleeding. Moreover, even though the DSA ≤3 hours group included more patients with a poor clinical grade and modified Fisher grade 4, no case of aneurysmal rebleeding occurred during erebral angiography.CONCLUSION: Despite the high risk of aneurysmal rebleeding within a few hours after SAH, emergency cerebral angiography after SAH can be acceptable without increasing the risk of intra-angiographic rebleeding when using current angiographic techniques and equipment.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Aneurysm, Ruptured , Angiography , Angiography, Digital Subtraction , Catheters , Cerebral Angiography , Emergencies , Hemorrhage , Humans , Hypertension , Intracranial Aneurysm , Logistic Models , Multivariate Analysis , Risk Factors , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762483

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) defined that asbestos is a group 1 substance that causes lung cancer, mesothelioma (pleura and peritoneum), laryngeal cancer, and ovarian cancer in humans. Many studies on lung cancer, and mesothelioma caused by asbestos exposure have been conducted, but there was no case report of ovarian cancer due to asbestos exposure in Korea. We describe a case of ovarian cancer caused by asbestos exposure in a worker who worked at an asbestos textile factory for 3 years and 7 months in the late 1970s. CASE PRESENTATION: A 57-year-old woman visited the hospital because she had difficulty urinating. Ovarian cancer was suspected in radiologic examination, and exploratory laparotomy was performed. She was diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer. The patient did not undergo postoperative chemotherapy and recovered. She joined the asbestos factory in March 1976 and engaged in asbestos textile twisting and spinning for 1 year, 2 years and 7 months respectively. In addition, she lived near the asbestos factory for more than 20 years. There was no other specificity or family history. CONCLUSION: Considering the patient’s occupational and environmental history, it is estimated that she had been exposed to asbestos significantly, so we determined that ovarian cancer in the patient is highly correlated with the occupational exposure of asbestos and environmental exposure is a possible cause as well. Social devices are needed to prevent further exposure to asbestos. It is also necessary to recognize that ovarian cancer can occur in workers who have previously been exposed to asbestos, and the education and social compensation for those workers are needed.


Subject(s)
Asbestos , Compensation and Redress , Drug Therapy , Education , Environmental Exposure , Female , Humans , International Agencies , Korea , Laparotomy , Laryngeal Neoplasms , Lung Neoplasms , Mesothelioma , Middle Aged , Occupational Diseases , Occupational Exposure , Ovarian Neoplasms , Sensitivity and Specificity , Textile Industry , Textiles
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-152695

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Cases of a ruptured pericallosal artery aneurysm with a high risk of intraoperative premature rupture and technical difficulties for proximal vascular control require a technique for the early and safe establishment of proximal vascular control. METHODS: A combined pterional or subfrontal approach exposes the bilateral A1 segments or the origin of the ipsilateral A2 segment of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) for proximal vascular control. Proximal control far from the ruptured aneurysm facilitates tentative clipping of the rupture point of the aneurysm without a catastrophic premature rupture. The proximal control is then switched to the pericallosal artery just proximal to the aneurysm and its intermittent clipping facilitates complete aneurysm dissection and neck clipping. RESULTS: Three such cases are reported: a ruptured pericallosal artery aneurysm with a contained leak of the contrast from the proximal side of the aneurysm, a low-lying ruptured pericallosal artery aneurysm with irregularities on its proximal wall, and a multilobulated ruptured pericallosal artery aneurysm with the parasagittal bridging veins hindering surgical access to the proximal parent artery. In each case, the proposed combined pterional-interhemispheric or subfrontal-interhemispheric approach was successfully performed to establish proximal vascular control far from the ruptured aneurysm and facilitated aneurysm clipping via the interhemispheric approach. CONCLUSION: When using an anterior interhemispheric approach for a ruptured pericallosal artery aneurysm with a high risk of premature rupture, a pterional or subfrontal approach can be combined to establish early proximal vascular control at the bilateral A1 segments or the origin of the A2 segment.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Aneurysm, Ruptured , Anterior Cerebral Artery , Arteries , Humans , Intracranial Aneurysm , Neck , Parents , Rupture , Veins
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-126541

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Interest in radiation-related health problems has been growing with the increase in the number of workers in radiation-related jobs. Although an occupational level of radiation exposure would not likely cause azoospermia, several studies have reported the relation between radiation exposure and azoospermia after accidental or therapeutic radiation exposure. We describe a case of azoospermia in a non-destructive testing (NDT) worker exposed to radiation and discuss the problems of the related monitoring system. CASE PRESENTATION: A 39-year-old man who was childless after 8 years of marriage was diagnosed with azoospermia through medical evaluations, including testicular biopsy. He did not have any abnormal findings on biochemical evaluations, other risk factors, or evidence of congenital azoospermia. He had been working in an NDT facility from 2005 to 2013, attaching and arranging gamma-ray films on the structures and inner spaces of ships. The patient's thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) badge recorded an exposure level of 0.01781 Gy for 80 months, whereas results of his florescence in situ hybridization (FISH) translocation assay showed an exposure level of up to 1.926 Gy of cumulative radiation, which was sufficient to cause azoospermia. Thus, we concluded that his azoospermia was caused by occupational radiation exposure. CONCLUSION: The difference between the exposure dose records measured through TLD badge and the actual exposure dose implies that the monitor used by the NDT worker did not work properly, and such a difference could threaten the health and safety of workers. Thus, to protect the safety and health of NDT workers, education of workers and strengthening of law enforcement are required to ensure that regulations are strictly followed, and if necessary, random sampling of NDT workers using a cytogenetic dosimeter, such as FISH, should be considered.


Subject(s)
Adult , Azoospermia , Biopsy , Cytogenetics , Education , Humans , In Situ Hybridization , Infertility, Male , Law Enforcement , Male , Marriage , Occupational Diseases , Radiation Exposure , Risk Factors , Ships , Social Control, Formal
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-83977

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Frameless stereotactic aspiration of a hematoma can be the one of the treatment options for spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in the basal ganglia. Postoperative hematoma enlargement, however, can be a serious complication of intracranial surgery that frequently results in severe neurological deficit and even death. Therefore, it is important to identify the risk factors of postoperative hematoma growth. METHODS: During a 13-year period, 101 patients underwent minimally invasive frameless stereotactic aspiration for basal ganglia hematoma. Patients were classified into two groups according to whether or not they had postoperative hematoma enlargement in a computed tomography scan. Baseline demographic data and several risk factors, such as hypertension, preoperative hematoma growth, antiplatelet medication, presence of concomitant intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), were analysed via a univariate statistical study. RESULTS: Nine of 101 patients (8.9%) showed hematoma enlargement after frameless stereotactic aspiration. Among the various risk factors, concomitant IVH and antiplatelet medication were found to be significantly associated with postoperative enlargement of hematomas. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our study revealed that aspirin use and concomitant IVH are factors associated with hematoma enlargement subsequent to frameless stereotactic aspiration for basal ganglia hematoma.


Subject(s)
Aspirin , Basal Ganglia Hemorrhage , Basal Ganglia , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Hematoma , Hemorrhage , Humans , Hypertension , Risk Factors , Statistics as Topic , Stereotaxic Techniques , Suction
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-56963

ABSTRACT

Intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator had been the only approved treatment for acute ischemic stroke since its approval in 1995. However, the restrictive time window, numerous contraindications, and its low recanalization rate were all limitations of this modality. Under those circumstances, endovascular stroke therapy went through a great evolution during the past two decades of intravenous thrombolysis. The results of the 2013 randomized trials for endovascular stroke therapy were neutral, although they were limited by insufficient imaging screening at enrollment, early-generation devices with less efficacy, and treatment delays. Huge progress was made in 2015, as there were five randomized clinical trials which all demonstrated the safety and efficacy of endovascular stroke treatment. Despite differences in detail patient enrollment criteria, all 5 trials employed key factors for good functional recovery; (1) screening with non-invasive imaging to identify the proximal occlusion and exclude a large infarct core, (2) using highly effective modern thrombectomy devices mainly with stent retriever, and (3) establishment of a fast workflow to achieve effective reperfusion. The results of those trials indicate that modern thrombectomy devices can allow for faster and more effective reperfusion, which can lead to improved clinical outcomes compared to intravenous thrombolysis alone. These advances in mechanical thrombectomy are promising in the global fight against ischemic stroke-related disability and mortality. Two current mainstreams among such mechanical thrombectomy techniques, “stent retriever thrombectomy” and “direct clot aspiration”, are the topic of this review. Stent retriever thrombectomy using Solitaire and Trevo retriever will be firstly discussed. And, the commonalities and the differences between two major clot aspiration thrombectomy techniques; a direct aspiration first pass technique (ADAPT) and forced arterial suction thrombectomy (FAST), will be additionally explained. Finally, details regarding the combination of direct clot aspiration and stent retriever thrombectomy, the switching strategy and the Solumbra technique, will be described.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mass Screening , Mortality , Reperfusion , Stents , Stroke , Suction , Thrombectomy , Tissue Plasminogen Activator
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-224197

ABSTRACT

The doctrine of informed consent, as opposed to medical paternalism, is intended to facilitate patient autonomy by allowing patient participation in the medical decision-making process. However, regrettably, the surgical informed consent (SIC) process is invariably underestimated and reduced to a documentary procedure to protect physicians from legal liability. Moreover, residents are rarely trained in the clinical and communicative skills required for the SIC process. Accordingly, to increase professional awareness of the SIC process, a brief history and introduction to the current elements of SIC, the obstacles to patient autonomy and SIC, benefits and drawbacks of SIC, planning of an optimal SIC process, and its application to cases of an unruptured intracranial aneurysm are all presented. Optimal informed consent process can provide patients with a good comprehension of their disease and treatment, augmented autonomy, a strong therapeutic alliance with their doctors, and psychological defenses for coping with stressful surgical circumstances.


Subject(s)
Clinical Decision-Making , Comprehension , Humans , Informed Consent , Intracranial Aneurysm , Liability, Legal , Neurosurgery , Paternalism , Patient Participation
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-200247

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: An adjustable Ghajar guide is presented to improve the accuracy of the original Ghajar guide technique. The accuracy of the adjustable Ghajar guide technique is also investigated. METHODS: The coronal adjustment angle from the orthogonal catheter trajectory at Kocher's point is determined based on coronal head images using an electronic picture archiving and communication system. For the adjustable Ghajar guide, a protractor is mounted on a C-shaped basal plate that is placed in contact with the margin of a burrhole, keeping the central 0° line of the protractor orthogonal to the calvarial surface. A catheter guide, which is moved along the protractor and fixed at the pre-determined adjustment angle, is then used to guide the ventricular catheter into the frontal horn adjacent to the foramen of Monro. The adjustable Ghajar guide technique was applied to 20 patients, while a freehand technique based on the surface anatomy of the head was applied to another 47 patients. The accuracy of the ventricular catheter placement was then evaluated using postoperative computed tomography scans. RESULTS: For the adjustable Ghajar guide technique (AGT) patients, the bicaudate index ranged from 0.23 to 0.33 (mean±standard deviation [SD]: 0.27±0.03) and the adjustment angle ranged from 0° to 10° (mean±SD: 5.2°±3.2°). All the AGT patients experienced successful cerebrospinal fluid diversion with only one pass of the catheter. Optimal placement of the ventricular catheter in the ipsilateral frontal horn approximating the foramen of Monro (grade 1) was achieved in 19 patients (95.0%), while a suboptimal trajectory into a lateral corner of the frontal horn passing along a lateral wall of the frontal horn (grade 3) occurred in 1 patient (5.0%). Thus, the AGT patients experienced a significantly higher incidence of optimal catheter placement than the freehand catheterized patients (95.0% vs. 68.3%, p=0.024). Moreover, none of the AGT patients experienced any tract hemorrhages along the catheter or procedure-related complications. CONCLUSION: The proposed adjustable Ghajar guide technique, using angular adjustment in the coronal plane from the orthogonal trajectory at Kocher’s point, facilitates accurate freehand placement of a ventricular catheter for hydrocephalic patients.


Subject(s)
Animals , Catheterization , Catheters , Cerebral Ventricles , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Head , Hemorrhage , Horns , Humans , Hydrocephalus , Incidence , Pilot Projects , Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt
18.
Neurointervention ; : 40-44, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-730368

ABSTRACT

Blood-blister like aneurysms (BBAs) are challenging lesions because of their wide fragile neck. Flow-diverting stents (FDSs), such as the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED), have been applied to treat BBAs less amenable to more established techniques of treatment. However, the use of FDSs, including the PED, in acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) still remains controversial. We report a case of aneurysm regrowth following PED application for a ruptured BBA that overlapped the origin of the dominant posterior communicating artery (PCoA), which was successfully treated after coil trapping of the origin of the fetal-type PCoA. And, we discuss the clinical significance of the fetal-type PCoA communicating with a BBA in terms of PED failure.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Arteries , Embolization, Therapeutic , Neck , Stents , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-45410

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Mechanical thrombectomy (MT) for acute intracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion is often complicated by difficult revascularization and non-involved territory embolization possibly related with larger clot-burden. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of proximal aspiration thrombectomy (PAT) using a balloon-tipped guide catheter for clot-burden reduction in such cases with period-to-period analysis (period 1 : standard MT without PAT; period 2 : PAT first, then standard MT for the remaining occlusion). METHODS: Eighty-six patients who underwent MT for acute intracranial ICA occlusion were included in this analysis from the prospectively maintained stroke registry (33 patients in period 1 and 53 in period 2). In period 2, 'responder' was defined as a case where some amount of clot was retrieved by PAT and the following angiography showed partial or full recanalization. RESULTS: Fifteen of fifty-three patients in period 2 (28.3%) were 'responders' to PAT. There was a significantly higher incidence of atrial fibrillation in the 'responder' subgroup. Period 2 showed a significantly shorter puncture-to-reperfusion time (94.5 minutes vs. 56.0 minutes; p=0.002), a significantly higher Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction of 2b-3 reperfusion (45.5% vs. 73.6%; p=0.009), but only a trend for better 3-month favorable outcome (mRS 0-2; 36.4% vs. 54.7%; p=0.097). There was no increase in the incidence of procedure-related complications or intracranial hemorrhage in period 2. CONCLUSION: A strategy of PAT before standard MT may result in shorter puncture-to-reperfusion time and better angiographic outcome than a strategy of standard MT for acute intracranial ICA occlusion.


Subject(s)
Angiography , Atrial Fibrillation , Carotid Artery, Internal , Catheters , Cerebral Infarction , Humans , Incidence , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Prospective Studies , Reperfusion , Stroke , Thrombectomy
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-159665

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study used the intradural procedural time to assess the overall technical difficulty involved in surgically clipping an unruptured middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysm via a pterional or superciliary approach. The clinical and radiological variables affecting the intradural procedural time were investigated, and the intradural procedural time compared between a superciliary keyhole approach and a pterional approach. METHODS: During a 5.5-year period, patients with a single MCA aneurysm were enrolled in this retrospective study. The selection criteria for a superciliary keyhole approach included : 1) maximum diameter of the unruptured MCA aneurysm <15 mm, 2) neck diameter of the MCA aneurysm <10 mm, and 3) aneurysm location involving the sphenoidal or horizontal segment of MCA (M1) segment and MCA bifurcation, excluding aneurysms distal to the MCA genu. Meanwhile, the control comparison group included patients with the same selection criteria as for a superciliary approach, yet who preferred a pterional approach to avoid a postoperative facial wound or due to preoperative skin trouble in the supraorbital area. To determine the variables affecting the intradural procedural time, a multiple regression analysis was performed using such data as the patient age and gender, maximum aneurysm diameter, aneurysm neck diameter, and length of the pre-aneurysm M1 segment. In addition, the intradural procedural times were compared between the superciliary and pterional patient groups, along with the other variables. RESULTS: A total of 160 patients underwent a superciliary (n=124) or pterional (n=36) approach for an unruptured MCA aneurysm. In the multiple regression analysis, an increase in the diameter of the aneurysm neck (p<0.001) was identified as a statistically significant factor increasing the intradural procedural time. A Pearson correlation analysis also showed a positive correlation (r=0.340) between the neck diameter and the intradural procedural time. When comparing the superciliary and pterional groups, no statistically significant between-group difference was found in terms of the intradural procedural time reflecting the technical difficulty (mean±standard deviation : 29.8±13.0 min versus 27.7±9.6 min). CONCLUSION: A superciliary keyhole approach can be a useful alternative to a pterional approach for an unruptured MCA aneurysm with a maximum diameter <15 mm and neck diameter <10 mm, representing no more of a technical challenge. For both surgical approaches, the technical difficulty increases along with the neck diameter of the MCA aneurysm.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Humans , Intracranial Aneurysm , Middle Cerebral Artery , Neck , Patient Selection , Retrospective Studies , Skin , Wounds and Injuries
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