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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919301

ABSTRACT

Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are still a considerable challenge in Myanmar. We undertook a control program for STH infections (especially Trichuris trichiura) among schoolchildren in Myanmar using mass drug administration (MDA) and health education. Around 1,700 schoolchildren from 15 primary schools in 3 suburban districts (Shwe Pyi Thar, Twantay, and Kyauktan) of the Yangon Region were subjected in this study during 2017-2019. All of the schoolchildren in each school were orally administered albendazole (400 mg in a single dose) 2, 3, and 4 times a year in 2017, 2018, and 2019, respectively. The results revealed that the egg positive rate of any intestinal helminths (including STH) was reduced from 37.6% (649/1,724) in 2017 to 22.8% (352/1,542) in 2019. The egg positive rate of Ascaris lumbricoides was decreased remarkably from 23.3% (402/1,724) in 2017 to 3.6% (56/1,542) in 2019. However, that of T. trichiura was only slightly reduced from 26.9% (464/1,724) in 2017 to 20.2% (312/1,542) in 2019. The intensity of infection with A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura was both more or less reduced, and the proportion of light infection cases with A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura increased from 35.6% in 2017 to 64.3% in 2019 and from 70.3% in 2017 to 81.7% in 2019, respectively. The results indicated that repeated MDAs (2-4 times a year for 3 years) using albendazole on schoolchildren in Myanmar failed to control T. trichiura infection. For a successful control of trichuriasis in Myanmar, new MDA strategies, using a modified albendazole regimen (multiple daily doses for 2 or 3 days) or an alternative anthelmintic drug, such as oxantel pamoate, is strongly recommended.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875529

ABSTRACT

Adult echinostomes having 37 collar spines collected from the intestine of Pitalah ducks in Aceh Province, Indonesia in 2018 were morphologically and molecularly determined to be Echinostoma miyagawai Ishii, 1932 (Digenea: Echinostomatidae). Among 20 ducks examined, 7 (35.0%) were found to be infected with this echinostome, and the number of flukes collected was 48 in total with average 6.9 (1-17) worms per duck. The adult flukes were 7.2 (6.1-8.5) mm in length and 1.2 (1.0-1.4) mm in width (pre-ovarian or testicular level) and characterized by having a head collar armed with 37 collar spines (dorsal spines arranged in 2 alternating rows), including 5 end group spines, and variable morphology of the testes, irregularly or deeply lobed (3-5 lobes) at times with horizontal extension. The eggs within the worm uterus were 93 (79-105) µm long and 62 (56-70) µm wide. These morphological features were consistent with both E. miyagawai and Echinostoma robustum, for which synonymy to each other has been raised. Sequencing of 2 mitochondrial genes, cox1 and nad1, revealed high homology with E. miyagawai (98.6-100% for cox1 and 99.0-99.8% for nad1) and also with E. robustum (99.3-99.8% for nad1) deposited in GenBank. We accepted the synonymy between the 2 species and diagnosed our flukes as E. miyagawai (syn. E. robustum) with redescription of its morphology. Further studies are required to determine the biological characteristics of E. miyagawai in Aceh Province, Indonesia, including the intermediate host and larval stage information.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875528

ABSTRACT

Echinostoma mekongi was reported as a new species in 2020 based on specimens collected from humans in Kratie and Takeo Province, Cambodia. In the present study, its metacercarial stage has been discovered in Filopaludina martensi cambodjensis snails purchased from a local market nearby the Tonle Sap Lake, Pursat Province, Cambodia. The metacercariae were fed orally to an experimental hamster, and adult flukes were recovered at day 20 post-infection. They were morphologically examined using light and scanning electron microscopes and molecularly analyzed by sequencing of their mitochondrial cox1 and nad1 genes. A total of 115 metacercariae (1-8 per snail) were detected in 60 (60.0%) out of 100 Filopaludina snails examined. The metacercariae were round, 174 µm in average diameter (163-190 µm in range), having a thin cyst wall, a head collar armed with 37 collar spines, and characteristic excretory granules. The adult flukes were elongated, ventrally curved, 7.3 (6.4-8.2)×1.4 (1.1-1.7) mm in size, and equipped with 37 collar spines on the head collar (dorsal spines in 2 alternating rows), being consistent with E. mekongi. In phylogenetic analyses, the adult flukes showed 99.0-100% homology based on cox1 sequences and 98.9-99.7% homology based on nad1 sequences with E. mekongi. The results evidenced that F. martensi cambodjensis snails act as the second intermediate host of E. mekongi, and hamsters can be used as a suitable experimental definitive host. As local people favor to eat undercooked snails, these snails seem to be an important source of human infection with E. mekongi in Cambodia.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875523

ABSTRACT

Life cycle stages, including daughter sporocysts, cercariae, and metacercariae, of Parvatrema duboisi (Dollfus, 1923) Bartoli, 1974 (Digenea: Gymnophallidae) have been found in the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum from Aphaedo (Island), Shinan-gun, Jeollanam-do, Korea. The daughter sporocysts were elongated sac-like and 307-570 (av. 395) μm long and 101-213 (av. 157) μm wide. Most of the daughter sporocysts contained 15-20 furcocercous cercariae each. The cercariae measured 112-146 (av. 134) μm in total length and 35-46 (av. 40) μm in width, with 69-92 (av. 85) μm long body and 39-54 (av. 49) μm long tail. The metacercariae were 210-250 (av. 231) μm in length and 170-195 (av. 185) μm in width, and characterized by having a large oral sucker, genital pore some distance anterior to the ventral sucker, no ventral pit, and 1 compact or slightly lobed vitellarium, strongly suggesting P. duboisi. The metacercariae were experimentally infected to ICR mice, and adults were recovered at day 7 post-infection. The adult flukes were morphologically similar to the metacercariae except in the presence of up to 20 eggs in the uterus. The daughter sporocysts and metacercariae were molecularly (ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2) analyzed to confirm the species, and the results showed 99.8-99.9% identity with P. duboisi reported from Kyushu, Japan and Gochang, Korea. These results confirmed the presence of various life cycle stages of P. duboisi in the Manila clam, R. philippinarum, playing the role of the first as well as the second intermediate host, on Aphae-do (Island), Shinan-gun, Korea.

5.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833780

ABSTRACT

Echinostoma flukes armed with 37 collar spines on their head collar are called as 37-collar-spined Echinostoma spp. (group) or ‘Echinostoma revolutum group’. At least 56 nominal species have been described in this group. However, many of them were morphologically close to and difficult to distinguish from the other, thus synonymized with the others. However, some of the synonymies were disagreed by other researchers, and taxonomic debates have been continued. Fortunately, recent development of molecular techniques, in particular, sequencing of the mitochondrial (nad1 and cox1) and nuclear genes (ITS region; ITS1-5.8S-ITS2), has enabled us to obtain highly useful data on phylogenetic relationships of these 37-collar-spined Echinostoma spp. Thus, 16 different species are currently acknowledged to be valid worldwide, which include E. revolutum, E. bolschewense, E. caproni, E. cinetorchis, E. deserticum, E. lindoense, E. luisreyi, E. mekongi, E. miyagawai, E. nasincovae, E. novaezealandense, E. paraensei, E. paraulum, E. robustum, E. trivolvis, and Echinostoma sp. IG of Georgieva et al., 2013. The validity of the other 10 species is retained until further evaluation, including molecular analyses; E. acuticauda, E. barbosai, E. chloephagae, E. echinatum, E. jurini, E. nudicaudatum, E. parvocirrus, E. pinnicaudatum, E. ralli, and E. rodriguesi. In this review, the history of discovery and taxonomic debates on these 26 valid or validity-retained species are briefly reviewed.

6.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833774

ABSTRACT

Echinostoma mekongi n. sp. (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) is described based on adult flukes collected from humans residing along the Mekong River in Cambodia. Total 256 flukes were collected from the diarrheic stool of 6 echinostome egg positive villagers in Kratie and Takeo Province after praziquantel treatment and purging. Adults of the new species were 9.0-13.1 (av. 11.3) mm in length and 1.3-2.5 (1.9) mm in maximum width and characterized by having a head collar armed with 37 collar spines (dorsal spines arranged in 2 alternative rows), including 5 end group spines. The eggs in feces and worm uterus were 98-132 (117) μm long and 62-90 (75) μm wide. These morphological features closely resembled those of Echinostoma revolutum, E. miyagawai, and several other 37-collar-spined Echinostoma species. However, sequencing of the nuclear ITS (ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2) and 2 mitochondrial genes, cox1 and nad1, revealed unique features distinct from E. revolutum and also from other 37-collar-spined Echinostoma group available in GenBank (E. bolschewense, E. caproni, E. cinetorchis, E. deserticum, E. miyagawai, E. nasincovae, E. novaezealandense, E. paraensei, E. paraulum, E. robustum, E. trivolvis, and Echinostoma sp. IG). Thus, we assigned our flukes as a new species, E. mekongi. The new species revealed marked variation in the morphology of testes (globular or lobulated), and smaller head collar, collar spines, oral and ventral suckers, and cirrus sac compared to E. revolutum and E. miyagawai. Epidemiological studies regarding the geographical distribution and its life history, including the source of human infections, remain to be performed.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761717

ABSTRACT

Anisakiasis is a zoonotic disease induced by anisakid nematodes, and endoscopic inspection is used for a diagnosis or remedy for it. Anisakis simplex, Anisakis physeteris, and Pseudoterranova decipiens had been reported to be the major species causing human infections, particularly, in Japan. However, in Korea, recent studies strongly suggested that Anisakis pegreffii is the major species of human infections. To support this suggestion, we collected anisakid larvae (n=20) from 20 human patients who were undergone gastrointestinal endoscopy at a health check-up center in Korea, and molecular identification was performed on the larvae using PCR-RFLP analysis and gene sequencing of rDNA ITS regions and mtDNA cox2. In addition, anisakid larvae (n=53) collected from the sea eel (Astroconger myriaster) were also examined for comparison with those extracted from humans. The results showed that all human samples (100%) were identified as A. pegreffii, whereas 90.7% of the samples from the sea eel were A. pegreffii with the remaining 9.3% being Hysterothylacium aduncum. Our study confirmed that A. pegreffii is the predominant species causing human anisakiasis in Korea, and this seems to be due to the predominance of this larval type in the fish (sea eels) popularly consumed by the Korean people. The possibility of human infection with H. aduncum in Korea is also suggested.


Subject(s)
Anisakiasis , Anisakis , Diagnosis , DNA, Mitochondrial , DNA, Ribosomal , Eels , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Humans , Japan , Korea , Larva , Zoonoses
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786630

ABSTRACT

Gymnophalloides seoi (Digenea: Gymnophallidae) is a human intestinal trematode contracted by eating raw oysters (Crassostrea gigas) in the Republic of Korea (=Korea). It has been known to be highly endemic in Aphae Island, Shinan-gun, Jeollanam-do (Province). However, recent epidemiological status of G. seoi has not been reported since the 1990s. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of G. seoi metacercariae in natural and cultured oysters collected from 3 islands and 2 coastal areas in western parts of Korea. The oysters were examined using the artificial digestion method followed by stereomicroscopy. The overall positive rate of G. seoi metacercariae in natural oysters was 66.0% (99/150), and the oysters collected from Yubu Island showed the highest infection rate (74.0%). However, the metacercarial density per oyster was relatively low (1.5–2.4 per oyster). By contrast, no metacercaria was found in cultured oysters purchased from 2 coastal areas in Chungcheongnam-do. Thus, we could confirm that natural oysters produced from 3 western coastal islands are infected with G. seoi metacercariae, whereas cultured oysters purchased from 2 coastal areas were free from infection.


Subject(s)
Digestion , Eating , Humans , Islands , Korea , Metacercariae , Methods , Ostreidae , Prevalence , Republic of Korea
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742219

ABSTRACT

Adult specimens of Echinostoma ilocanum (Garrison, 1908) Odhner, 1911 (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) were recovered from 2 riparian people who resided along the Mekong River in Savannakhet Province, Lao PDR. In fecal examinations done by the Kato-Katz technique, they revealed echinostome eggs together with eggs of Opisthorchis viverrini (and minute intestinal fluke eggs) and hookworms. To recover the adult flukes, they were treated with praziquantel 30–40 mg/kg in a single dose and purged with magnesium salts. A total of 658 adult fluke specimens were recovered from the 2 people; 456 from case 1 and 202 from case 2. Specimens from case 1 consisted of 335 echinostomes (301 E. ilocanum and 34 species undetermined), 120 O. viverrini, and 1 Haplorchis taichui, and those from case 2 consisted of 36 E. ilocanum, 134 O. viverrini, and 32 H. taichui. Thus, the number of E. ilocanum specimens was 337 in total (average per person, 168.5). From this study, it is suggested that foodborne intestinal flukes and liver flukes are highly prevalent along the Mekong River in Savannakhet Province. The present report describes for the first time human infections with E. ilocanum in Lao PDR.


Subject(s)
Adult , Ancylostomatoidea , Echinostoma , Echinostomiasis , Eggs , Fasciola hepatica , Humans , Magnesium , Opisthorchis , Ovum , Praziquantel , Rivers , Salts , Trematoda
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-168666

ABSTRACT

Paragonimiasis is a parasitic disease caused by Paragnonimus species. The primary site of infection is the lung, and extrapulmonary involvement is also reported. When infected with Paragonimus westermani, which is the dominant species in Korea, the central nervous system is frequently involved along with the liver, intestine, peritoneal cavity, retroperitoneum, and abdominal wall. Ectopic paragonimiasis raises diagnostic challenge since it is uncommon and may be confused with malignancy or other inflammatory diseases. Here, we report an ectopic paragonimiasis case initially presented with recurrent abdominal pain. The patient developed abdominal pain 3 times for the previous 3 years and the computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen revealed fluid collection with wall enhancement. Recurrent diverticulitis was initially suspected and part of the ascending colon was resected. However, the specimen showed intact colon wall without evidence of diverticulitis and multiple parasite eggs and granulomas were found instead. The size of about 70 μm, the presence of an operculum and relatively thick egg shell suggested eggs of Paragonimus species. With appropriate exposure history and a positive antibody test, the definitive diagnosis was made as peritoneal paragonimiasis.


Subject(s)
Abdomen , Abdominal Abscess , Abdominal Pain , Abdominal Wall , Abscess , Animals , Central Nervous System , Colon , Colon, Ascending , Diagnosis , Diverticulitis , Egg Shell , Eggs , Granuloma , Humans , Intestines , Korea , Liver , Lung , Ovum , Paragonimiasis , Paragonimus , Paragonimus westermani , Parasites , Parasitic Diseases , Peritoneal Cavity
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-50081

ABSTRACT

The seroprevalence of human toxoplasmosis has been increasing in Korea, and it is controversial whether cats are an important infection source or not. This study was performed to evaluate the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in a high risk group (cat sitters) and to determine the possible importance of cats as an infection source in Korea. Risk factors, including the age, sex, and diet of cat sitters, their contact experience and contact frequency with stray cats, and origin, number, and outdoor activity of their pet cats, were analyzed using structured questionnaires. A total of 673 serum samples from people who have frequent contact with cats (high risk group) and 1,114 samples from general people (low risk group) were examined for specific IgG antibodies against T. gondii by ELISA. The results revealed that the overall seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was 7.4% (n=1,787). The seroprevalence among low risk group was 8.0% (89/1,114), whereas that among high risk group was rather lower 6.4% (43/673), though this difference was statistically not significant (P=0.211). Among the risk factors, only the outdoor activity of pet cats was important; people having cats with outdoor activities revealed 2 times higher seroprevalence than people having cats with only indoor activities (P=0.027). In conclusion, the seroprevalence of T. gondii was not significantly different between the high risk group and low risk group, and the importance of cats as a source of infection in Korea is questionable.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies , Cats , Diet , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Korea , Risk Factors , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmosis
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-36473

ABSTRACT

We performed a molecular genetic study on the sequences of 18S ribosomal RNA (ITS1 region) gene in 4-day-old adult worms of Macroorchis spinulosus recovered in mice experimentally infected with metacercariae from crayfish in Jeollanam-do Province, Korea. The metacercariae were round, 180 µm in average diameter, encysted with 2 layers of thick walls, but the stylet on the oral sucker was not clearly seen. The adult flukes were oval shape, and 760-820 µm long and 320-450 µm wide, with anterolateral location of 2 large testes. The phylogenetic tree based on ITS1 sequences of 6 M. spinulosus samples showed their distinguished position from other trematode species in GenBank. The most closely resembled group was Paragonimus spp. which also take crayfish or crabs as the second intermediate host. The present study is the first molecular characterization of M. spinulosus and provided a basis for further phylogenetic studies to compare with other trematode fauna in Korea.


Subject(s)
Animals , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , Metacercariae/classification , Mice , Phylogeny , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics , Trematoda/classification
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-166322

ABSTRACT

Although intestinal protozoans are common etiologies of diarrhea, few studies have been conducted in Myanmar. This study planned to investigate the prevalence of Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, and Endolimax nana among schoolchildren and their guardians in suburban areas near Yangon, Myanmar. We performed a cross-sectional survey among schoolchildren and their guardians from 7 primary schools in South Dagon and Hlaing Thar Yar districts, Yangon, Myanmar. Stool samples were observed with a microscope after concentration technique and iodine staining. Total 821 stool samples, including 556 from schoolchildren and 265 from guardians, were examined. The median age was 6 years old for schoolchildren and 36 years old for guardians. A 53.1% of the school children and 14.6 % of the guardians were males. The overall prevalence of each intestinal protozoan species was as follows: 3.4% (28/821) for G. lamblia; 3.5% (29/821) for E. coli; 1.2% (10/821) for E. histoytica, and 3.0% for E. nana. This study showed that intestinal protozoans are common in primary schoolchildren and their guardians in suburban areas near Yangon, Myanmar. Health interventions, such as hand washing education, improvement of sanitation, and establishment of water purification systems are urgently needed in this area.


Subject(s)
Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diarrhea , Education , Endolimax , Entamoeba , Entamoeba histolytica , Giardia , Giardia lamblia , Hand Disinfection , Humans , Iodine , Male , Myanmar , Prevalence , Sanitation , Water Purification
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-57437

ABSTRACT

Toxoplasma gondii infection induces alteration of the host cell cycle and cell proliferation. These changes are not only seen in directly invaded host cells but also in neighboring cells. We tried to identify whether this alteration can be mediated by exosomes secreted by T. gondii-infected host cells. L6 cells, a rat myoblast cell line, and RH strain of T. gondii were selected for this study. L6 cells were infected with or without T. gondii to isolate exosomes. The cellular growth patterns were identified by cell counting with trypan blue under confocal microscopy, and cell cycle changes were investigated by flow cytometry. L6 cells infected with T. gondii showed decreased proliferation compared to uninfected L6 cells and revealed a tendency to stay at S or G2/M cell phase. The treatment of exosomes isolated from T. gondii-infected cells showed attenuation of cell proliferation and slight enhancement of S phase in L6 cells. The cell cycle alteration was not as obvious as reduction of the cell proliferation by the exosome treatment. These changes were transient and disappeared at 48 hr after the exosome treatment. Microarray analysis and web-based tools indicated that various exosomal miRNAs were crucial for the regulation of target genes related to cell proliferation. Collectively, our study demonstrated that the exosomes originating from T. gondii could change the host cell proliferation and alter the host cell cycle.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Count , Cell Cycle , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation , Exosomes , Flow Cytometry , Microarray Analysis , MicroRNAs , Microscopy, Confocal , Myoblasts , Rats , S Phase , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmosis , Trypan Blue
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-57429

ABSTRACT

Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan that can modulate the environment of the infected host. An unfavorable environment modulated by T. gondii in the brain includes tumor microenvironment. Literature has suggested that T. gondii infection is associated with development of brain tumors. However, in Korea, epidemiological data regarding this correlation have been scarce. In this study, in order to investigate the relationship between T. gondii infection and brain tumor development, we investigated the seroprevalence of T. gondii among 93 confirmed brain tumor patients (various histological types, including meningioma and astrocytoma) in Korea using ELISA. The results revealed that T. gondii seropositivity among brain tumor patients (18.3%) was significantly (P<0.05) higher compared with that of healthy controls (8.6%). The seropositivity of brain tumor patients showed a significant age-tendency, i.e., higher in younger age group, compared with age-matched healthy controls (P<0.05). In conclusion, this study supports the close relationship between T. gondii infection and incidence of brain tumors.


Subject(s)
Brain Neoplasms , Brain , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Meningioma , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Toxoplasma , Tumor Microenvironment
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-19164

ABSTRACT

Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (s.s.), Anisakis pegreffii, Anisakis berlandi (=A. simplex sp. C), and Anisakis typica are the 4 major species of Anisakis type I larvae. In the Republic of Korea (Korea), A. pegreffii, A. berlandi, and A. typica larvae in fish hosts has seldom been documented. In this study, molecular analysis was performed on Anisakis larvae from the sea eels (Astroconger myriaster), the major source of human anisakiasis in Korea, collected from Tongyeong City, a southern coastal area of Korea. All 20 sea eels examined were infected with Anisakis type I larvae (160 larvae; 8 per fish). Their species were analyzed using PCR-RFLP patterns and nucleotide sequences of internal transcribed spacers (ITS1, 5.8 subunit gene, and ITS2) and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 2 (cox2). Most (86.8%; 112/129) of the Anisakis type I larvae were A. pegreffii, and 7.8% (10/129) were A. typica. The remaining 5.4% (7/129) was not identified. Thus, A. pegreffii is the major species of anisakid larvae in sea eels of the southern coast of Korea.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anisakiasis/parasitology , Anisakis/classification , DNA, Helminth/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , Eels/growth & development , Fish Diseases/parasitology , Larva/classification , Phylogeny , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Republic of Korea
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-91223

ABSTRACT

In order to determine the status of Enterobius vermicularis infection among schoolchildren in suburban areas of Myanmar, 761 primary schoolchildren in 3 different townships around Yangon City were subjected to a survey using cello-tape anal swabs. The subjected schoolchildren were 383 boys and 378 girls who were 5-7 years of age. Only 1 anal swab was obtained from each child. The overall egg positive rate of E. vermicularis was 47.2% (359 positives), and sex difference was not remarkable (48.6% in boys and 45.8% in girls). However, the positive rate was the highest in South Dagon (54.6%) followed by Hlaing Thayar (43.8%) and North Dagon (34.8%). This difference was highly correlated with the living standards of the people in each township. Nucleotide sequence of the 5S rDNA from the eggs on the cello-tape (2 children) revealed 99.7% identity with that of E. vermicularis reported in GenBank. The results indicated that E. vermicularis infection is highly prevalent among primary schoolchildren around Yangon, Myanmar.


Subject(s)
Animals , Child , Child, Preschool , Enterobiasis/diagnosis , Enterobius/genetics , Female , Humans , Male , Myanmar/epidemiology , Parasite Egg Count , Prevalence , Students/statistics & numerical data
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-83624

ABSTRACT

The increasing prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in the human population in the Republic of Korea (= Korea) is due to various reasons such as an increase in meat consumption. However, the importance of cats in transmitting T. gondii infection through oocysts to humans has seldom been assessed. A total of 300 fecal samples of stray cats captured around Seoul from June to August 2013 were examined for T. gondii B1 gene (indicating the presence of oocysts) using nested-PCR. Fourteen (4.7%) of 300 cats examined were positive for B1 gene. Female cats (7.5%) showed a higher prevalence than male cats (1.4%). Cats younger than 3 months (5.5%) showed a higher prevalence than cats (1.5%) older than 3 months. For laboratory passage of the positive samples, the fecal suspension (0.2 ml) of B1 gene positive cats was orally inoculated into experimental mice. Brain tissues of the mice were obtained after 40 days and examined for the presence of tissue cysts. Two isolates were successfully passaged (designated KNIH-1 and KNIH-2) and were molecularly analyzed using the SAG5D and SAG5E gene sequences. The SAG5D and SAG5E gene sequences showed high homologies with the ME49 strain (less virulent strain). The results indicated the importance of stray cats in transmitting T. gondii to humans in Korea, as revealed by detection of B1 gene in fecal samples. T. gondii isolates from cats were successfully passaged in the laboratory for the first time in Korea.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cat Diseases/diagnosis , Cats , Feces/parasitology , Female , Genotype , Humans , Male , Mice , Protozoan Proteins/genetics , Seoul/epidemiology , Toxoplasma/genetics , Toxoplasmosis/epidemiology , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/diagnosis
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-130552

ABSTRACT

Diphyllobothrium latum and Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense are morphologically similar to each other, and only genetic method can differentiate clearly between the 2 species. A strobila of diphyllobothriid tapeworm discharged from a 7-year-old boy was analyzed to identify the species by mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene sequencing. He and his family (total 4 persons) ate slices of 3 kinds of raw fish 16 days before visiting our outpatient clinic. All family members complained of abdominal pain and watery diarrhea. They all expelled tapeworm strobilae in their stools. They were treated with a single oral dose of praziquantel and then complained of no more symptoms. The cox1 gene sequencing of the strobila from the boy revealed 99.9% (687/688 bp) similarity with D. nihonkaiense and only 93.2% (641/688 bp) similarity with D. latum. Thus, we assigned this tapeworm as D. nihonkaiense. This is the first report of D. nihonkaiense infection in a family in Korea, and this report includes the 8th pediatric case in Korea. The current report is meaningful because D. nihonkaiense infection within a family is rare.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use , Child , Diphyllobothriasis/diagnosis , Diphyllobothrium/classification , Electron Transport Complex IV/genetics , Family Health , Humans , Korea , Male , Praziquantel/therapeutic use , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Treatment Outcome
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-130545

ABSTRACT

Diphyllobothrium latum and Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense are morphologically similar to each other, and only genetic method can differentiate clearly between the 2 species. A strobila of diphyllobothriid tapeworm discharged from a 7-year-old boy was analyzed to identify the species by mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene sequencing. He and his family (total 4 persons) ate slices of 3 kinds of raw fish 16 days before visiting our outpatient clinic. All family members complained of abdominal pain and watery diarrhea. They all expelled tapeworm strobilae in their stools. They were treated with a single oral dose of praziquantel and then complained of no more symptoms. The cox1 gene sequencing of the strobila from the boy revealed 99.9% (687/688 bp) similarity with D. nihonkaiense and only 93.2% (641/688 bp) similarity with D. latum. Thus, we assigned this tapeworm as D. nihonkaiense. This is the first report of D. nihonkaiense infection in a family in Korea, and this report includes the 8th pediatric case in Korea. The current report is meaningful because D. nihonkaiense infection within a family is rare.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use , Child , Diphyllobothriasis/diagnosis , Diphyllobothrium/classification , Electron Transport Complex IV/genetics , Family Health , Humans , Korea , Male , Praziquantel/therapeutic use , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Treatment Outcome
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