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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903931

ABSTRACT

Eupatilin is known to possess anti-apoptotic, anti-oxidative, and antiinflammatoryproperties. We report here that eupatilin has a protective effect onthe ethanol-induced injury in rats. Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into 6 groups:control, vehicle, silymarin, eupatilin 10 mg/kg, eupatilin 30 mg/kg, and eupatilin 100mg/kg. Plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase(ALT) were analyzed to determine the extent of liver damage. Total cholesterol(TC) and triglycerides (TG) were analyzed to determine the level of liver steatosis.Malondialdehyde level, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and glutathione (GSH)level were analyzed to determine the extent of oxidative stress. Tumor necrosis factor(TNF)- and interleukin (IL)-1 were quantified to verify the degree of inflammation.Based on our findings, chronic alcohol treatment significantly changed the serumindexes and liver indicators of the model rats, which were significantly improved byeupatilin treatment. Rats in the eupatilin-treatment group showed reduced levelsof AST, ALT, TG, TC, TNF-, and IL-1, increased SOD activity and GSH levels, and improvedoverall physiology compared to the alcoholic liver disease model rats. H&Estaining also verified the eupatilin-mediated improvement in liver injury. In conclusion,eupatilin inhibits alcohol-induced liver injury via its antioxidant and anti-inflammatoryeffects.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896227

ABSTRACT

Eupatilin is known to possess anti-apoptotic, anti-oxidative, and antiinflammatoryproperties. We report here that eupatilin has a protective effect onthe ethanol-induced injury in rats. Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into 6 groups:control, vehicle, silymarin, eupatilin 10 mg/kg, eupatilin 30 mg/kg, and eupatilin 100mg/kg. Plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase(ALT) were analyzed to determine the extent of liver damage. Total cholesterol(TC) and triglycerides (TG) were analyzed to determine the level of liver steatosis.Malondialdehyde level, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and glutathione (GSH)level were analyzed to determine the extent of oxidative stress. Tumor necrosis factor(TNF)- and interleukin (IL)-1 were quantified to verify the degree of inflammation.Based on our findings, chronic alcohol treatment significantly changed the serumindexes and liver indicators of the model rats, which were significantly improved byeupatilin treatment. Rats in the eupatilin-treatment group showed reduced levelsof AST, ALT, TG, TC, TNF-, and IL-1, increased SOD activity and GSH levels, and improvedoverall physiology compared to the alcoholic liver disease model rats. H&Estaining also verified the eupatilin-mediated improvement in liver injury. In conclusion,eupatilin inhibits alcohol-induced liver injury via its antioxidant and anti-inflammatoryeffects.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727866

ABSTRACT

Bladder dysfunction is a common complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). However, there have been a few studies evaluating bladder smooth muscle contraction in DM in the presence of pharmacological inhibitors. In the present study, we compared the contractility of bladder smooth muscle from normal rats and DM rats. Furthermore, we utilized pharmacological inhibitors to delineate the mechanisms underlying bladder muscle differences between normal and DM rats. DM was established in 14 days after using a single injection of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Bladder smooth muscle contraction was induced electrically using electrical field stimulation consisting of pulse trains at an amplitude of 40 V and pulse duration of 1 ms at frequencies of 2–10 Hz. In this study, the pharmacological inhibitors atropine (muscarinic receptor antagonist), U73122 (phospholipase C inhibitor), DPCPX (adenosine A₁ receptor antagonist), udenafil (PDE5 inhibitor), prazosin (α₁-receptor antagonist), verapamil (calcium channel blocker), and chelerythrine (protein kinase C inhibitor) were used to pretreat bladder smooth muscles. It was found that the contractility of bladder smooth muscles from DM rats was lower than that of normal rats. In addition, there were significant differences in percent change of contractility between normal and DM rats following pretreatment with prazosin, udenafil, verapamil, and U73122. In conclusion, we suggest that the decreased bladder muscle contractility in DM rats was a result of perturbations in PLC/IP₃-mediated intracellular Ca²⁺ release and PDE5 activity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Atropine , Diabetes Mellitus , Muscle, Smooth , Phosphotransferases , Prazosin , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Streptozocin , Type C Phospholipases , Urinary Bladder , Verapamil
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-147979

ABSTRACT

In this study, the effect of particle size of genistein-loaded solid lipid particulate systems on drug dissolution behavior and oral bioavailability was investigated. Genistein-loaded solid lipid microparticles and nanoparticles were prepared with glyceryl palmitostearate. Except for the particle size, other properties of genistein-loaded solid lipid microparticles and nanoparticles such as particle composition and drug loading efficiency and amount were similarly controlled to mainly evaluate the effect of different particle sizes of the solid lipid particulate systems on drug dissolution behavior and oral bioavailability. The results showed that genistein-loaded solid lipid microparticles and nanoparticles exhibited a considerably increased drug dissolution rate compared to that of genistein bulk powder and suspension. The microparticles gradually released genistein as a function of time while the nanoparticles exhibited a biphasic drug release pattern, showing an initial burst drug release, followed by a sustained release. The oral bioavailability of genistein loaded in solid lipid microparticles and nanoparticles in rats was also significantly enhanced compared to that in bulk powders and the suspension. However, the bioavailability from the microparticles increased more than that from the nanoparticles mainly because the rapid drug dissolution rate and rapid absorption of genistein because of the large surface area of the genistein-solid lipid nanoparticles cleared the drug to a greater extent than the genistein-solid lipid microparticles did. Therefore, the findings of this study suggest that controlling the particle size of solid-lipid particulate systems at a micro-scale would be a promising strategy to increase the oral bioavailability of genistein.


Subject(s)
Absorption , Animals , Biological Availability , Drug Liberation , Genistein , Nanoparticles , Particle Size , Powders , Rats
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727361

ABSTRACT

Aripiprazole (ARI) is a commonly prescribed medication used to treat schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. To date, there have been no studies regarding the molecular pathological and immunotoxicological profiling of aripiprazole. Thus, in the present study, we prepared two different formulas of aripiprazole [Free base crystal of aripiprazole (ARPGCB) and cocrystal of aripiprazole (GCB3004)], and explored their effects on the patterns of survival and apoptosis-regulatory proteins under acute toxicity and cytotoxicity test conditions. Furthermore, we also evaluated the modulatory activity of the different formulations on the immunological responses in macrophages primed by various stimulators such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), pam3CSK, and poly(I:C) via toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), TLR2, and TLR3 pathways, respectively. In liver, both ARPGCB and GCB3004 produced similar toxicity profiles. In particular, these two formulas exhibited similar phospho-protein profiling of p65/nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB, c-Jun/activator protein (AP)-1, ERK, JNK, p38, caspase 3, and bcl-2 in brain. In contrast, the patterns of these phospho-proteins were variable in other tissues. Moreover, these two formulas did not exhibit any cytotoxicity in C6 glioma cells. Finally, the two formulations at available in vivo concentrations did not block nitric oxide (NO) production from activated macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells stimulated with LPS, pam3CSK, or poly(I:C), nor did they alter the morphological changes of the activated macrophages. Taken together, our present work, as a comparative study of two different formulas of aripiprazole, suggests that these two formulas can be used to achieve similar functional activation of brain proteins related to cell survival and apoptosis and immunotoxicological activities of macrophages.


Subject(s)
Aripiprazole , Apoptosis , Bipolar Disorder , Brain , Caspase 3 , Cell Survival , Glioma , Liver , Macrophages , Nitric Oxide , Schizophrenia , Toll-Like Receptor 4
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-178031

ABSTRACT

beta-Lapachone has drawn increasing attention as an anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer drug. However, its oral bioavailability has not been yet assessed, which might be useful to develop efficient dosage forms possibly required for non-clinical and clinical studies and future market. The aim of the present study was thus to investigate pharmacokinetic properties of beta-lapachone as well as its first-pass metabolism in the liver, and small and large intestines after oral administration to measure the absolute bioavailability in rats. A sensitive HPLC method was developed to evaluate levels of beta-lapachone in plasma and organ homogenates. The drug degradation profiles were examined in plasma to assess the stability of the drug and in liver and intestinal homogenates to evaluate first-pass metabolism. Pharmacokinetic profiles were obtained after oral and intravenous administration of beta-lapachone at doses of 40 mg/kg and 1.5 mg/kg, respectively. The measured oral bioavailability of beta-lapachone was 15.5%. The considerable degradation of beta-lapachone was seen in the organ homogenates but the drug was quite stable in plasma. In conclusion, we suggest that the fairly low oral bioavailability of beta-lapachone may be resulted from the first-pass metabolic degradation of beta-lapachone in the liver, small and large intestinal tracts and its low aqueous solubility.


Subject(s)
Administration, Intravenous , Administration, Oral , Animals , Biological Availability , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Dosage Forms , Intestines , Liver , Metabolism , Pharmacokinetics , Plasma , Rats , Solubility
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728002

ABSTRACT

We investigated the combined moisturizing effect of liposomal serine and a cosmeceutical base selected in this study. Serine is a major amino acid consisting of natural moisturizing factors and keratin, and the hydroxyl group of serine can actively interact with water molecules. Therefore, we hypothesized that serine efficiently delivered to the stratum corneum (SC) of the skin would enhance the moisturizing capability of the skin. We prepared four different cosmeceutical bases (hydrogel, oil-in-water (O/W) essence, O/W cream, and water-in-oil (W/O) cream); their moisturizing abilities were then assessed using a Corneometer(R). The hydrogel was selected as the optimum base for skin moisturization based on the area under the moisture content change-time curves (AUMCC) values used as a parameter for the water hold capacity of the skin. Liposomal serine prepared by a reverse-phase evaporation method was then incorporated in the hydrogel. The liposomal serine-incorporated hydrogel (serine level=1%) showed an approximately 1.62~1.77 times greater moisturizing effect on the skin than those of hydrogel, hydrogel with serine (1%), and hydrogel with blank liposome. However, the AUMCC values were not dependent on the level of serine in liposomal serine-loaded hydrogels. Together, the delivery of serine to the SC of the skin is a promising strategy for moisturizing the skin. This study is expected to be an important step in developing highly effective moisturizing cosmeceutical products.


Subject(s)
Hyaluronic Acid , Hydrogels , Hydrogels , Liposomes , Serine , Skin , Water
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727825

ABSTRACT

Retinyl palmitate (RP)-loaded pectinate micro- and nano-particles (PMP and PNP) were designed for stabilization of RP that is widely used as an anti-wrinkle agent in anti-aging cosmeceuticals. PMP/PNP were prepared with an ionotropic gelation method, and anti-oxidative activity of the particles was measured with a DPPH assay. The stability of RP in the particles along with pectin gel and ethanolic solution was then evaluated. In vitro release and skin permeation studies were performed using Franz diffusion cells. Distribution of RP in each skin tissue (stratum corneum, epidermis, and dermis) was also determined. PMP and PNP could be prepared with mean particle size diameters of 593~843 mum (PMP) and 530 nm (i.e., 0.53 mum, PNP). Anti-oxidative activity of PNP was greater than PMP due largely to larger surface area available for PNP. The stability of RP in PMP and PNP was similar but much greater than RP in pectin bulk gels and ethanolic solution. PMP and PNP showed the abilities to constantly release RP and it could be permeated across the model artificial membrane and rat whole skin. RP was serially deposited throughout the skin layers. This study implies RP loaded PMP and PNP are expected to be advantageous for improved anti-wrinkle effects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diffusion , Epidermis , Ethanol , Gels , Membranes, Artificial , Nanoparticles , Particle Size , Rats , Skin
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-138505

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of stabilization of retinyl palmitate (RP) on its skin permeation and distribution profiles. Skin permeation and distribution study were performed using Franz diffusion cells along with rat dorsal skin, and the effect of drug concentration and the addition of pectin on skin deposition profiles of RP was observed. The skin distribution of RP increased in a concentration dependent manner and the formulations containing 0.5 and 1 mg of pectin demonstrated significantly increased RP distributions in the epidermis. Furthermore, it was found that skin distribution of RP could be further improved by combined use of pectin and ascorbyl palmitate (AP), due largely to their anti-oxidative effect. These results clearly demonstrate that the skin deposition properties of RP can be improved by stabilizing RP with pectin. Therefore, it is strongly suggested that pectin could be used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic formulations as an efficient stabilizing agent and as skin penetration modulator.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diffusion , Epidermis , Rats , Skin
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-138504

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of stabilization of retinyl palmitate (RP) on its skin permeation and distribution profiles. Skin permeation and distribution study were performed using Franz diffusion cells along with rat dorsal skin, and the effect of drug concentration and the addition of pectin on skin deposition profiles of RP was observed. The skin distribution of RP increased in a concentration dependent manner and the formulations containing 0.5 and 1 mg of pectin demonstrated significantly increased RP distributions in the epidermis. Furthermore, it was found that skin distribution of RP could be further improved by combined use of pectin and ascorbyl palmitate (AP), due largely to their anti-oxidative effect. These results clearly demonstrate that the skin deposition properties of RP can be improved by stabilizing RP with pectin. Therefore, it is strongly suggested that pectin could be used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic formulations as an efficient stabilizing agent and as skin penetration modulator.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diffusion , Epidermis , Rats , Skin
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727698

ABSTRACT

DWP208 is a sodium succinate form of ZYM-201 which is a triterpenoid glycoside isolated from Sanguisorba officinalis, a medicinal plant prescribed for various diseases, such as duodenal ulcers and bleeding in East Asian counties. We demonstrated that this compound is able to normalize the altered lipid metabolism induced by hyperglycemia and a high fat diet. In this study, we determined whether hyperlipidemic conditions induced with chronically treated alcohol can also be restored by DWP208. Similar to our previous results, orally administered DWP208 (1 to 10 mg/kg) also ameliorated the hyperlipidemia that was induced by alcohol. This compound reversed the alcohol-induced hyperlipidemia including (i) up-regulated hyperlipidemic parameters such as low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), atherosclerotic index (AI), triglyceride, and total cholesterol, and (ii) down-regulated hyperlipidemic parameters such as absolute body weight, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in serum and liver. According to our data, the ameliorative activity of DWP208 is due to its indirect anti-oxidative activity as a result of which lipid peroxide and hydroxyl radical levels were reduced and the activity of SOD was enhanced. Therefore, our data strongly suggest that DWP208 can be used as a remedy against alcohol-induced hyperlipidemia.


Subject(s)
Asians , Body Weight , Cholesterol , Diet, High-Fat , Duodenal Ulcer , Hemorrhage , Humans , Hydroxyl Radical , Hyperglycemia , Hyperlipidemias , Lipid Metabolism , Lipoproteins , Liver , Plants, Medicinal , Sanguisorba , Sodium , Succinic Acid , Superoxide Dismutase , Triglycerides
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728178

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of micellar systems on the absorption of beta-lapachone (b-lap) through different intestinal segments using a single-pass rat intestinal perfusion technique. B-lap was solubilized in mixed micelles composed of phosphatidylcholine and sodium deoxycholate, and in sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS)-based conventional micelles. Both mixed micelles and SLS micelles improved the in situ permeability of b-lap in all intestinal segments tested although the mixed micellar formulation was more effective in increasing the intestinal absorption of b-lap. The permeability of b-lap was greatest in the large intestinal segments. Compared with SLS micelles, the effective permeability coefficient values measured with mixed micelles were 5- to 23-fold higher depending on the intestinal segment. Our data suggest that b-lap should be delivered to the large intestine using a mixed micellar system for improved absorption.


Subject(s)
Absorption , Animals , Deoxycholic Acid , Intestinal Absorption , Intestine, Large , Mice , Micelles , Naphthoquinones , Perfusion , Permeability , Phosphatidylcholines , Rats , Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727470

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to examine the anti-oxidative activity of pectin and other polysaccharides in order to develop a cosmeceutical base having anti-oxidative effects towards retinyl palmitate (RP). The anti-oxidative stabilizing effects of pectin and other polysaccharides on RP were evaluated by DPPH assay and then the stabilizing effect of pectin on RP was examined as a function of time. Among the polysaccharides we examined, pectin exhibited a considerably higher anti-oxidative activity, with an approximately 5-fold greater DPPH radical scavenging effect compared to other polysaccharides. The DPPH radical scavenging effect of pectin increased gradually with increasing concentrations of pectin. At two different RP concentrations, 0.01 and 0.1% in ethanol, addition of pectin improved the stability of RP in a concentration dependent manner. The stabilizing effect of pectin on RP was more effective for the lower concentration of RP (0.01%, v/v). Further, degradation of RP was reduced following the addition of pectin as measured over 8 hours. From the results obtained, it can be suggested that pectin may be a promising ingredient for cosmeceutical bases designed to stabilize RP or other pharmacological agents subject to degradation by oxidation.


Subject(s)
Ethanol , Pectins , Polysaccharides , Vitamin A
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728099

ABSTRACT

The objective of the present study was to establish the method of measurement of hydrogen peroxide and to estimate the anti-oxidative effect of genistein in the skin. UVB induced skin oxidation and anti-oxidative effect of genistein formulations were evaluated by determining levels of hydrogen peroxide. The mechanism involved in the determination of hydrogen peroxide is based on a color reaction between ferric ion (Fe3+) and xylenol orange, often called FOX assay and subsequent monitoring of absorbance values of the reactant at 540 nm. The reaction was to some extent pH-dependent and detection sensitivity was greatest at pH 1.75. Genistein liposomal gel demonstrated better anti-oxidative effect with regard to lowering hydrogen peroxide levels elevated by UVB irradiation compared to genistein-suspended gel. A linear relationship has been observed between anti-oxidative effect of genistein and drug deposition in the skin tissue. Genistein liposomal gel resulting in the localization of the drug in the deeper skin led to improved anti-oxidative effect compared to genistein gel. The suggested method for evaluation of oxidation of the skin can be used as a tool to screen effective anti-oxidative agents and their delivery systems acting on the skin.


Subject(s)
Citrus sinensis , Genistein , Hydrogen Peroxide , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Phenols , Skin , Sulfoxides
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-111868

ABSTRACT

Korean raspberry, Rubus coreanus Miquel (RCM), contains high concentrations of phenolic compounds, which prevent oxidative stress. To determine the effect of RCM on antioxidant capacity in humans, we assessed in vivo lipid oxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities from plasma in 15 healthy men. The subjects ingested 30 g of freeze-dried RCM daily for 4 weeks. Blood was taken at baseline and at the end of the study to determine blood lipid profiles, fasting plasma glucose, liver function, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant enzyme activities. RCM supplementation had no effect on blood lipid or fasting plasma glucose concentrations but decreased alkaline phosphatase activity. RCM supplementation increased glutathione peroxidase activities (P < 0.05) but had no effect on lipid peroxidation. These results suggest that short-term RCM supplementation may offer health benefits by enhancing antioxidant capacity in a healthy population.


Subject(s)
Alkaline Phosphatase , Fasting , Glucose , Glutathione Peroxidase , Humans , Insurance Benefits , Lipid Peroxidation , Liver , Male , Oxidative Stress , Phenol , Plasma
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