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1.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-219130

ABSTRACT

Background:To assess length and shape of nasopalatine canal on human dry skulls. Subjects and Methods:Fifty- four dry human skulls of either gender was recruited for the study. The length of the nasopalatine canal was measured from the definite point (interproximal region) of the central incisors to the distal end of the incisive foramen. Incisive foramen diameter was calculated in the sagittal plane by measuring the anteroposterior distance of the oral entrance of the NPC. Shape was categorized into 4 types, Cylindrical, funnel, hourglass and spindle shape.Results:The mean length of nasopalatine canal was 16.2 mm in males and 13.4 mm in females. A significant difference was observed (P< 0.05). A non- significant difference in male (5.3 mm) and females (4.9 mm) incisive foramen diameter was observed. The most common shape of nasopalatine canal was cylindrical in 23, funnel in 7, hourglass in 21 and spindle shape in 3 skulls. A significant difference was observed (P< 0.05).Conclusion: Nasopalatine canal morphology assessment is essential to prevent iatrogenic injury to the anatomical structures. Mostcommon shape found to be hour glass and cylindrical

2.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-204876

ABSTRACT

A solar-biogas hybrid dryer was designed, developed and tested for onion drying with a capacity of 8 kg/batch. Solar energy was utilized as primary energy for onion drying in a greenhouse type drying chamber (direct solar) and biogas powered air heater used as a supplementary heat source for continuous operation. The hybrid dryer consists of greenhouse type drying chamber, concentric pipe air heater and biogas burner. The greenhouse type drying chamber has floor area of 1300 mm×900 mm and collector area of 3 m2. The dryer was operated as a solar dryer during normal sunny day and hybrid mode whenever sunlight is insufficient to maintain desired 60°C inside the drying chamber. The results indicated that the moisture content of onion slices reduced from 80.06% (wb) to 9.88% (wb) in 12 hours in hybrid mode drying. A biogas powered air heater operated for 3 hours in a day with effectiveness of 0.87 and biogas burner efficiency of 47.59%. The dryer was techno-economically feasible with a benefit cost ratio of 1.12 and payback period of 2.1 years.

3.
Int J Pharm Pharm Sci ; 2020 Jun; 12(6): 8-14
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-206102

ABSTRACT

At present, there is a lot of research about the pyrazoline heterocyclic compound, its ring structure is being changed and new derivatives are being made, many of which have antimicrobial activity over the derivatives. Pyrazoline is the five-member heterocyclic ring which have two N atoms in nearby position and contains two endocyclic double bonds. Noteworthy consideration has been concentrated on pyrazolines and pyrazoline derivative due to their important pharmacological action. Some replaced pyrazolines have been stated near retain particular important pharmacological actions as antimicrobial, antifungal, antineoplastic, antidepressant, insecticidal, anticonvulsant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antitumor properties.

4.
J Environ Biol ; 2019 Sep; 40(5): 1079-1083
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-214630

ABSTRACT

Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of spermine, a polyamine as a protective agent on accelerated ageing of onion seeds. Methodology: Onion seeds variety Pusa Riddhi was primed with six concentrations of spermine (0.10 mM to 1.25 mM) and also with hydration and halopriming (2% K2HPO4). Hydrated, haloprimed and un-primed seeds were used as control. The primed and control seeds were accelerated aged at 45 oC and 100 % RH for 72 hr. Seed quality was assessed in control, freshly primed seeds, and in primed seeds subjected to accelerate ageing. Results: All priming treatments enhanced the seed quality, there was 2.34–20.33 % increase in germination. Seed priming with 2% K2HPO4 had highest seed quality improvement which was at par with 1.25 mM spermine primed seeds. Enhanced seed vigour and the activity of antioxidant enzymes over un-primed seeds was observed in both 2% K2HPO4 and spermine primed seeds over unprimed seds. Seeds primed with 1.25 mM spermine recorded 66.66 % and 650 % increase in the activity of ROS scavenging enzymes SOD and POD respectively, but they were at par with halopriming. After accelerated ageing, deterioration in seed quality was minimal in seeds primed with spermine. Seeds primed with 1.25 mM spermine recorded 21.33% higher germination, 62.10 % higher speed of germination, 26.56 % longer seedlings, 13.68 % heavier seedlings and 175 % and 200 % higher SOD and POD activity as comparised to un-primed seeds. Seeds primed with 1.25 mM spermine also performed better over halopriming and hydropriming treatments. Interpretation: Onion seed priming with 1.25 mM spermine was most effective treatment in enhancing the seed germination and vigour under accelerated ageing conditions.

5.
Br J Med Med Res ; 2016; 12(10): 1-8
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-182394

ABSTRACT

Aims: To evaluate the role of delayed primary suturing in prevention of sepsis and achieving better cosmetic appearance in animal bite injuries over the head and neck areas. Study Design: Prospective observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Otorhinolaryngology at Govt. Medical College, Nanded, Maharasthra, (India) from a period of Jan 2009 to Dec 2013. Methodology: A prospective observational study of 70 cases of patients presented to us in the form of injury to head and neck area by animal bites. In all patients we followed the standard norm for delayed primary closure in form of: • Thorough wound toileting • Equine Rabies Immunoglobulin at the site of wound in all patients • Anti-Rabies vaccination • Daily dressing • Delayed primary suturing after 10 days All patients were routinely followed up and assessed for wound sepsis, cosmesis and function. Results: Among the animal bites, dog bite injuries were found to be most common facial injuries followed by swine and cat. In our study group of 70 patients which was dominated by males from second decade onwards showed a faint line of demarcation in sex distribution in children. Cosmetic outcome on comparing our study of delayed primary closure with Paschos NK et al. study healing by secondary intention, delayed primary suturing exhibited significantly better result with the mean score of (1.50) for VSS compared to healing by secondary intention group with mean score of (3.05) for VSS was recorded (p= 0.000) (95% CI 0.1516-0.1494). Conclusion: Delayed primary closure exhibited improved cosmetic appearance when compared with healing by secondary intention.

6.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-170218

ABSTRACT

Yaws, a non-venereal treponematosis, affecting primarily the tribal populations, has been considered historically as one of the most neglected tropical diseases in the world. In 1996, India piloted an initiative to eradicate yaws based on a strategy consisting of active case finding through house-to-house search and treatment of cases and their contacts with long acting penicillin. Thereafter, the campaign implemented in all 51 endemic districts in 10 states of the country led to the achievement of a yaws-free status in 2004. In the post-elimination phase, surveillance activities accompanied by serological surveys were continued in the erstwhile endemic districts. These surveys carried out among children between the age of 1-5 yr, further confirmed the absence of community transmission in the country. The experience of India demonstrates that yaws can be eradicated in all endemic countries of Africa and Asia, provided that political commitment can be mobilized and community level activities sustained until the goal is achieved.

9.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-162114

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Height has been one of the impressive factors for personal identification of individuals since long ago & has always been of immense interest to anthropologists & for medico-legal purposes in Forensic Medicine. Methods: The present study was conducted on 800 Students (400 male & 400 female) medical students of cosmopolitan origin, ranging from age group of 17 – 25 years of Western U.P. The measurements were taken at fixed time between 2 to 5 p.m. to eliminate the discrepancies due to diurnal variation. Results: Gender differences with respect to the mean cranial length, cranial breadths were found to be significantly larger in males compared to females. Correlation coefficient between the stature and measured cranial dimensions were found to be statistically significant and positive in both males and females. Independent linear regression analyses for predicting the stature using the head length and head breadth in both genders were: Male - Stature = 109.97+3.18 x hl; Stature = 107.64+4.19 x hb Female - Stature = 121.54+2.03 x hl; Stature = 114.88+2.58 x hb. For height & cranial dimensions measurements, all three estimates yielded a very high degree of precision (TEM < 0.5 cm, rTEM < 0.84%, and R ≥ 0.98). These results suggest that both height and cranial dimensions a are sufficiently precise for anthropometric research applications. Conclusion: If one of the parameter is known the other can be known by applying the regression equations and this is of paramount importance to the forensic and anthropology sciences.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Body Height/analysis , Body Height/ethnology , Body Height/etiology , Cephalometry/methods , Craniology , Female , Gender Identity , Humans , India , Male , Population Groups , Skull/anatomy & histology , Skull/ethnology , Young Adult
11.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-154396

ABSTRACT

Background. Recent research shows that pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) programmes in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD), reduced dyspnoea, improved exercise capacity, and prevented occurrence of further exacerbations. Objective. To evaluate the utility of a 3-week PR programme in patients with AECOPD. Methods. Patients admitted with AECOPD, following clinical stabilisation in the respiratroy intensive care unit (RICU), were alternately assigned to intervention (n=15); and control groups (n=15), respectively. Baseline assessment included spirometry, six-minute walk test (6MWT), symptom limited cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET), health-related quality of life (HRQoL) assessment by generic questionnaire medical outcomes study short form (S-F 36) questionnaire and dyspnoea evaluation by Borg score. The intervention group patients were treated with usual care plus PR exercises in the form of 20 minutes each of walking, bicycle ergometry and resistance exercises, thrice-weekly for three weeks. The control group patients were treated with only the usual care. After discharge from hospital the treatment regimens were continued on alternate days on outpatient basis, for a total of three weeks. The assessment was repeated in both the groups after three weeks. Results. Nine sessions of PR exercises produced statistically significant improvement in general well-being, forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), 6MWT parameters, exercise capacity, peak oxygen uptake and volume of oxygen consumption (VO2)/Watts slope on CPET in patients with AECOPD.


Subject(s)
Acute Disease , Aged , Case-Control Studies , Dyspnea/rehabilitation , Exercise Therapy/methods , Exercise Tolerance , Female , Humans , Inpatients , Intensive Care Units , Male , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/rehabilitation , Quality of Life , Surveys and Questionnaires , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Walking
12.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-149452

ABSTRACT

The incidence of emerging infectious diseases in humans has increased within the recent past or threatens to increase in the near future. Over 30 new infectious agents have been detected worldwide in the last three decades; 60 per cent of these are of zoonotic origin. Developing countries such as India suffer disproportionately from the burden of infectious diseases given the confluence of existing environmental, socio-economic, and demographic factors. In the recent past, India has seen outbreaks of eight organisms of emerging and re-emerging diseases in various parts of the country, six of these are of zoonotic origin. Prevention and control of emerging infectious diseases will increasingly require the application of sophisticated epidemiologic and molecular biologic technologies, changes in human behaviour, a national policy on early detection of and rapid response to emerging infections and a plan of action. WHO has made several recommendations for national response mechanisms. Many of these are in various stages of implementation in India. However, for a country of size and population of India, the emerging infections remain a real and present danger. A meaningful response must approach the problem at the systems level. A comprehensive national strategy on infectious diseases cutting across all relevant sectors with emphasis on strengthened surveillance, rapid response, partnership building and research to guide public policy is needed.

13.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2008 Dec; 46(12): 817-21
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-58337

ABSTRACT

To search for an herbal remedy for protection against and treatment for typhoid fever, a number of plants were screened. Anti-Salmonella activity of Terminalia belerica, an ingredient of Ayurvedic preparation 'triphala' used for treatment of digestive and liver disorders, has been reported. Fruits of T. belerica were extracted with petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone, alcohol and water and efficacy of extracts against Salmonella typhi and Salmonella typhimurium was evaluated. Alcoholic and water extracts of T. belerica showed significant anti-Salmonella activity and MIC was 12.5 mg/ml against S. typhimurium. Aqueous extracts of Picrohiza kurroa and Vitits vinefera also showed low anti-Salmonella activity where as aqueous extracts of Asparagus racemosus and Zingiber officinale showed no anti-Salmonella activity. Extracts of T. belerica, Picrohiza kurroa and Vitits vinefera with other solvents such as chloroform and petroleum ether showed insignificant activity. Results showed that aqueous extract of T. belerica was bactericidal at high concentrations where as low concentrations showed bacteriostatic property. In vitro cellular toxicity studies showed no cyto-toxicity associated with T. belerica extracts. Pretreatment of mice with aqueous extract of T. belerica conferred protection against experimental Salmonellosis and 100% survival of animals has been reported when challenged with lethal doses of S. typhimurium.

15.
Indian J Pediatr ; 2008 Jan; 75(1): 31-7
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-79138

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To confirm the existence of the outbreak of suspected Japanese encephalitis, identify the source, to understand the circumstances due to which the outbreak was taking place and to suggest measures for its control. METHODS: The team visited Bellary from 4th to 10th Sept, 2004. The team interviewed the key persons and analyzed the records at District Surveillance Unit and Entomological Surveillance Unit and case records of suspected JE cases admitted in Encephalitis ward in Vijay Nagar Institute of Medical Sciences (VIMS). Eco-entomological survey was done in houses and surroundings of 3 randomly selected cases of Encephalitis in rural and urban areas of District Bellary. Their family members and neighbors were also asked for the awareness and presence of disease. Data was analyzed for epidemiological and clinical profiles. RESULTS: The suspected JE cases were being reported from end of June 2004. The cases were sporadic and out of 34 cases reported to VIMS (till 10th of September), 32 were from Bellary district and 2 were from adjoining Andhra Pradesh. Among these 32, 22 were from Bellary Taluk, which in turn were mainly concentrated (10 were reported) in urban Bellary. The case fatality rate was zero as no death was reported. Entomological surveillance (done by District Surveillance Unit) revealed a high outdoor presence of Culex tritaeniorhynchus as well as an indoor rising density of this mosquito from 2 per man hour catch in January to 22 in the month of August in the affected villages. On the contrary, the investigations on 7th and 8th September revealed high densities of An.subpictus and An. peditaenatus and nil of Culex species in the urban areas. Amplifier host of pigs and water birds were occasionally sighted in the area. CONCLUSION: A good community awareness of encephalitis, a prompt referral system and a good supportive treatment for the patients and a good surveillance system and response were observed. Very close proximity with amplifying hosts of pigs was avoided by the community, though piggeries were still not very far away (1-3 Km). These may explain the reduction in cases, deaths and disabilities due to this disease in this district over the years. Possibilities of mutant strain which is less virulent and/or a better immune status of at risk population may also need to be explored. The impact of the mass vaccination with SA 14-14-2, imported from China in Bellary during July, 2006 remains to be evaluated. This will further decrease the case load.


Subject(s)
Animals , Child , Child, Preschool , Culex , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Encephalitis Virus, Japanese/isolation & purification , Encephalitis, Japanese/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Incidence , India/epidemiology , Infant , Insect Vectors , Japanese Encephalitis Vaccines , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data
16.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2007 Oct; 44(5): 320-30
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-27352

ABSTRACT

Salmonella, a facultative intracellular Gram-negative bacterium infects a wide range of hosts causing several gastrointestinal diseases and enteric fever in humans and certain animal species. Typhoid caused by Salmonella typhi remains a major health concern in India and worldwide. Also, with emergence of multidrug resistant strains, Salmonella has acquired increased virulence, communicability and survivability, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. Though a number of vaccines for typhoid are available against S. typhi (or also against S. typhimurium), these have certain undesirable side effects and the search for new immunogens suitable for vaccine formulation is still continuing. The immune response to primary Salmonella infection involves both humoral and cell-mediated responses. The protective immunity against Salmonella depends on host- parasite interaction, however; the detailed mechanism of virulence, innate resistance and susceptibility of host remains unclear. This review focuses on the molecular, immunological and cellular mechanisms of pathogenesis of Salmonella infection to provide an insight to counteract bacterial infections and allow a better understanding of its clinical manifestations. It also reviews better technological possibilities combined with increased knowledge in related fields such as immunology and molecular biology and allow for new vaccination strategies. Some new approaches such as subunit and nucleic acid vaccines and recombinant antigen which are becoming increasingly important for the development of potential vaccines have also been discussed. A significant progress has been made in our understanding of Salmonella pathogenesis. Despite these efforts, however, many challenges exist, especially for investigators who aim to understand how the pathogenic mechanisms operating in vitro apply to in vivo model systems. However, unyielding work and collaborations between Salmonella researchers and clinicians worldwide have made significant contributions to understanding the interaction between virulence determinants and immunity required to stop the spread of this pathogen.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins/immunology , Humans , Membrane Proteins/immunology , Models, Immunological , Salmonella typhi/immunology , Typhoid Fever/immunology
17.
Indian J Pediatr ; 2007 May; 74(5): 471-6
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-83607

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Effective early management at home level and health seeking behavior in case of appearance of danger signs are key strategies in Acute respiratory Infections (ARI) and Acute Diarrheal Diseases (ADD) where majority of episodes are self-limiting and viral in origin. Integrated Management of Childhood illnesses (IMNCI) also envisages that family and community health practices especially health care seeking behaviors are to be improved to reduce childhood morbidity, mortality and cost of admissions to hospitals. Thus, a study was undertaken at an urban slum area--'Gokul Puri' in Delhi, among under-5 children with the aim to assess the magnitudes of ARI and ADD. METHODS: A Cross-sectional survey was conducted in this urban slum of Trans-Yamuna, covering 1307 under-5 children for five days starting from 9th of August, 2004. Survey team consisted of 14 FETP Participants (WHO Fellows) from India, Nepal, Myanmar, Bhutan and Sri Lanka. A pre-tested, house-hold tally marking form was used to interview the caretakers/mothers. History of episodes of ARI and/or ADD in the last two weeks was asked. Health care practices including use of ORS &home available fluids in diarrhea, continued feeding during diarrhea, awareness of danger signs of ARI &ADD and medical advice sought were asked of those mothers whose children had such an episode. RESULTS: 191 (14.6 %) of 1307 children surveyed, had an attack of ARI in the preceding two wk. The common symptoms of ARI cases were mild running nose (78%), cough (76.4%) and/or fever (45.5%). Only 8 (4%) had fast breathing. One or more danger signs were known to 80% (152/191) of mothers and an equal number (80%) of mothers had sought treatment. ARIs are mostly mild or self limiting but only 16% of caretakers perceived so and doctors also prescribed medicines. The attack rate of Acute Diarrheal Diseases was 7.73% in the study and ADD's annual adjusted morbidity rate was 1.69 episodes per child per year. Though nearly three-fourth of mothers (71.3%) had reported to be seeking medical advice (which is not needed in mild episodes of diarrhea) the ORS use was 38.6%, use of Home available fluids (HAF) was 42% and continued feeding was 50% during the ADD episode and awareness of at least two danger signs was present in 34%. CONCLUSION: Though aware of danger signs of ARI, care takers were still seeking medical advice for mild cases of ARI and doctors were prescribing drugs. Correct home based management e.g. use of ORS, continued feeding etc. was deficient in the community. Knowledge of danger symptoms was low and medical advice was being sought and drugs were being prescribed for ADD, too.


Subject(s)
Acute Disease , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diarrhea, Infantile/mortality , Fluid Therapy , Humans , India/epidemiology , Infant , Poverty Areas , Respiratory Tract Infections/mortality , Urban Population
18.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113104

ABSTRACT

An investigation of chikungunya outbreak cases was carried out in Bhilwara District, Rajasthan during Aug-Sep 2006. Fever with multiple joint pains was the first presenting feature. Aedes larval surveys indicate high Breteau index (78.6 to 200), House index (48.0 to 83.3) & Container index (41.1 to 73.6) above the critical index. Out of 40 sera samples tested, 12 showed HI antibodies for chikungunya virus in high titres and another five were positive for IgM antibodies against chikungunya. The clinico-epidemiological, laboratory and entomological investigations confirm that this episode of fever was due to chikungunya fever. Strengthening and intensification of surveillance along with educating the community were recommended for control of outbreak.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aedes/physiology , Alphavirus Infections/epidemiology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Chikungunya virus/immunology , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Immunoglobulin M/blood , India/epidemiology , Infant , Insect Vectors/physiology , Larva/physiology , Middle Aged , Population Surveillance , Time Factors
19.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-171348

ABSTRACT

To study insulin resistance and its clinico metabolic correlates in 20 euglycemic cirrhotics by Modified Harano's method. 20 euglycemic cirrhotics (18 male and 2 female; 14 alcoholic & 6 post hepatitis B) and equal number of age, sex and BMI matched healthy controls of mean ± SD age 37.1±8.35 v/s 36.5±7.48 years and BMI 18.4±1.83 v/s 18.5±1.77 kg/m2 were enrolled. All subjects underwent 75 gram oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in a fasting state. Samples for glucose (0,30,60, 90 & 120 min) and insulin ( 0 & 120 min) were withdrawn. Assessment of insulin resistance was carried out by Insulin suppression test (Modified Harano's method) i.e. simultaneous infusion of glucose as 20% dextrose @ 6 mg/kg/min and plain human insulin @ 50 mU/kg/hr. Steady state plasma glucose (SSPG) and steady state plasma insulin (SSSI) of 120-150 min of infusion were determined. Metabolic clearance rate for glucose (MCR) calculated as rate of glucose infusion/SSPG and insulin clearance rate (ICR) as rate of insulin infusion/SSSI. Lower the MCR and ICR, higher is the state of IR. Correlations of MCR and ICR with various clinical and metabolic variables were then studied. The result of present study suggests that cirrhosis is an insulin resistant state with low clearance rates for glucose and insulin, significant higher levels of glucose and insulin in postprandial state and markedly low levels of lipids. The state of insulin resistance is independent of severity of hepatic decompensation as classified by Child-Pugh's classification, etiology, nutritional status, clinical state, liver function tests and serum lipids.

20.
Indian J Pediatr ; 2006 Jan; 73(1): 43-7
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-84449

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study was planned to evaluate the MCH services, particularly immunization in rural areas of the poor-performing state of Rajasthan. METHODS: A community-based, cross-sectional survey using the WHO 30 cluster technique was carried out as a field exercise by participants of 9th Field Epidemiology Training Programme (FETP) course by National Institute of Communicable Diseases (NICD) in rural areas of Alwar district of Rajasthan. RESULTS: Less than one third (28.9%) of children, aged 12-23 months, were fully immunized with BCG, 3 DPT, 3 OPV and Measles vaccines; around a quarter (26.5%) had not received even a single vaccine (non immunized), and little less than half (44.5%) were found partially immunized. Around half of the eligible children were vaccinated for BCG (55.9%) and Measles (43.6%). Though nearly two-third (66.8%) were covered with first dose of DPT and OPV, but about one third of these children dropped out of third dose of DPT and OPV for various reasons. National Family Health Survey (NFHS) data also had revealed that BCG coverage was 64.3%; measles was 36.2%; and coverage by DPT 1, 2, 3 and Polio 1,2 and 3 were 64.4%, 57.0%, 46.6% and 77.5%, 71.1% and 54.4% respectively in rural areas. The main reasons for drop-out or non-immunization was "lack of information about the immunization programme" (41.3%). Though nearly all (more than 96%) of the children were immunized through Government established centers, but immunization cards/documents were made available only to 27.6% of children. CONCLUSION: The problem of low coverage and high drop-out rate of immunization could be overcome by creating awareness of the program and relevance of 2nd and 3rd doses of DPT and polio vaccines. Increasing community participation through intensive and extensive health education campaign should also be undertaken. Since most of the deliveries were done at home under the supervision of untrained midwives, training programme as well as involving them in IEC activities should be contemplated.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Diseases/mortality , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Education/methods , Humans , India/epidemiology , Infant , Infant Mortality , Mass Vaccination/organization & administration , Patient Compliance , Rural Population , Survival Analysis
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