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1.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 30-39, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913822

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#K-MASTER project is a Korean national precision medicine platform that screened actionable mutations by analyzing next-generation sequencing (NGS) of solid tumor patients. We compared gene analyses between NGS panel from the K-MASTER project and orthogonal methods. @*Materials and Methods@#Colorectal, breast, non–small cell lung, and gastric cancer patients were included. We compared NGS results from K-MASTER projects with those of non-NGS orthogonal methods (KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF mutations in colorectal cancer [CRC]; epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR], anaplastic lymphoma kinase [ALK] fusion, and reactive oxygen species 1 [ROS1] fusion in non–small cell lung cancer [NSCLC], and Erb-B2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (ERBB2) positivity in breast and gastric cancers). @*Results@#In the CRC cohort (n=225), the sensitivity and specificity of NGS were 87.4% and 79.3% (KRAS); 88.9% and 98.9% (NRAS); and 77.8% and 100.0% (BRAF), respectively. In the NSCLC cohort (n=109), the sensitivity and specificity of NGS for EGFR were 86.2% and 97.5%, respectively. The concordance rate for ALK fusion was 100%, but ROS1 fusion was positive in only one of three cases that were positive in orthogonal tests. In the breast cancer cohort (n=260), ERBB2 amplification was detected in 45 by NGS. Compared with orthogonal methods that integrated immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, sensitivity and specificity were 53.7% and 99.4%, respectively. In the gastric cancer cohort (n=64), ERBB2 amplification was detected in six by NGS. Compared with orthogonal methods, sensitivity and specificity were 62.5% and 98.2%, respectively. @*Conclusion@#The results of the K-MASTER NGS panel and orthogonal methods showed a different degree of agreement for each genetic alteration, but generally showed a high agreement rate.

2.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 668-678, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896001

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder that usually follows an indolent clinical course. However, some patients show an aggressive clinical course leading to death. We explored the risk factors predicting poor prognosis in WM patients. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed 47 patients diagnosed with WM between 2000 and 2018 to explore risk factors predicting poor prognosis using various clinical and laboratory parameters and risk models including the International Prognostic Staging System for WM (IPSS-WM). @*Results@#Over a median follow-up duration of 80.4 months, 29 patients died. The main causes of death were disease progression, organ failure related to amyloidosis, and infection. The median overall survival (OS) was 55.1 months, and 14 patients, including three with amyloidosis, died within 2 years. Serum β2-microglobulin level higher than 4 mg/dL was significantly associated with poor OS. Accordingly, the IPSS-WM showed a significant association with poor prognosis compared with other risk models, and the low-risk group had better OS than intermediate- and high-risk groups. In the retrospective analysis using the results of targeted sequencing in two cases representing good and bad prognosis, different patterns of mutation profiles were observed, including mutations of MYD88, TP53, ARID1A, and JAK2 in a refractory case. @*Conclusions@#Serum β2-microglobulin could be a single biomarker strongly predictive of poor survival of WM patients, and the low-risk group of the IPSS-WM risk model including serum β2-microglobulin has better prognostic value than other risk models. Mutation analysis also might provide additional information to predict high-risk patients.

3.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 668-678, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903705

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder that usually follows an indolent clinical course. However, some patients show an aggressive clinical course leading to death. We explored the risk factors predicting poor prognosis in WM patients. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed 47 patients diagnosed with WM between 2000 and 2018 to explore risk factors predicting poor prognosis using various clinical and laboratory parameters and risk models including the International Prognostic Staging System for WM (IPSS-WM). @*Results@#Over a median follow-up duration of 80.4 months, 29 patients died. The main causes of death were disease progression, organ failure related to amyloidosis, and infection. The median overall survival (OS) was 55.1 months, and 14 patients, including three with amyloidosis, died within 2 years. Serum β2-microglobulin level higher than 4 mg/dL was significantly associated with poor OS. Accordingly, the IPSS-WM showed a significant association with poor prognosis compared with other risk models, and the low-risk group had better OS than intermediate- and high-risk groups. In the retrospective analysis using the results of targeted sequencing in two cases representing good and bad prognosis, different patterns of mutation profiles were observed, including mutations of MYD88, TP53, ARID1A, and JAK2 in a refractory case. @*Conclusions@#Serum β2-microglobulin could be a single biomarker strongly predictive of poor survival of WM patients, and the low-risk group of the IPSS-WM risk model including serum β2-microglobulin has better prognostic value than other risk models. Mutation analysis also might provide additional information to predict high-risk patients.

4.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 194-200, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894817

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#There remains a lot of unmet need to increase understanding of node-positive (ypN+) muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radical cystectomy to decide the appropriate therapeutics. @*Materials and Methods@#In a retrospective study using the center cancer chemotherapy registry, we found 113 MIBC patients who were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy involving gemcitabine and cisplatin (GP) followed by radical cystectomy between 2010 and 2014. Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were compared according to the pathologic node positivity (ypN- vs. ypN+). Among a total of 165 patients with MIBC who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy involving GP, 118 underwent radical cystectomy. In 46 patients with ypN+ disease, DFS and OS were evaluated according to administration of adjuvant GP. @*Results@#After neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radical cystectomy, 41% of patients had ypN+ disease, which showed significantly shorter DFS (median, 7.4 months; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.3–9.6 months) and OS (median, 20.0 months; 95% CI, 13.4–26.6 months) compared to those with ypN- disease. The patients with ypN+ disease had a high risk of recurrence or death, regardless of the administration of adjuvant chemotherapy or adjuvant regimen. @*Conclusions@#Within the limitations of this retrospective study, MIBC patients with ypN+ disease despite neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radical cystectomy had a poor prognosis. Further studies involving novel, effective adjuvant treatment including immunotherapy agents are needed to reduce the high risk of recurrence or death in these patients.

5.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 194-200, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902521

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#There remains a lot of unmet need to increase understanding of node-positive (ypN+) muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radical cystectomy to decide the appropriate therapeutics. @*Materials and Methods@#In a retrospective study using the center cancer chemotherapy registry, we found 113 MIBC patients who were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy involving gemcitabine and cisplatin (GP) followed by radical cystectomy between 2010 and 2014. Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were compared according to the pathologic node positivity (ypN- vs. ypN+). Among a total of 165 patients with MIBC who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy involving GP, 118 underwent radical cystectomy. In 46 patients with ypN+ disease, DFS and OS were evaluated according to administration of adjuvant GP. @*Results@#After neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radical cystectomy, 41% of patients had ypN+ disease, which showed significantly shorter DFS (median, 7.4 months; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.3–9.6 months) and OS (median, 20.0 months; 95% CI, 13.4–26.6 months) compared to those with ypN- disease. The patients with ypN+ disease had a high risk of recurrence or death, regardless of the administration of adjuvant chemotherapy or adjuvant regimen. @*Conclusions@#Within the limitations of this retrospective study, MIBC patients with ypN+ disease despite neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radical cystectomy had a poor prognosis. Further studies involving novel, effective adjuvant treatment including immunotherapy agents are needed to reduce the high risk of recurrence or death in these patients.

6.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 493-501, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763145

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation and clinical outcomes in patients with stage III non-squamous cell lung cancer treated with definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2008 to December 2013, the medical records of 197 patients with stage III non- squamous non-small cell lung cancer treated with definitive CCRT were analyzed to determine progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) according to EGFR mutation status. RESULTS: Among 197 eligible patients, 81 patients were EGFR wild type, 36 patients had an EGFR mutation (exon 19 Del, n=18; L858R, n=9, uncommon [G719X, L868, T790M], n=9), and 80 patients had unknown EGFR status. The median age was 59 years (range, 28 to 80 years) and 136 patients (69.0%) were male. The median follow-up duration was 66.5 months (range, 1.9 to 114.5 months). One hundred sixty-four patients (83.2%) experienced disease progression. Median PFS was 8.9 months for the EGFR mutation group, 11.8 months for EGFR wild type, and 10.5 months for the unknown EGFR group (p=0.013 and p=0.042, respectively). The most common site of metastasis in the EGFR mutant group was the brain. However, there was no significant difference in OS among the three groups (34.6 months for EGFR mutant group vs. 31.9 months for EGFR wild type vs. 22.6 months for EGFR unknown group; p=0.792 and p=0.284). A total of 29 patients (80.6%) with EGFR mutation were treated with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (gefitinib, n=24; erlotinib, n=3; afatinib, n=2) upon progression. CONCLUSION: EGFR mutation is associatedwith short PFS and the brain is the most common site of distant metastasis in patients with stage III non- squamous cell lung cancer treated with CCRT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Brain , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Chemoradiotherapy , Disease Progression , Disease-Free Survival , Epithelial Cells , Erlotinib Hydrochloride , Follow-Up Studies , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Medical Records , Neoplasm Metastasis , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , ErbB Receptors
7.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 623-631, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763132

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) exon 20 insertion mutations account for approximately 4% of all EGFR mutations. Given the rarity of this mutation, its clinical outcomes are not fully established. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 2009 and 2017, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who showed an exon 20 insertion were retrospectively reviewed for clinical characteristics and outcomes, including responses to chemotherapy (CTx) or targeted therapy. RESULTS: Of 3,539 NSCLC patients who harbored an activating EGFR mutation, 56 (1.6%) had an exon 20 insertion. Of the advanced NSCLC patients, 27 of 1,479 (1.8%) had an exon 20 insertion. The median overall survival was 29.4 months (95% confidence interval 9.3 to 49.6) for 27 advancedNSCLC patients. The 22 patientswho received systemic CTx achieved a 50.0% response rate and a 77.2% disease control rate, with 4.2 months of progression-free survival. Six patients received EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Three of the four patients that had only an exon 20 insertion showed progressive disease, while one showed stable disease. The othertwo patients had an exon 20 insertion and another EGFR mutation and achieved a partial response. CONCLUSION: The incidence of an exon 20 insertion mutation is rare in Korea and occasionally accompanied by other common EGFR mutations. Although the response to systemic CTx. in these patients is comparable to that of patients with other mutations, the response rate to first- or second-generation EGFR TKIs is quite low. Therefore, the development of a more efficient agent is urgently needed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Exons , Incidence , Korea , Mutagenesis, Insertional , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , ErbB Receptors , Retrospective Studies
8.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 737-747, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763122

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We aimed to analyze the discordance between immunohistochemistry (IHC)-based surrogate subtyping and PAM50 intrinsic subtypes and to assess overall survival (OS) according to discordance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 607 patients were analyzed. Hormone receptor (HR) expression was evaluated by IHC, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expression was analyzed by IHC and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization. PAM50 intrinsic subtypes were determined according to 50 cancer genes using the NanoString nCounter Analysis System. We matched concordant tumor as luminal A and HR+/HER2–, luminal B and HR+/HER2+, HR–/HER2+ and HER2–enriched, and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and normal- or basal-like. We used Ion Ampliseq Cancer Panel v2 was used to identify the genomic alteration related with discordance. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate OS. RESULTS: In total, 233 patients (38.4%) were discordant between IHC-based subtype and PAM50 intrinsic subtype. Using targeted sequencing, we detected somatic mutation–related discordant breast cancer including the VHL gene in the HR+/HER2– group (31% in concordant group, 0% in discordant group, p=0.03) and the IDH and RET genes (7% vs. 12%, p=0.02 and 0% vs. 25%, p=0.02, respectively) in the TNBC group. Among the luminal A/B patients with a discordant result had significantly worse OS (median OS, 73.6 months vs. not reached; p < 0.001), and among the patients with HR positivity, the basal-like group as determined by PAM50 showed significantly inferior OS compared to other intrinsic subtypes (5-year OS rate, 92.2% vs. 75.6%; p=0.01). CONCLUSION: A substantial portion of patients showed discrepancy between IHC subtype and PAM50 intrinsic subtype in our study. The survival analysis demonstrated that current IHC-based classification could mislead the treatment and result in poor outcome. Current guidelines for IHC might be updated accordingly.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Classification , Fluorescence , Genes, Neoplasm , Immunohistochemistry , In Situ Hybridization , Methods , Phenobarbital , ErbB Receptors , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms
9.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 302-302, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739606

ABSTRACT

In this article, a grant number error was found in the Acknowledgments section.

10.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 266-273, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-126952

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to retrospectively compare the efficacy and tolerability between three regimens for first-line chemotherapy-gemcitabine plus capecitabine (GEM-X), gemcitabine plus erlotinib (GEM-T), and gemcitabine monotherapy (GEM)-in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: There was a total of 127 patients who underwent chemotherapy for pancreatic cancer between January 2007 and November 2011 at our institution. Patients were treated with either GEM (gemcitabine 1,000 mg/m2 on days 1, 8, and 15 every 4 weeks), GEM-T (gemcitabine 1,000 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8 every 3 weeks and erlotinib 100 mg daily), or GEM-X (gemcitabine 1,000 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8 every 3 weeks and capecitabine 850 mg/m2 twice daily for 2 weeks followed by 1 week's rest) as the first-line treatment. Progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), objective response rate (ORR), and toxicity were evaluated. RESULTS: The patient population was divided into groups depending on their first-line treatment: GEM (n=47), GEM-T (n=44), and GEM-X (n=36). GEM-X significantly improved ORR (21.2% vs. 12.7% and 15.9%), PFS (8.9 vs. 5.2 and 3.9 months; p < 0.001), and OS (12.1 vs. 10.4 and 9.9 months; p = 0.03) compared to GEM and GEM-T, respectively. There were higher incidences of some non-hematologic adverse events with GEM-X and GEM-T compared to GEM, but most were grade 1 or 2. CONCLUSION: GEM-X presented better clinical efficacy and acceptable tolerability than GEM-T and GEM in advanced pancreatic cancers. It is worthy to further investigate which agent has a clinical advantage as a combination drug with gemcitabine in pancreatic cancer and to explore the predictive markers leading to personalize anti-cancer treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Incidence , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Retrospective Studies
11.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 697-705, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-74294

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to validate the survival benefit of metastasectomy plus chemotherapy over chemotherapy alone for treatment of Krukenberg tumors from gastric cancer and to identify prognostic factors for survival. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinical data from 216 patients with Krukenberg tumors from gastric cancer were collected. Patients were divided into two arms according to treatment modality: arm A, metastasectomy plus chemotherapy and arm B, chemotherapy alone. RESULTS: Overall survival (OS) was significantly increased in arm A relative to arm B for patients initially diagnosed with stage IV gastric cancer (18.0 months vs. 8.0 months; p < 0.001) and those with recurrent Krukenberg tumors (19.0 months vs. 9.0 months; p=0.002), respectively. Metastasectomy (hazard ratio [HR], 0.458; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.287 to 0.732; p=0.001), signet-ring cell pathology (HR, 1.583; 95% CI, 1.057 to 2.371; p=0.026), and peritoneal carcinomatosis (HR, 3.081; 95% CI, 1.610 to 5.895; p=0.001) were significant prognostic factors for survival. CONCLUSION: Metastasectomy plus chemotherapy offers superior OS when compared to palliative chemotherapy alone in gastric cancer with Krukenberg tumor. Prolonged survival applies to all patients, regardless of gastric cancer stage. Metastasectomy, signet-ring cell pathology, and peritoneal carcinomatosis were prognostic factors for survival. Future prospective randomized trials are needed to confirm the optimal treatment strategy for Krukenberg tumors from gastric cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arm , Carcinoma , Drug Therapy , Krukenberg Tumor , Metastasectomy , Pathology , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Stomach Neoplasms
12.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 113-116, 2015.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-30803

ABSTRACT

Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is an unusual multifocal neoplastic angioproliferative disorder. We herein report a case of classic KS that occurred in a patient receiving hemodialysis for 7 years. The patient had a history of chronic renal failure due to glomerulonephritis for 20 years. Multiple reddened violaceous patches, plaques, and nodules were found on the right knee. Biopsy revealed positivity for human herpesvirus 8 (KS-associated herpesvirus) consistent with KS. Pazopanib, a multitarget tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is an effective agent for treatment of advanced soft tissue sarcoma. The patient received pazopanib for 6 months investigate its effects on KS. The skin lesions and painful symptoms showed improvement. Further studies are required to determine the mechanism underlying the anticancer action of pazopanib and the pathogenesis of KS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biopsy , Glomerulonephritis , Herpesvirus 8, Human , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Knee , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Renal Dialysis , Sarcoma , Sarcoma, Kaposi , Skin
13.
Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine ; : 21-24, 2014.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-99058

ABSTRACT

Clinical presentation of Bartter syndrome is similar to surrepitious vomiting or use of diuretics. Therefore, precise differential diagnosis of Bartter syndrome is crucial. We report a case of medullary nephrocalcinosis (MNC) induced by furosemide mimicking Bartter syndrome. A 55-year-old female patient visited our hospital with renal dysfunction on basis of hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis. She had no history of hypertension or drug use except allopurinol and atorvastatin. She did not complain of nausea or vomiting on presentation and the serum magnesium level was normal. We performed ultrasonography, that showed MNC. For these reasons, we suspected Bartter syndrome and corrected the electrolyte imbalance. During outpatient follow up, we found that the patient had been taking 400 mg of furosemide daily for 30 years. We could diagnose furosemide induced MNC, and recommended to her to reduce the amount of furosemide.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Alkalosis , Allopurinol , Bartter Syndrome , Diagnosis, Differential , Diuretics , Follow-Up Studies , Furosemide , Hypertension , Hypokalemia , Magnesium , Nausea , Nephrocalcinosis , Outpatients , Ultrasonography , Vomiting , Atorvastatin
14.
Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine ; : 109-111, 2013.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-194926

ABSTRACT

Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) peritonitis is a major complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) and leads to the discontinuation of PD. Despite its limited pathogenicity, CAPD peritonitis caused by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (S. maltophilia), an important nosocomial pathogen that is present in nature and is usually associated with plastic indwelling devices. Infection of S. maltophilia is associated with a poor prognosis, including inability to maintain the CAPD catheter, because of its resistance to multiple antibiotics. We report a case of CAPD peritonitis due to S. maltophilia that was treated successfully using oral Trimethoprim-sulfame-thoxazole and intraperitoneal Ticarcillin/clavulanate without removing the dialysis catheter.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Catheters , Dialysis , Peritoneal Dialysis , Peritoneal Dialysis, Continuous Ambulatory , Peritonitis , Plastics , Prognosis , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia , Stenotrophomonas , Virulence
15.
Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine ; : 120-123, 2013.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-194923

ABSTRACT

The common causes of organic mitral regurgitation (MR) include mitral valve prolapse (MVP) syndrome, rheumatic heart disease, and endocarditis. MR also occurs secondary to dilated cardiomyopathy and coronary artery disease. In acute severe MR, the hemodynamic overload often cannot be tolerated, and mitral valve repair or replacement must be performed immediately. We report herein a case of severe MR due to coronary vasospasm that was confirmed via ergonovine echocardiography in a 70-year-old man. He was scheduled to undergo mitral valve surgery, but it did not push through and he was put on medical therapy.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated , Coronary Artery Disease , Coronary Vasospasm , Echocardiography , Endocarditis , Ergonovine , Hemodynamics , Mitral Valve , Mitral Valve Insufficiency , Mitral Valve Prolapse , Rheumatic Heart Disease
16.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 101-105, 2013.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-53539

ABSTRACT

Sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT) is an unusual tumor in adults. The incidence of malignant transformation of this tumor increases when its excision is delayed beyond 1 month of age. We report an uncommon case of adenocarcinoma arising within the colonic mucosa of a mature teratoma of the sacrococcyx in a 44-year-old male. The patient received surgical resection for a sacrococcygeal mass in a local hospital and was diagnosed with adenocarcinoma arising from SCT. He was referred to our hospital for further treatment and received chemotherapy as adjuvant treatment. After 4.5 years, the coccygeal mass recurred on follow-up imaging workup, and surgical resection was performed. On pathologic work-up, residual disease at the resection margin was identified microscopically. Pathologic diagnosis was a primary adenocarcinoma arising from the colonic mucosa within a mature teratoma. The patient received adjuvant-chemotherapy and radiotherapy and has been followed up.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Adenocarcinoma , Colon , Follow-Up Studies , Incidence , Mucous Membrane , Teratoma
17.
Korean Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery ; : 214-217, 1993.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-645835

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic
18.
Korean Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery ; : 5-14, 1993.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-644245

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Ear , Fascia , Temporal Muscle , Transplants
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