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1.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 211-219, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927160

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We aimed to evaluate the outcomes of prolonged dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) depending on baseline anemia after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). @*Materials and Methods@#Among the 1470 study participants, 448 (30.5%) were classified as having baseline anemia. We categorized the study population according to baseline anemia and DAPT duration: ≤12-month (m) DAPT (n=226) vs. >12-m DAPT (n= 222) in anemic patients, and ≤12-m DAPT (n=521) vs. >12-m DAPT (n=501) in non-anemic patients. @*Results@#During a follow-up of 80.8 (interquartile range 60.6–97.1) months, anemic patients showed a higher incidence of major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs) (26.9% vs. 17.1%, p<0.001) and major bleeding (9.8% vs. 5.1%, p=0.006). Among the non-anemic patients, prolonged DAPT was associated with a reduced rate of MACCEs [inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 0.78; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.63–0.96; p=0.019] without an increase in major bleeding (IPTW adjusted HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.75–1.68; p=0.574). However, prolonged DAPT was not related to the incidence of MACCEs (IPTW adjusted HR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.88–1.39; p=0.387), with increased major bleeding (IPTW adjusted HR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.32–3.06; p=0.001) among anemic patients. @*Conclusion@#Although extended DAPT led to a reduction in MACCEs in non-anemic patients, it was related to increased major bleeding without reducing MACCEs in anemic patients.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890375

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to determine the impact of dysglycemia on myocardial injury and cardiac dysfunction in acute myocardial infarctions (AMIs). From 2005 to 2016, a total of 1,593 patients with AMIs who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention were enrolled. The patients were classified into five groups according to the admission glucose level: ≤80, 81 to 140, 141 to 200, 201 to 260, and ≥261 mg/dL. The clinical and echocardiographic parameters and 30-day mortality were analyzed. The peak troponin I and white blood cell levels had a positive linear relationship to the admission glucose level. The left ventricular ejection fraction had an inverted U-shape trend, and the E/E' ratio was U-shaped based on euglycemia. The 30-day mortality also increased as the admission glucose increased, and the cut-off value for predicting the mortality was 202.5 mg/dL. Dysglycemia, especially hyperglycemia, appears to be associated with myocardial injury and could be another adjunctive parameter for predicting mortality in patients with AMIs.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890348

ABSTRACT

The Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) updated the previous clinical practice guidelines for Korean adults with diabetes and prediabetes and published the seventh edition in May 2021. We performed a comprehensive systematic review of recent clinical trials and evidence that could be applicable in real-world practice and suitable for the Korean population. The guideline is provided for all healthcare providers including physicians, diabetes experts, and certified diabetes educators across the country who manage patients with diabetes or the individuals at the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The recommendations for screening diabetes and glucose-lowering agents have been revised and updated. New sections for continuous glucose monitoring, insulin pump use, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with diabetes mellitus have been added. The KDA recommends active vaccination for coronavirus disease 2019 in patients with diabetes during the pandemic. An abridgement that contains practical information for patient education and systematic management in the clinic was published separately.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874521

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to investigate the recent prevalence, management, and comorbidities of diabetes among Korean adults aged ≥30 years by analyzing nationally representative data. @*Methods@#This study used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2016 to 2018, and the percentage and total number of people ≥30 years of age with diabetes and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) were estimated. @*Results@#In 2018, 13.8% of Korean adults aged ≥30 years had diabetes, and adults aged ≥65 years showed a prevalence rate of 28%. The prevalence of IFG was 26.9% in adults aged ≥30 years. From 2016 to 2018, 35% of the subjects with diabetes were not aware of their condition. Regarding comorbidities, 53.2% and 61.3% were obese and hypertensive, respectively, and 72% had hypercholesterolemia as defined by low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ≥100 mg/dL in people with diabetes. Of the subjects with diabetes, 43.7% had both hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. With regard to glycemic control, only 28.3% reached the target level of <6.5%. Moreover, only 11.5% of subjects with diabetes met all three targets of glycosylated hemoglobin, blood pressure, and LDL-C. The percentage of energy intake from carbohydrates was higher in diabetes patients than in those without diabetes, while that from protein and fat was lower in subjects with diabetes. @*Conclusion@#The high prevalence and low control rate of diabetes and its comorbidities in Korean adults were confirmed. More stringent efforts are needed to improve the comprehensive management of diabetes to reduce diabetes-related morbidity and mortality.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898079

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to determine the impact of dysglycemia on myocardial injury and cardiac dysfunction in acute myocardial infarctions (AMIs). From 2005 to 2016, a total of 1,593 patients with AMIs who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention were enrolled. The patients were classified into five groups according to the admission glucose level: ≤80, 81 to 140, 141 to 200, 201 to 260, and ≥261 mg/dL. The clinical and echocardiographic parameters and 30-day mortality were analyzed. The peak troponin I and white blood cell levels had a positive linear relationship to the admission glucose level. The left ventricular ejection fraction had an inverted U-shape trend, and the E/E' ratio was U-shaped based on euglycemia. The 30-day mortality also increased as the admission glucose increased, and the cut-off value for predicting the mortality was 202.5 mg/dL. Dysglycemia, especially hyperglycemia, appears to be associated with myocardial injury and could be another adjunctive parameter for predicting mortality in patients with AMIs.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898052

ABSTRACT

The Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) updated the previous clinical practice guidelines for Korean adults with diabetes and prediabetes and published the seventh edition in May 2021. We performed a comprehensive systematic review of recent clinical trials and evidence that could be applicable in real-world practice and suitable for the Korean population. The guideline is provided for all healthcare providers including physicians, diabetes experts, and certified diabetes educators across the country who manage patients with diabetes or the individuals at the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The recommendations for screening diabetes and glucose-lowering agents have been revised and updated. New sections for continuous glucose monitoring, insulin pump use, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with diabetes mellitus have been added. The KDA recommends active vaccination for coronavirus disease 2019 in patients with diabetes during the pandemic. An abridgement that contains practical information for patient education and systematic management in the clinic was published separately.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919164

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The clinical benefit of strict blood glucose-lowering therapy for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is still debated. We aimed to evaluate the long-term outcomes of patients with diabetes who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), according to the mean hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level after PCI. @*Methods@#We evaluated 675 diabetes patients with CAD treated with PCI. We categorized the study population into three groups based on the mean observed HbA1c levels during the follow-up duration, as follows: aggressive control (AC) group (HbA1c level < 6.5%, n = 148), moderate control (MC) group (HbA1c level ≥ 6.5% and < 7.0%, n = 138), and uncontrolled (UC) group (HbA1c level ≥ 7.0%, n = 389). The primary endpoint was major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs), defined as cardiac death, myocardial infarction, repeat target vessel revascularization, and stroke. @*Results@#The mean HbA1c level of the AC group was significantly lower than that of the MC and UC groups (6.04% ± 0.36% vs. 6.74% ± 0.14% vs. 8.39% ± 1.20%, p < 0.001). The incidence of MACCEs was significantly lower in the AC group than in the MC and UC groups (16.0% vs. 24.3% vs. 26.3%, p = 0.010), mostly driven by the incidence of stroke (4.4% vs. 14.0% vs. 11.4%, p = 0.013). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that only the AC group was associated with a reduced rate of MACCEs (hazard ratio, 0.499; 95% confidence interval, 0.316 to 0.786; p = 0.004) compared with the UC group. @*Conclusions@#Our study showed that intensive glycemic control (HbA1c level < 6.5%) is associated with improved clinical outcomes after PCI in patients with diabetes.

8.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 225-237, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918905

ABSTRACT

The accuracy and convenience of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), which efficiently evaluates glycemic variability and hypoglycemia, are improving. There are two types of CGM: professional CGM and personal CGM. Personal CGM is subdivided into real-time CGM (rt-CGM) and intermittently scanned CGM (isCGM). CGM is being emphasized in both domestic and foreign diabetes management guidelines. Regardless of age or type of diabetes, CGM is useful for diabetic patients undergoing multiple insulin injection therapy or using an insulin pump. rt-CGM is recommended for all adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D), and can also be used in type 2 diabetes (T2D) treatments using multiple insulin injections. In some cases, short-term or intermittent use of CGM may be helpful for patients with T2D who use insulin therapy other than multiple insulin injections and/or oral hypoglycemic agents. CGM can help to achieve A1C targets in diabetes patients during pregnancy. CGM is a safe and cost-effective alternative to self-monitoring blood glucose in T1D and some T2D patients. CGM used in diabetes management works optimally with proper education, training, and follow up. To achieve the activation of CGM and its associated benefits, it is necessary to secure sufficient repetitive training and time for data analysis, management, and education. Various supports such as compensation, insurance coverage expansion, and reimbursement are required to increase the effectiveness of CGM while considering the scale of benefit recipients, policy priorities, and financial requirements.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890324

ABSTRACT

Obesity is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide and its prevalence continues to increase globally. Because obesity is a chronic, complex, and heterogeneous disease influenced by genetic, developmental, biological, and environmental factors, it is necessary to approach obesity with an integrated and comprehensive treatment strategy. As it is difficult to achieve and sustain successful long-term weight loss in most patients with obesity through lifestyle modifications (e.g., diet, exercise, and behavioral therapy), pharmacological approaches to the treatment of obesity should be considered as an adjunct therapy. Currently, four drugs (orlistat, naltrexone extended-release [ER]/bupropion ER, phentermine/topiramate controlled-release, and liraglutide) can be used long-term (>12 weeks) to promote weight loss by suppressing appetite or decreasing fat absorption. Pharmacotherapy for obesity should be conducted according to a proper assessment of the clinical evidence and customized to individual patients considering the characteristics of each drug and comorbidities associated with obesity. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of action, efficacy, and safety of these available long-term anti-obesity drugs and introduce other potential agents under investigation. Furthermore, we discuss the need for research on personalized obesity medicine.

10.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 133-144, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786225

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The relationship between operator volume and outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has not been fully investigated. We aimed to investigate the relationship between operator PCI volume and in-hospital outcomes after primary PCI for STEMI.METHODS: Among the total of 44,967 consecutive cases of PCI enrolled in the Korean nationwide, retrospective registry (K-PCI registry), 8,282 patients treated with PCI for STEMI by 373 operators were analyzed. PCI volumes above the 75th percentile (>30 cases/year), between the 75th and 25th percentile (10–30 cases/year), and below the 25th percentile (<10 cases/year) were defined as high, moderate, and low-volume operators, respectively. In-hospital outcomes including mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), stent thrombosis, stroke, and urgent repeat PCI were analyzed.RESULTS: The average number of primary PCI cases performed by 373 operators was 22.2 in a year. In-hospital mortality after PCI for STEMI was 571 cases (6.9%). In-hospital outcomes by operator volume showed no significant differences in the death rate, cardiac death, non-fatal MI, and stent thrombosis. However, the rate of urgent repeat PCI tended to be lower in the high-volume operator (0.6%) than in the moderate-(0.7%)/low-(1.5%) volume operator groups (p=0.095). The adjusted odds ratios for adverse in-hospital outcomes were similar in the 3 groups. Multivariate analysis also showed that operator volume was not a predictor for adverse in-hospital outcomes.CONCLUSIONS: In-hospital outcomes after primary PCI for STEMI were not associated with operator volume in the K-PCI registry.


Subject(s)
Cohort Studies , Death , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Mortality , Multivariate Analysis , Myocardial Infarction , Odds Ratio , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Retrospective Studies , Stents , Stroke , Thrombosis , Treatment Outcome
11.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 133-144, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832985

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES@#The relationship between operator volume and outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has not been fully investigated. We aimed to investigate the relationship between operator PCI volume and in-hospital outcomes after primary PCI for STEMI.@*METHODS@#Among the total of 44,967 consecutive cases of PCI enrolled in the Korean nationwide, retrospective registry (K-PCI registry), 8,282 patients treated with PCI for STEMI by 373 operators were analyzed. PCI volumes above the 75th percentile (>30 cases/year), between the 75th and 25th percentile (10–30 cases/year), and below the 25th percentile (<10 cases/year) were defined as high, moderate, and low-volume operators, respectively. In-hospital outcomes including mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), stent thrombosis, stroke, and urgent repeat PCI were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#The average number of primary PCI cases performed by 373 operators was 22.2 in a year. In-hospital mortality after PCI for STEMI was 571 cases (6.9%). In-hospital outcomes by operator volume showed no significant differences in the death rate, cardiac death, non-fatal MI, and stent thrombosis. However, the rate of urgent repeat PCI tended to be lower in the high-volume operator (0.6%) than in the moderate-(0.7%)/low-(1.5%) volume operator groups (p=0.095). The adjusted odds ratios for adverse in-hospital outcomes were similar in the 3 groups. Multivariate analysis also showed that operator volume was not a predictor for adverse in-hospital outcomes.@*CONCLUSIONS@#In-hospital outcomes after primary PCI for STEMI were not associated with operator volume in the K-PCI registry.

12.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832428

ABSTRACT

The complex and dynamic nature of human physiology, as exemplified by metabolism, has often been overlooked due to the lack of quantitative and systems approaches. Recently, systems biology approaches have pushed the boundaries of our current understanding of complex biochemical, physiological, and environmental interactions, enabling proactive medicine in the near future. From this perspective, we review how state-of-the-art computational modelling of human metabolism, i.e., genome-scale metabolic modelling, could be used to identify the metabolic footprints of diseases, to guide the design of personalized treatments, and to estimate the microbiome contributions to host metabolism. These state-of-the-art models can serve as a scaffold for integrating multi-omics data, thereby enabling the identification of signatures of dysregulated metabolism by systems approaches. For example, increased plasma mannose levels due to decreased uptake in the liver have been identified as a potential biomarker of early insulin resistance by multi-omics approaches. In addition, we also review the emerging axis of human physiology and the human microbiome, discussing its contribution to host metabolism and quantitative approaches to study its variations in individuals.

13.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831703

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to investigate the cardiac manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). @*Methods@#From February to March 2020, we prospectively and retrospectively enrolled consecutive patients diagnosed with COVID-19. Patient's data such as the demographic characteristics, symptoms, vital signs, laboratory and radiologic findings, electrocardiographic, and echocardiographic data, including the global longitudinal strain (GLS) of both ventricles, were obtained. @*Results@#Forty patients (median age, 58 years; 50% men) were enrolled in the initial analysis. Patients were classified into severe and nonsevere groups based on the current guidelines. The 13 patients in the severe group were significantly older, had a greater prevalence of bilateral pneumonia and leukocytosis, and higher aspartate transaminase levels than patients in the nonsevere group. Patients in the severe group had a slightly lower left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) than those in the nonsevere group (median [interquartile range], 61.0% [58.5%, 62.3%] vs. 66.7% [60.6%, 69.8%], P = 0.015). In a subgroup of 34 patients in whom GLS could be analyzed, patients in the severe group had a significantly impaired left ventricular GLS (LVGLS) than those in the nonsevere group (−18.1% [−18.8%, −17.1%] vs. −21.7% [−22.9%, −19.9%], P = 0.001). There were no significant differences in total wall (RVGLS total , −19.3% [−23.9%, −18.4%] vs. −24.3% [−26.0%, −22.6%], P = 0.060) and free wall (RVGLS fw , −22.7% [−27.2%, −18.6%] vs. −28.8% [−30.4%, −24.1%], P = 0.066) right ventricle GLS (RVGLS). @*Conclusion@#Patients with severe COVID-19 had lower LVEF and LVGLS. RVGLS was not different between patients with severe and nonsevere COVID-19.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898028

ABSTRACT

Obesity is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide and its prevalence continues to increase globally. Because obesity is a chronic, complex, and heterogeneous disease influenced by genetic, developmental, biological, and environmental factors, it is necessary to approach obesity with an integrated and comprehensive treatment strategy. As it is difficult to achieve and sustain successful long-term weight loss in most patients with obesity through lifestyle modifications (e.g., diet, exercise, and behavioral therapy), pharmacological approaches to the treatment of obesity should be considered as an adjunct therapy. Currently, four drugs (orlistat, naltrexone extended-release [ER]/bupropion ER, phentermine/topiramate controlled-release, and liraglutide) can be used long-term (>12 weeks) to promote weight loss by suppressing appetite or decreasing fat absorption. Pharmacotherapy for obesity should be conducted according to a proper assessment of the clinical evidence and customized to individual patients considering the characteristics of each drug and comorbidities associated with obesity. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of action, efficacy, and safety of these available long-term anti-obesity drugs and introduce other potential agents under investigation. Furthermore, we discuss the need for research on personalized obesity medicine.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765663

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of omega-3 fatty acids added to statin monotherapy in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes who have persistent hypertriglyceridemia despite statin therapy. METHODS: This study was a randomized controlled trial conducted in 4 clinical sites between February 2009 and February 2011. The inclusion criteria were patients with type 2 diabetes who had received ≥6 weeks of statin therapy and had fasting triglyceride (TG) levels ≥1.7mmol/L and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels <2.6 mmol/L. The study regimen consisted of 16 weeks of randomized treatment with omega-3 fatty acids (4 g/day) plus a statin (n=26) or statin only (n=30). The primary endpoint was the change from baseline to final visit in mean TG level. RESULTS: A total of 56 participants were analyzed. At week 16, the change in the TG level in the combination therapy group differed significantly from the change in the statin monotherapy group (−34.8% vs. −15.2%, p=0.0176). Treatment with omega-3 fatty acids plus a statin was also associated with a significant decrease in non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared with baseline, but the difference was not significant compared with the statin monotherapy group (−8.0% vs. −2.5%, p=0.165). The changes in LDL cholesterol and HbA1c levels did not differ significantly between groups. The study medications were well tolerated, and adverse events were comparable between two groups. CONCLUSION: Adding omega-3 fatty acids to statin treatment reduced TG levels more effectively than statin monotherapy without undesirable effects in Korean type 2 diabetic patients who had hypertriglyceridemia despite well-controlled LDL cholesterol on stable statin therapy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02305355


Subject(s)
Cholesterol , Cholesterol, LDL , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Fasting , Fatty Acids, Omega-3 , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Hypertriglyceridemia , Lipoproteins , Prescriptions , Triglycerides
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785322

ABSTRACT

Pectus excavatum (PE) is known as one of the most common congenital deformities of the anterior chest wall. The Nuss procedure is an effective surgical therapy to correct PE. Here, we report a case of recurrent cardiac tamponade due to hemopericardium that occurred after 16 months following the Nuss procedure. The cause of recurrent hemopericardium was thought to be local, repetitive irritation of the pericardium by the Nuss steel bar. We should keep in mind that this serious complication can occur after the Nuss procedure, even in the late phase.


Subject(s)
Cardiac Tamponade , Congenital Abnormalities , Funnel Chest , Pericardial Effusion , Pericardium , Steel , Thoracic Wall
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714102

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hemorheologic indices are known to be related to vascular complications in variable clinical settings. However, little is known about the associations between hemorheologic parameters and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the changes of hemorheologic environment inside of blood using hemorheologic parameters, especially the elongation index (EI) and critical shear stress (CSS) in diabetics with versus without AMI. METHODS: A total of 195 patients with T2DM were enrolled. Patients were divided into the study group with AMI (AMI+, n = 77) and control group (AMI−, n = 118) who had no history of coronary artery disease. Hemorheologic parameters such as EI and CSS were measured and compared between the two groups. RESULTS: The EI was lower (30.44%±1.77% in AMI+ and 31.47%±1.48% in AMI−, P < 0.001) but the level of CSS was higher (316.13±108.20 mPa in AMI+ and 286.80±85.34 mPa in AMI−, P = 0.040) in the AMI+. The CSS was significantly related to the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (R² = 0.497, P < 0.001) and use of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (R² = 0.574, P = 0.048). CONCLUSION: Diabetics with AMI resulted in adverse hemorheologic changes with lower EI and higher CSS compared to diabetic subjects without AMI. Evaluation of the hemorheologic parameters may provide valuable supplementary information for managing patients with AMI and T2DM.


Subject(s)
Blood Sedimentation , Coronary Artery Disease , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Erythrocyte Deformability , Hemorheology , Humans , Myocardial Infarction
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