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1.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(4): 255-259, Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841784

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Porto Alegre is the Brazilian state capital with second highest incidence of tuberculosis (TB) and the highest proportion of people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among patients with TB. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection increases the risk of anti-TB drug-induced hepatotoxicity, which may result in discontinuation of the therapy. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was (i) to estimate prevalence of HCV and HIV in a group of patients newly diagnosed with active TB in a public reference hospital in Porto Alegre and (ii) to compare demographic, behavioural, and clinical characteristics of patients in relation to their HCV infection status. METHODS One hundred and thirty-eight patients with TB were tested for anti-HCV antibody, HCV RNA, and anti-HIV1/2 antibody markers. HCV RNA from real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive samples was submitted to reverse transcription and PCR amplification. The 5′ non-coding region of the HCV genome was sequenced, and genotypes of HCV isolates were determined. FINDINGS Anti-HCV antibody, HCV RNA, and anti-HIV antibodies were detected in 27 [20%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 13-26%], 17 (12%; 95% CI, 7-18%), and 34 (25%; 95% CI, 17-32%) patients, respectively. HCV isolates belonged to genotypes 1 (n = 12) and 3 (n = 4). Some characteristics were significantly more frequent in patients infected with HCV. Among them, non-white individuals, alcoholics, users of illicit drugs, imprisoned individuals, and those with history of previous TB episode were more commonly infected with HCV (p < 0.05). MAIN CONCLUSIONS HCV screening, including detection of anti-HCV antibody and HCV RNA, will be important to improving the management of co-infected patients, given their increased risk of developing TB treatment-related hepatotoxicity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , HIV Antibodies/blood , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Coinfection/diagnosis , Coinfection/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , RNA, Viral/blood , Polymerase Chain Reaction
2.
J. bras. pneumol ; 33(5): 572-578, set.-out. 2007. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-467485

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Identificar fatores de risco para a recidiva da tuberculose. MÉTODOS: Estudou-se uma coorte de 610 pacientes com tuberculose pulmonar bacilífera inscritos para tratamento entre 1989 e 1994 e curados com o esquema contendo rifampicina, isoniazida e pirazinamida (RHZ). Avaliaram-se os seguintes fatores de risco: idade, sexo, cor, duração dos sintomas, cavitação das lesões, extensão da doença, diabetes melito, alcoolismo, infecção pelo HIV, negativação tardia do escarro, adesão ao tratamento e doses dos fármacos. Para detecção das recidivas, os pacientes foram seguidos por 7,7 ± 2,0 anos, após a cura, pelo sistema de informação da Secretaria Estadual da Saúde do Rio Grande do Sul. Nas análises utilizaram-se os testes t de Student, qui-quadrado ou exato de Fisher e a regressão de Cox. RESULTADOS: Ocorreram 26 recidivas (4,3 por cento), correspondendo a 0,55/100 pessoas-ano. A taxa de recidiva foi de 5,95 e 0,48/100 pessoas-ano, respectivamente, nos pacientes HIV-positivos e nos HIV-negativos (p < 0,0001). Na análise multivariada, a infecção pelo HIV [RR = 8,04 (IC95 por cento: 2,35-27,50); p = 0,001] e o uso irregular da medicação [RR = 6,43 (IC95 por cento: 2,02-20,44); p = 0,002] mostraram-se independentemente associados às recidivas. CONCLUSÕES: A recidiva da tuberculose foi mais freqüente nos pacientes HIV-positivos e naqueles que não aderiram ao tratamento auto-administrado (esquema-RHZ). Pacientes com pelo menos um destes fatores de risco poderão se beneficiar com a implantação de um sistema de vigilância pós-tratamento para detecção precoce de recidivas. Para prevenir a não-adesão ao tratamento da tuberculose, a alternativa seria a utilização de tratamento supervisionado.


OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for recurrence of tuberculosis. METHODS: We studied a cohort of 610 patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis who were enrolled for treatment between 1989 and 1994 and cured using a three-drug treatment regimen of rifampin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide (RHZ). The risk factors studied were age, gender, race, duration of symptoms, lesion cavitation, extent of disease, diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, HIV infection, delayed negative sputum conversion, treatment compliance, and medication doses. In order to detect recurrence, the patients were monitored through the Rio Grande do Sul State Healt Department Information System for 7.7 ± 2.0 years after cure. Data were analyzed using the Student's t-test, the chi-square test or Fisher's exact test, and Cox regression models. RESULTS: There were 26 cases of recurrence (4.3 percent), which corresponds to 0.55/100 patients-year. The recurrence rate was 5.95 and 0.48/100 patients-year in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients, respectively (p < 0.0001). In the multivariate analysis, HIV infection [RR = 8.04 (95 percent CI: 2.35-27.50); p = 0.001] and noncompliance [RR = 6.43 (95 percent CI: 2.02-20.44); p = 0.002] proved to be independently associated with recurrence of tuberculosis. CONCLUSIONS: Recurrence of tuberculosis was more common in HIV-positive patients and in patients who did not comply with the self-administered treatment (RHZ regimen). Patients presenting at least one of these risk factors can benefit from the implementation of a post-treatment surveillance system for early detection of recurrence. An alternative to prevent noncompliance with tuberculosis treatment would be the use of supervised treatment.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , HIV Infections/complications , Treatment Refusal/statistics & numerical data , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/etiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/prevention & control , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Brazil , Epidemiologic Methods , Isoniazid/therapeutic use , Pyrazinamide/therapeutic use , Recurrence , Rifampin/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy
3.
J. bras. pneumol ; 33(4): 429-436, jul.-ago. 2007. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-466349

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Descrever as diferenças na apresentação clínico-radiológica da tuberculose segundo a presença ou não de infecção por HIV. MÉTODOS: Examinou-se uma amostra consecutiva de 231 adultos com tuberculose pulmonar bacilífera internados em hospital de tisiologia. A presença de infecção por HIV, AIDS e fatores associados foi avaliada e as radiografias de tórax foram reinterpretadas. RESULTADOS: Havia 113 pacientes HIV-positivos (49 por cento). Estes pacientes apresentavam maior freqüência de tuberculose pulmonar atípica (lesões pulmonares associadas a linfonodomegalias intratorácicas), tuberculose de disseminação hemática e tuberculose pulmonar associada a linfonodomegalias superficiais e menor freqüência de lesões pulmonares escavadas do que os pacientes HIV-negativos. Isto também ocorreu entre os pacientes HIV-positivos com AIDS e os HIV-positivos sem AIDS. Não se observaram diferenças entre os pacientes HIV-positivos sem AIDS e os HIV-negativos. Os valores medianos de CD4 foram menores nos pacientes HIV-positivos com linfonodomegalias intratorácicas e lesões pulmonares em comparação aos com lesões pulmonares exclusivas (47 vs. 266 células/mm³; p < 0,0001), nos pacientes HIV-positivos com AIDS em comparação aos HIV-positivos sem AIDS (136 vs. 398 células/mm³; p < 0,0001) e nos pacientes com tuberculose pulmonar atípica em comparação aos com outros tipos de tuberculose (31 vs. 258 células/mm³; p < 0,01). CONCLUSÃO: Há um predomínio de formas atípicas e doença disseminada entre pacientes com imunossupressão avançada. Em locais com alta prevalência de tuberculose, a presença de tuberculose pulmonar atípica ou de tuberculose pulmonar associada a linfonodomegalias superficiais é definidora de AIDS.


OBJECTIVE: To describe the differences in the clinical and radiological presentation of tuberculosis in the presence or absence of HIV infection. METHODS: A sample of 231 consecutive adults with active pulmonary tuberculosis admitted to a tuberculosis hospital were studied, assessing HIV infection, AIDS, and associated factors, as well as re-evaluating chest X-rays. RESULTS: There were 113 HIV-positive patients (49 percent) Comparing the 113 HIV-positive patients (49 percent) to the 118 HIV-negative patients (51 percent), the former presented a higher frequency of atypical pulmonary tuberculosis (pulmonary lesions accompanied by intrathoracic lymph node enlargement), hematogenous tuberculosis, and pulmonary tuberculosis accompanied by superficial lymph node enlargement, as well as presenting less pulmonary cavitation. The same was found when HIV-positive patients with AIDS were compared to those without AIDS. There were no differences between the HIV-positive patients without AIDS and the HIV-negative patients. Median CD4 counts were lower in HIV-positive patients with intrathoracic lymph node enlargement and pulmonary lesions than in the HIV-positive patients with pulmonary lesions only (47 vs. 266 cells/mm³; p < 0.0001), in HIV-positive patients with AIDS than in those without AIDS (136 vs. 398 cells/mm³; p < 0.0001) and in patients with atypical pulmonary tuberculosis than in those with other forms of tuberculosis (31 vs. 258 cells/mm³; p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Atypical forms and disseminated disease predominate among patients with advanced immunosuppression. In regions where TB prevalence is high, the presence of atypical pulmonary tuberculosis or pulmonary tuberculosis accompanied by superficial lymph node enlargement should be considered an AIDS-defining condition.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/pathology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/diagnosis , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Epidemiologic Methods , HIV Infections , Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous/diagnosis , Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous/epidemiology , Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous , Tuberculosis, Lymph Node/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Lymph Node/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Lymph Node , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/immunology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary
4.
Saúde (Santa Maria) ; 16(1/2): 15-22, jan.-jun. 1990. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-120696

ABSTRACT

Um estudo retrospectivo foi feito utilizando as secçöes histológicas de 22 nefrectomias totais por carcinoma de células renais, retiradas dos arquivos do Laboratório de Patologia do Hospital Universitário de Santa Maria. Em virtude dos registros clínicos serem muito incompletos, näo foi possível obter informaçöes sobre a apresentaçäo clínica à época do diagnóstico sobre a terapêutica, a presença de doença metastática, a data e o tipo de morte. Os relatos de patologia também eram muito incompletos e importantes aspectos macroscópicos dos espécimes cirúrgicos näo estavam disponíveis. Em todos os casos, entretanto, foi possível analisar os achados histológicos mais importantes para a avaliaçäo prognóstica, como o tipo celular, o padräo histológico e os graus histológico e nuclear. É importante que as nossas equipes cirúrgicas e mesmo os nossos patologistas se convençam da importância de fornecerem relatos clínicos e patológicos com todas as informaçöes que possam ter interesse prognóstico. Já que esses relatos säo a única fonte de informaçäo que temos sobre os pacientes, sem eles o exame histológico torna-se um trabalho dispendioso e fútil


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/pathology , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasm Staging , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
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