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1.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 37(2): 271-272, Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376516

ABSTRACT

Abstract We present an unusual case of a 67-year-old woman with an incidental finding of a cardiac mass on a chest computed tomography. Coronary angiotomography confirmed the diagnosis of right coronary artery aneurysm, with 5.7×5.7 cm. The patient underwent aneurysm resection and coronary bypass surgery, with subsequent histologic study suggestive of arteritis sequelae. Giant coronary artery aneurysms have a high risk of complications and aneurysm exclusion must be beneficial. This is a rare condition that can also be part of a systemic inflammatory disease.

2.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(5): 589-598, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351658

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The Technical Performance Score (TPS) was developed and subsequently refined at the Boston Children's Hospital. Our objective was to translate and validate its application in a developing country. Methods: The score was translated into the Portuguese language and approved by the TPS authors. Subsequently, we studied 1,030 surgeries from June 2018 to October 2020. TPS could not be assigned in 58 surgeries, and these were excluded. Surgical risk score was evaluated using Risk Adjustment in Congenital Heart Surgery (or RACHS-1). The impact of TPS on outcomes was studied using multivariable linear and logistic regression adjusting for important perioperative covariates. Results: Median age and weight were 2.2 (interquartile range [IQR] = 0.5-13) years and 10.8 (IQR = 5.6-40) kilograms, respectively. In-hospital mortality was 6.58% (n=64), and postoperative complications occurred in 19.7% (n=192) of the cases. TPS was categorized as 1 in 359 cases (37%), 2 in 464 (47.7%), and 3 in 149 (15.3%). Multivariable analysis identified TPS class 3 as a predictor of longer hospital stay (coefficient: 6.6; standard error: 2.2; P=0.003), higher number of complications (odds ratio [OR]: 1.84; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-3; P=0.01), and higher mortality (OR: 3.2; 95% CI: 1.4-7; P=0.004). Conclusion: TPS translated into the Portuguese language was validated and showed to be able to predict higher mortality, complication rate, and prolonged postoperative hospital stay in a high-volume Latin-American congenital heart surgery program. TPS is generalizable and can be used as an outcome assessment tool in resource diverse settings.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Heart Defects, Congenital , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Postoperative Complications , Boston , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Hospital Mortality , Developing Countries , Length of Stay
3.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(5): 607-613, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351640

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Elevated neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been associated with poorer outcomes in cyanotic patients undergoing single ventricle palliation. Little is known about this biomarker on patients with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), the most common cyanotic congenital heart disease. Our objective is to study the impact of preoperative NLR on outcomes of TOF patients undergoing total repair. Methods: This retrospective study included 116 consecutive patients between January 2014 and December 2018. Preoperative NLR was measured from the last complete blood count test before the surgery. Using the cutoff value of 0.80, according to the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve, the sample was divided into two groups (NLR < 0.80 and ≥ 0.80). The primary endpoint was hospital length of stay (LOS). Results: ROC curves showed that higher preoperative NLR was associated with longer hospital LOS, with an area under the curve of 0.801±0.040 (95% confidence interval 0.722 - 0.879; P<0.001). High preoperative NLR was also associated with long intensive care unit (ICU) LOS (P=0.035). Preoperative NLR predicted longer hospital LOS with a sensitivity of 63% and a specificity of 81.4%. Conclusion: Higher preoperative NLR was associated with long ICU and hospital LOS in patients undergoing TOF repair.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular System , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(4): 565-570, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347146

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study presents the method used for chest reconstruction and treatment of mediastinitis following cardiac surgery at the Heart Institute of the University of São Paulo Medical School. After infection control with antibiotic therapy associated with aggressive surgical debridement and negative pressure wound therapy, chest reconstruction is performed using flaps. The advantages and disadvantages of negative pressure wound therapy are discussed, as well as options for flap-based chest reconstruction according to the characteristics of the patient and sternum. Further studies are needed to provide evidence to support the decisions when facing this great challenge.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Mediastinitis/etiology , Schools, Medical , Sternum/surgery , Surgical Wound Infection/etiology , Treatment Outcome , Debridement , Sternotomy/adverse effects
5.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(4): 581-583, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347167

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The presence of mild to moderate pericardial effusion after cardiac surgery is common and oral medical therapy is usually able to treat it. Larger effusions are less frequent and surgical intervention is usually necessary. However, there are some rare cases of large effusions that are recurrent even after intervention and become challenging to treat. Methods: We describe the case of a patient submitted to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) without any intraoperative complications, who was regularly discharged from the hospital. She was referred to our emergency department twice after surgery with large pericardial effusion that was drained. Even after those two interventions and with adequate oral medication, the large effusion recurred. Results: During follow-up, the patient had her symptoms resolved, with no need for further hospital admission. Her echocardiograms after the last intervention showed no pericardial effusion. The present surgical technique demonstrated to be easy to perform, thus it should be considered as a treatment option for these rare cases of large and repetitive effusions, which do not respond to the traditional methods. Conclusions: In challenging cases of recurrent and large pericardial effusions, the pericardial-peritoneal window is an alternative surgical technique that brings clinical improvement and diminishes the risk of cardiac tamponade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pericardial Effusion/surgery , Pericardial Effusion/etiology , Pericardial Effusion/diagnostic imaging , Cardiac Tamponade/surgery , Cardiac Tamponade/etiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Pericardiectomy , Pericardial Window Techniques
6.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(4): 445-452, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347161

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: To support the development of practices and guidelines that might help to reduce adverse events related to human factors, we aimed to study the response and perception by members of a cardiovascular surgery team of various error-driven or adverse features that might arise in the operating room (OR). Methods: A previously validated Disruptions in Surgery Index (DiSI) questionnaire was completed by individuals working together in a cardiovascular surgical unit. Results were submitted to reliability analysis by calculating the Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test and Dunn's post-test were performed to estimate differences in perceptions of adverse events or outcomes between the groups (surgeons, nurses, anesthesiologists, and technicians). P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficients showed consistency within the recommended range for all disruption types assessed in DiSI: an individual's skill (0.85), OR environment (0.88), communication (0.81), situational awareness (0.92), patient-related disruption (0.89), team cohesion (0.83), and organizational disruption (0.83). Nurses (27.4%) demonstrated significantly higher perception of disruptions than surgeons (25.4%), anesthetists (23.3%), and technicians (23.0%) (P=0.005). Study participants were more observant of their colleagues' disruptive behaviors than their own (P=0.0001). Conclusion: Our results revealed that there is a tendency among participants to hold a positive self-perception position. DiSI appears to be a reliable and useful tool to assess surgical disruptions in cardiovascular OR teams, identifying negative features that might imperil teamwork and safety in the OR. And human factors training interventions are available to develop team skills and improve safety and efficiency in the cardiovascular OR.


Subject(s)
Patient Care Team , Surgeons , Operating Rooms , Reproducibility of Results , Communication
7.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(3): 289-294, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288243

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has negatively impacted healthcare services worldwide. We hypothesized that the pandemic would affect our case mix and mortality. Our objective was to study this impact. Methods: We retrospectively studied all patients who underwent congenital heart surgeries from March 21st to August 21st in 2019 and 2020 using the institutional electronic database. We compared demographic data, preoperative and postoperative length of stay (LOS), risk stratification using Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery (RACHS) classification and outcomes in both periods. Results: We observed a 66.7% decrease in our surgical volume (285 × 95 patients). Patients operated in the pre-pandemic period were older (911.3 [174.8 - 5953.8] days-old) compared to the pandemic period (275 days-old; P<0.05). When the case mix was compared between periods, the percentage of neonatal surgery was increased in the pandemic era (8% × 21.1%; P<0.05), and the number of RACHS 1-2 surgeries decreased significantly (60.7 × 27.4%; P<0.05). Preoperative LOS was increased in the pandemic period (1.2 × 7 days; P=0.001). There was no significant increment in mortality (P=0.1). Two patients tested positive for COVID-19 in the postoperative period and both died. Conclusion: Our program observed a sudden decrease in surgical volume and a consequent increase in surgical complexity. There was a non-significant increment in mortality.

8.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(2): 165-171, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251086

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Anemia and blood transfusion are risk factors for morbidity/mortality in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The objective of this study is to analyze the association of blood transfusion with morbidity/mortality in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) under CPB in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis using the State of São Paulo Registry of Cardiovascular Surgery from November 2013 to August 2014. Blood transfusion was only considered during surgery or within six hours after surgery. Anemia was defined as hematocrit ≤ 37.5%. Patients < 18 years old were excluded. The sample was divided in four groups - Group I (851, no anemia), Group II (200, anemia without blood transfusion), Group III (181, no anemia and transfusion), and Group IV (258, anemia and transfusion). Results: A total of 1,490 patients were included; 639 (42.9%) were anemic and 439 (29.5%) underwent blood transfusion. Group II showed lower composite morbidity (odds ratio [OR] −0.05; confidence interval [CI] −0.27-0.17; P=0.81) than Group III (OR 0.41; CI 0.23-0.59; P=0.018) or Group IV (OR 0.54; CI 0.31-0.77; P=0.016). Group III was at greater risk of mortality (OR 0.73; CI 0.43-1.03; P=0.02) than Group II, which was exposed only to anemia (OR −0.13; CI −0.55-0.29; P=0.75), or Group IV (OR 0.29; CI −0.13-0.71; P=0.539). Conclusion: Anemia in patients undergoing CABG with CPB is bad, but blood transfusion can be worse, increasing at least 50% the risk for mortality and/or morbidity.

9.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(2): 145-149, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251088

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic brought an unprecedented lack of control of what was to come. The intent of this document is to provide a balance of how much was ceased to be done for patients with aortic disease, to assess the mortality of these patients, and to show what happened to those who became COVID-19 positive during their hospitalization. Methods: From April 1st to July 31st 2020, the worst period of the pandemic in São Paulo, Brazil, the Institute's aortic surgical patients operated on were evaluated and those were compared with patients operated during the same period in 2019. Results: In 2019, 88 surgeries were performed; most of them were elective (66 [75%]), 10 were urgent, and 12 were emergency surgeries. In 2020, during the COVID-19 pandemic, we operated on only 31 patients, being 74.2% non-elective surgeries (P<0,001). There was a higher mortality for patients operated on during the pandemic surge of COVID-19 (P<0,001), but it was not specifically related to infected patients. Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic had an impact on surgical volume and outcome of patients with aortic disease, although it did not directly increase mortality.

10.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(6): 1003-1006, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1144010

ABSTRACT

Abstract Since the beginning of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, in March 2020, the number of people infected with COVID-19 worldwide increases continuously. Brazil is being followed with great concern in the international media, as it can, very soon, be the epicenter of the pandemic. Initial surgical data suggest that patients who acquire COVID-19 in the perioperative period are prone to a higher morbidity and mortality, however, evidence in cardiac surgery is still scarce. This article aims to aggregate to the growing evidence suggesting that perioperative infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 contributes to a more morbid evolution of the case.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronary Artery Bypass/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Brazil , Pandemics
11.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(6): 869-877, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143995

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a surgery with the use of valved conduit is capable of leading to better immediate and late results than those obtained by the valve-sparing aortic root reconstruction technique. Methods: Between January 2002 and June 2016, 448 patients underwent aortic root reconstruction. These were divided into three groups according to the technique used: 319 (71.2%) patients received mechanical valved conduits, 49 (10.9%) received biological valved conduits, and 80 (17.9%) underwent the valve-sparing aortic root reconstruction technique. The results were examined by univariate and multivariate analyses of Cox proportional hazards models with multiple logistic regression. Results: The hospital mortality rate was 7.5%. The mortality rates were 8.2%, 12%, and 2.5% in the mechanical valved conduit, biological valved conduit, and aortic valve-sparing groups, respectively, with no significant difference between groups (P=0.1). Thromboembolic complications and reoperation-free survival were also similar (P=0.169 and P=0.688). However, valve-sparing aortic root replacement was superior in terms of long-term survival (P<0.001), hemorrhagic-free survival (P<0.001), and endocarditis-free survival (P=0.048). Multivariate analysis showed that the following aspects had an impact on mortality: age > 70 years (P<0.001; hazard ratio [HR] 1.05), preoperative acute kidney injury (P<0.0042; HR 2.9), diagnosis of dissection (P<0.01; HR 2.0), previous cardiac surgery (P<0.027; HR 2.3), associated coronary artery bypass grafting (P<0.038; HR 1.8), reoperation for postoperative tamponade (P<0.004; HR 2.2) and postoperative acute kidney injury (P<0.02; HR 3.35). Conclusion: Valve-sparing technique seems to be the operation of choice, whenever possible, for aortic root reconstruction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aortic Valve/surgery , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation , Aorta/surgery , Postoperative Complications , Reoperation , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
12.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(6): 986-989, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143987

ABSTRACT

Abstract Since Barnard's first heterotopic heart transplant in 1974, Copeland's method has been the greatest contribution to heterotopic transplants but has the drawback of donor's right ventricular atrophy. This new method proposes a modification in the anastomosis of the superior vena cava aiming to pre-serve donor's right ventricular function by decompressing the pulmonary territory and reducing the pulmonary arterial pressure, as a biological ventricular assist device. Finally, a second intervention is proposed, where a "twist" is performed to place the donor's heart in an orthotopic position after re-moval of the native heart. A pioneering research on this method received approval from the ethics committee of the Heart Institute of São Paulo. We believe that this method has the potential to im-prove quality of life in a selected group of patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Heart-Assist Devices , Heart Transplantation , Quality of Life , Vena Cava, Superior , Transplantation, Heterotopic
16.
Clinics ; 75: e2428, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142784

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyze mitral annulus (MA) dynamics using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients with degenerative mitral insufficiency who underwent mitral valve repair (MVR). METHODS: Mitral valve imaging was performed by CMR in twenty-nine patients with degenerative mitral insufficiency who underwent MVR between July 2014 and August 2016, with quadrangular resection of the posterior leaflet without ring annuloplasty. They were prospectively followed up from the preoperative period up to 2 years postoperatively. RESULTS: We observed a significant reduction in all measurements of the MA after surgery. The mean systolic circumference of the MA was reduced from 13.28±1.95 cm to 11.50±1.59 cm, and the diastolic circumference was reduced from 12.51±2.01 cm to 10.66±2.09 cm in the immediate postoperative period, measures that remained stable 2 years after MVR (p<0.001). The mean maximum area of the MA was significantly reduced from 14.34±4.03 to 10.45±3.17 cm2 when comparing the immediate postoperative period and the 2 year follow-up (p<0.001). The same occurred with the mean minimum area of the MA, which was reduced from 12.53±3.68 cm2 to 9.23±2.84 cm2 in the same period, and this reduction was greater in the antero-posterior diameter than in the mid-lateral diameter. The mobility of the MA was preserved after surgery, ranging between 19.6% and 25.7% at 2-year follow-up. CONCLUSION: We observed a significant reduction in the MA size after MVR, with preservation of the MA mobility at the 2-year follow-up.


Subject(s)
Humans , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation , Mitral Valve Insufficiency/surgery , Mitral Valve Insufficiency/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Diastole , Mitral Valve/surgery , Mitral Valve/diagnostic imaging
17.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(2): 134-140, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101474

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To analyze the impact of vacuum-assisted venous drainage (VAVD) on arterial pump flow in a simulated pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass circuit utilizing a centrifugal pump (CP) with an external arterial filter. Methods: The simulation circuit consisted of a Quadrox-I Pediatric oxygenator, a Rotaflow CP (Maquet Cardiopulmonary AG, Rastatt, Germany), and a custom pediatric tubing set primed with Lactated Ringer's solution and packed red blood cells. Venous line pressure, reservoir pressure, and arterial flow were measured with VAVD turned off to record baseline values. Four other conditions were tested with progressively higher vacuum pressures (-20, -40, -60, and -80 mmHg) applied to the baseline cardiotomy pressure. An arterial filter was placed into the circuit and arterial flow was measured with the purge line in both open and closed positions. These trials were repeated at set arterial flow rates of 1500, 2000, and 2500 mL/min. Results: The use of progressively higher vacuum caused a reduction in effective arterial flow from 1490±0.00 to 590±0.00, from 2020±0.01 to 1220±0.00, and from 2490±0.0 to 1830±0.01 mL/min. Effective forward flow decreased with increased levels of VAVD. Conclusion: The use of VAVD reduces arterial flow when a CP is used as the main arterial pump. The reduction in the forward arterial flow increases as the vacuum level increases. The loss of forward flow is further reduced when the arterial filter purge line is kept in the recommended open position. An independent flow probe is essential to monitor pump flow during cardiopulmonary bypass.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Cardiopulmonary Bypass , Drainage , Equipment Design , Hemodynamics , Models, Cardiovascular
18.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(5): 637-639, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042034

ABSTRACT

Abstract Quadricuspid aortic valve (QAV) is a rare cardiac malformation. Many cases are incidentally diagnosed in aortic surgeries or autopsies and it usually appears as an isolated anomaly. The most widely classification used is the one by Hurwitz and Roberts[1], which divides 7 alphabetical subtypes based on the cusps size. The aim of this report is to describe three different anatomic presentations of this rare aortic valve anomaly.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aortic Valve/abnormalities , Aortic Valve/pathology , Heart Defects, Congenital/pathology , Aortic Valve/surgery , Aortic Valve/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography , Treatment Outcome , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation/methods , Heart Defects, Congenital/surgery , Heart Defects, Congenital/diagnostic imaging
19.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(5): 511-516, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042045

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: This study aimed to evaluate Ebstein's anomaly surgical correction and its early and long-term outcomes. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 62 consecutive patients who underwent surgical repair of Ebstein's anomaly in our institution from January 2000 to July 2016. The following long-term outcomes were evaluated: survival, reoperations, tricuspid regurgitation, and postoperative right ventricular dysfunction. Results: Valve repair was performed in 46 (74.2%) patients - 12 of them using the Da Silva cone reconstruction; tricuspid valve replacement was performed in 11 (17.7%) patients; univentricular palliation in one (1.6%) patient; and the one and a half ventricle repair in four (6.5%) patients. The patients' mean age at the time of surgery was 20.5±14.9 years, and 46.8% of them were male. The mean follow-up time was 8.8±6 years. The 30-day mortality rate was 8.06% and the one and 10-year survival rates were 91.9% both. Eleven (17.7%) of the 62 patients required late reoperation due to tricuspid regurgitation, in an average time of 7.1±4.9 years after the first procedure. Conclusion: In our experience, the long-term results of the surgical treatment of Ebstein's anomaly demonstrate an acceptable survival rate and a low incidence of reinterventions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Tricuspid Valve/surgery , Ebstein Anomaly/surgery , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Reoperation/statistics & numerical data , Time Factors , Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency/etiology , Severity of Illness Index , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/etiology , Ebstein Anomaly/complications , Ebstein Anomaly/mortality , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/methods , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/mortality
20.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(4): 504-506, July-Aug. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020507
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