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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919195

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Veno-occlusive disease/sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (VOD/SOS) is one of the most fatal complications of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), and defibrotide is the only curative drug. We conducted this study to confirm the survival rate of VOD/SOS patients diagnosed in Korea and assess the efficacy of defibrotide. @*Methods@#Patients diagnosed with VOD/SOS after allogenic HCT between 2003 and 2020 were enrolled. We investigated day +100 survival rates and associated risk factors in patients who satisfied the modified Seattle criteria within 50 days of HCT. @*Results@#A total of 110 patients satisfied the modified Seattle criteria, of which 65.5% satisfied the Baltimore criteria. Thirty-seven patients were treated with defibrotide. The day +100 survival rate of the 110 patients was 65.3%. The survival rates in patients who did not meet the Baltimore criteria and in those who did were 86.8% and 53.7%, respectively (p = 0.001). The day +100 survival rate of patients treated with defibrotide was 50.5%. Among the patients receiving defibrotide, those whose creatinine levels were more than 1.2 times the baseline had a significantly lower survival rate at 26.7% (p = 0.014). On multivariate regression analysis, the hazard ratio of satisfaction of the Baltimore criteria was 4.54 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.69 to 12.21; p = 0.003). In patients treated with defibrotide, the hazard ratio was 8.70 (95% CI, 2.26 to 33.45; p = 0.002), when creatinine was more than 1.2 times the baseline on administration. @*Conclusions@#The day +100 survival rate was significantly lower when the Baltimore criteria were satisfied, and when there was an increase in creatinine at the time of defibrotide administration.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915455

ABSTRACT

Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune condition characterized by platelet destruction through antibody-mediated mechanism. ITP is one of the manifestations of a coronavirus disease, as well as an adverse event occurring after vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Several cases of ITP have been described after vaccination with two mRNA-based vaccines—BTN162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) and mRNA-1273 (Moderna)—against SARS-CoV-2. Herein, we report a case of ITP occurring after vaccination with ChAdOx1 adenovirus vector nCoV-19 (AstraZeneca) vaccine in Korea. A 66-year-old woman presented with multiple ecchymoses on both upper and lower extremities and gingival bleeding, appearing 3 days after receiving the first dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. Her laboratory results showed isolated severe thrombocytopenia without evidence of combined coagulopathy. She was diagnosed with ITP and successfully treated with high-dose dexamethasone and intravenous immunoglobulin. Clinical suspicion to identify vaccinerelated ITP is important to promptly initiate appropriate treatment.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899944

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study presents outcomes of management in graft failure (GF) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) and provides prognostic information including rare cases of autologous reconstitution (AR). @*Methods@#We analyzed risk factors and outcomes of primary and secondary GF, and occurrence of AR in 1,630 HCT recipients transplanted over period of 18 years (January 2000– September 2017) at our center. @*Results@#Primary and secondary GF occurred in 13 (0.80%), and 69 patients (10-year cumulative incidence, 4.5%) respectively. No peri-transplant variables predicted primary GF, whereas reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) regimen (relative risk [RR], 0.97–28.0, P < 0.001) and lower CD34 + cell dose (RR, 2.44–2.84, P = 0.002) were associated with higher risk of secondary GF in multivariate analysis. Primary GF demonstrated 100% mortality, in the secondary GF group, the 5-year Kaplan-Meier survival rate was 28.8%, relapse ensued in 18.8%, and AR was observed in 11.6% (n = 8). In survival analysis, diagnosis of aplastic anemia (AA), chronic myeloid leukemia and use of RIC had a positive impact. There were 8 patients who experienced AR, which was rarely reported after transplantation for acute leukemia. Patient shared common characteristics such as young age (median 25 years), use of RIC regimen, absence of profound neutropenia, and had advantageous survival rate of 100% during follow period without relapse. @*Conclusion@#Primary GF exhibited high mortality rate. Secondary GF had 4.5% 10-year cumulative incidence, median onset of 3 months after HCT, and showed 5-year Kaplan-Meier survival of 28.8%. Diagnosis of severe AA and use of RIC was both associated with higher incidence and better survival rate in secondary GF group. AR occurred in 11.6% in secondary GF, exhibited excellent prognosis.

4.
Blood Research ; : 102-108, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897359

ABSTRACT

Background@#To estimate real-world outcomes in East Asian populations, we conducted a nationwide retrospective analysis of the efficacy and safety of lenalidomide for del(5q) myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients with transfusion-dependent anemia in Korea. @*Methods@#Patients aged ≥19 years who had received lenalidomide for the treatment of lower-risk, red blood cell (RBC) transfusion-dependent del(5q) MDS were selected. A filled case report form (CRF) with information from electronic medical records was requested from members of the acute myeloid leukemia (AML)/MDS Working Party of the Korean Society of Hematology. All the CRFs were gathered and analyzed. @*Results@#A total of 31 patients were included in this study. Of 28 evaluable patients, 19 (67.9%) achieved RBC transfusion independence (RBC-TI). Female sex and the development of thrombocytopenia during treatment were associated with achieving RBC-TI. The most common non-hematologic toxicities were pruritus, fatigue, and rashes. All non-hematologic toxicities of grades ≥3 were limited to rash (12.9%) and pruritus (6.5%). Dose reduction was required in 15 of the 19 responders (78.9%). The most common final stable dosing schedule for the responders was 5 mg once every other day (31.6%). @*Conclusion@#Lenalidomide efficacy and tolerability were similar in the Asian del(5q) MDS patients and western patients. Dose reduction during treatment was common, but it was not associated with inferior outcomes.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892240

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study presents outcomes of management in graft failure (GF) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) and provides prognostic information including rare cases of autologous reconstitution (AR). @*Methods@#We analyzed risk factors and outcomes of primary and secondary GF, and occurrence of AR in 1,630 HCT recipients transplanted over period of 18 years (January 2000– September 2017) at our center. @*Results@#Primary and secondary GF occurred in 13 (0.80%), and 69 patients (10-year cumulative incidence, 4.5%) respectively. No peri-transplant variables predicted primary GF, whereas reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) regimen (relative risk [RR], 0.97–28.0, P < 0.001) and lower CD34 + cell dose (RR, 2.44–2.84, P = 0.002) were associated with higher risk of secondary GF in multivariate analysis. Primary GF demonstrated 100% mortality, in the secondary GF group, the 5-year Kaplan-Meier survival rate was 28.8%, relapse ensued in 18.8%, and AR was observed in 11.6% (n = 8). In survival analysis, diagnosis of aplastic anemia (AA), chronic myeloid leukemia and use of RIC had a positive impact. There were 8 patients who experienced AR, which was rarely reported after transplantation for acute leukemia. Patient shared common characteristics such as young age (median 25 years), use of RIC regimen, absence of profound neutropenia, and had advantageous survival rate of 100% during follow period without relapse. @*Conclusion@#Primary GF exhibited high mortality rate. Secondary GF had 4.5% 10-year cumulative incidence, median onset of 3 months after HCT, and showed 5-year Kaplan-Meier survival of 28.8%. Diagnosis of severe AA and use of RIC was both associated with higher incidence and better survival rate in secondary GF group. AR occurred in 11.6% in secondary GF, exhibited excellent prognosis.

6.
Blood Research ; : 102-108, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889655

ABSTRACT

Background@#To estimate real-world outcomes in East Asian populations, we conducted a nationwide retrospective analysis of the efficacy and safety of lenalidomide for del(5q) myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients with transfusion-dependent anemia in Korea. @*Methods@#Patients aged ≥19 years who had received lenalidomide for the treatment of lower-risk, red blood cell (RBC) transfusion-dependent del(5q) MDS were selected. A filled case report form (CRF) with information from electronic medical records was requested from members of the acute myeloid leukemia (AML)/MDS Working Party of the Korean Society of Hematology. All the CRFs were gathered and analyzed. @*Results@#A total of 31 patients were included in this study. Of 28 evaluable patients, 19 (67.9%) achieved RBC transfusion independence (RBC-TI). Female sex and the development of thrombocytopenia during treatment were associated with achieving RBC-TI. The most common non-hematologic toxicities were pruritus, fatigue, and rashes. All non-hematologic toxicities of grades ≥3 were limited to rash (12.9%) and pruritus (6.5%). Dose reduction was required in 15 of the 19 responders (78.9%). The most common final stable dosing schedule for the responders was 5 mg once every other day (31.6%). @*Conclusion@#Lenalidomide efficacy and tolerability were similar in the Asian del(5q) MDS patients and western patients. Dose reduction during treatment was common, but it was not associated with inferior outcomes.

7.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831839

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) is usually incorporated in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) to reduce the incidence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). This study aimed to find optimal ATG doses in patients undergoing human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-mismatched allogeneic HSCT. @*Methods@#We retrospectively collected medical records from 352 consecutive patients with acute myeloid leukemia (n = 214), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 62), or myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 76) in eight centers of Korea between 2005 and 2015. All patients received busulfan-based conditioning without total body irradiation (TBI) and received stem cells from HLA-mismatched donors. @*Results@#In the current study, 5-year overall survival rates of patients receiving low to medium doses of ATG (2.5 to 7.5 mg/kg) were higher than those receiving other doses of ATG (hazard ratio [HR], 0.528; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.311 to 0.897; p = 0.018). The incidence rates of extensive chronic GVHD (ecGVHD) after administration of low to medium doses of ATG were lower than those after other doses of ATG (HR, 0.447; 95% CI, 0.224 ton 0.889; p = 0.022). @*Conclusions@#The low to medium doses of ATG may be associated with improving survival outcomes and reducing incidence of ecGVHD without enhancing the chances of relapse in patients with acute leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome undergoing non-TBI-based HLA-mismatched allogeneic HSCT.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919057

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS@#Various alterations of microRNA (miRNA) expression have been reported in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). We aimed to investigate the unique patterns and prognostic significance of miRNA expression in Korean patients with MDS.@*METHODS@#Bone marrow mononuclear cells were collected from eight healthy controls and 26 patients with MDS, and miRNAs were isolated and assessed via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for selected miRNAs, including miR-21, miR-124a, miR-126, miR-146b-5p, miR-155, miR-182, miR-200c, miR-342-5p, miR-708, and Let-7a.@*RESULTS@#MiR-124a, miR-155, miR-182, miR-200c, miR-342-5p, and Let-7a were significantly underexpressed in patients with MDS, compared to healthy controls. MiR-21, miR-126, 146b-5p, and miR-155 transcript levels were significantly lower in international prognostic scoring system lower (low and intermediate-1) risk MDS than in higher (intermediate-2 and high) risk MDS. Higher expression levels of miR-126 and miR-155 correlated with significantly shorter overall survival and leukemia-free survival. Higher miR-124a expression also tended to be related to shorter survivals.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Although our study was limited by the relatively small number of patients included, we identified several miRNAs associated with pathogenesis, leukemic transformation, and prognosis in MDS.

10.
Immune Network ; : e2-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714036

ABSTRACT

The detailed kinetics of the cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific T cell response in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) recipients have not yet been fully assessed. We evaluated these kinetics of CMV-specific T cell response and factors associated with high CMV-specific T cell responses 1 year after HCT. In HCT recipients, CMV pp65 and IE1-specific ELISPOT assay were performed before HCT (D0), and at 30 (D30), 90 (D90), 180 (D180), and 360 (D360) days after HCT. Of the 51 HCT recipients with donor-positive (D+)/recipient-positive (R+) serology, 26 (51%) developed CMV infections after HCT. The patterns of post-transplantation reconstitution for CMV-specific T cell response were classified into 4 types: 1) an initial decrease at D30 followed by gradual T cell reconstitution without CMV infection (35%), 2) an initial decrease at D30 followed by gradual T cell reconstitution preceded by CMV infection (35%), 3) failure of gradual or constant T cell reconstitution (26%), and 4) no significant T cell reconstitution (4%). There was no significant difference between ELISPOT counts of D360 and those of D0. High CMV-specific T cell responses at D360 were not associated with high CMV-specific T cell response at D0, CMV infection, ganciclovir therapy, graft versus host disease (GVHD), and immunosuppressant use. In conclusion, there are 4 distinct patterns of reconstitution of the CMV-specific T cell response after HCT. In addition, reconstituted donor-origin CMV-specific T cell responses appeared to be constant until day 360 after HCT, regardless of the level of the pre-transplant CMV-specific T cell response, CMV infection, and immunosuppressant use.


Subject(s)
Cytomegalovirus , Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay , Follow-Up Studies , Ganciclovir , Graft vs Host Disease , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Hematopoietic Stem Cells , Kinetics , Theophylline
11.
Blood Research ; : 288-293, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718482

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is the only curative treatment option for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), a substantial number of patients experience relapse. We reviewed the clinical outcomes of patients with MDS who relapsed after allogeneic HCT. METHODS: Thirty patients who experienced relapse or progression after allogeneic HCT for MDS between July 2000 and May 2016 were included in this retrospective analysis. RESULTS: The median time from HCT to relapse was 6.6 (range, 0.9–136.3) months. Donor lymphocyte infusions (DLIs) were administered to four patients: one achieved complete remission (CR) and survived disease free, while three did not respond to DLI and died. Hypomethylating agents were administered to seven patients: one who had stable disease continuously received decitabine, while six died without response to treatment. Six patients received AML-like intensive chemotherapy, and three achieved CR: two underwent second HCT and one DLI. One patient receiving second HCT survived without disease, but the other two relapsed and died. Three, four, and eight patients who did not respond to intensive chemotherapy, low-dose cytarabine, and best supportive care, respectively, died. One patient who underwent second HCT following cytogenetic relapse survived disease free. Median overall survival after relapse was 4.4 months, and relapse within 6 months after HCT was associated with shorter survival. CONCLUSION: Outcomes of MDS patients relapsing after allogeneic HCT were disappointing. Some patients could be saved using DLI or second HCT.


Subject(s)
Cell Transplantation , Cytarabine , Cytogenetics , Drug Therapy , Humans , Lymphocytes , Myelodysplastic Syndromes , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Tissue Donors , Transplants
12.
Blood Research ; : 207-211, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-38721

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) often have concurrent aplastic anemia (AA). This study aimed to determine whether eculizumab-treated patients show clinical benefit regardless of concurrent AA. METHODS: We analyzed 46 PNH patients ≥18 years of age who were diagnosed by flow cytometry and treated with eculizumab for more than 6 months in the prospective Korean PNH registry. Patients were categorized into two groups: PNH patients with concurrent AA (PNH/AA, N=27) and without AA (classic PNH, N=19). Biochemical indicators of intravascular hemolysis, hematological laboratory values, transfusion requirement, and PNH-associated complications were assessed at baseline and every 6 months after initiation of eculizumab treatment. RESULTS: The median patient age was 46 years and median duration of eculizumab treatment was 34 months. Treatment with eculizumab induced rapid inhibition of hemolysis. At 6-month follow-up, LDH decreased to near normal levels in all patients; this effect was maintained until the 36-month follow-up regardless of concurrent AA. Transfusion independence was achieved by 53.3% of patients within the first 6 months of treatment and by 90.9% after 36 months of treatment. The mean number of RBC units transfused was significantly reduced, from 8.5 units during the 6 months prior to initiation of eculizumab to 1.6 units in the first 6 months of treatment, for the total study population; this effect was similar in both PNH/AA and classic PNH. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that eculizumab is beneficial in the management of patients with PNH/AA, similar to classic PNH.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Aplastic , Cohort Studies , Flow Cytometry , Follow-Up Studies , Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal , Hemolysis , Humans , Prospective Studies
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-67125

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Administering extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) to critically ill patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome has substantially increased over the last decade, however administering ECMO to patients with hematologic malignancies may carry a particularly high risk. Here, we report the clinical outcomes of patients with hematologic malignancies and severe acute respiratory failure who were treated with ECMO. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of the medical records of patients with hematologic malignancies and severe acute respiratory failure who were treated with ECMO at the medical intensive care unit of a tertiary referral hospital between March 2010 and April 2015. RESULTS: A total of 15 patients (9 men; median age 45 years) with hematologic malignancies and severe acute respiratory failure received ECMO therapy during the study period. The median values of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, Murray Lung Injury Score, and Respiratory Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Survival Prediction Score were 29, 3.3, and -2, respectively. Seven patients received venovenous ECMO, whereas 8 patients received venoarterial ECMO. The median ECMO duration was 2 days. Successful weaning of ECMO was achieved in 3 patients. Hemorrhage complications developed in 4 patients (1 pulmonary hemorrhage, 1 intracranial hemorrhage, and 2 cases of gastrointestinal bleeding). The longest period of patient survival was 59 days after ECMO initiation. No significant differences in survival were noted between venovenous and venoarterial ECMO groups (10.0 vs. 10.5 days; p = 0.56). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with hematologic malignancies and severe acute respiratory failure demonstrate poor outcomes after ECMO treatment. Careful and appropriate selection of candidates for ECMO in these patients is necessary.


Subject(s)
Adult , APACHE , Critical Illness , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Hematologic Neoplasms , Hemorrhage , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Lung Injury , Male , Medical Records , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Weaning
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-81004

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) surveillance and preemptive therapy is a widely-used strategy for preventing CMV disease in transplant recipients. However, there are limited data on the incidence and patterns of CMV disease during the preemptive period. Thus, we investigated the incidence and pattern of tissue-invasive CMV disease in CMV seropositive kidney transplantation (KT) and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) recipients during preemptive therapy. METHODS: We prospectively identified patients with tissue-invasive CMV disease among 664 KT (90%) and 496 HCT (96%) recipients who were D+/R+ (both donor and recipient seropositive) during a 4-year period. RESULTS: The incidence rates of CMV disease were 4.1/100 person-years (4%, 27/664) in KT recipients and 5.0/100 person-years (4%, 21/496) in HCT recipients. Twenty-six (96%) of the KT recipients with CMV disease had gastrointestinal CMV, whereas 17 (81%) of the HCT recipients had gastrointestinal CMV and 4 (19%) had CMV retinitis. Thus, CMV retinitis was more common among HCT recipients (p = 0.03). All 27 KT recipients with CMV disease suffered abrupt onset of CMV disease before or during preemptive therapy; 10 (48%) of the 21 HCT recipients with CMV disease were also classified in this way but the other 11 (52%) were classified as CMV disease following successful ganciclovir preemptive therapy (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of CMV disease was about 4% in both KT and HCT recipients during preemptive therapy. However, CMV retinitis and CMV disease as a relapsed infection were more frequently found among HCT recipients.


Subject(s)
Cytomegalovirus , Ganciclovir , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Hematopoietic Stem Cells , Humans , Incidence , Kidney Transplantation , Kidney , Prospective Studies , Retinitis , Tissue Donors , Transplant Recipients
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-770946

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Administering extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) to critically ill patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome has substantially increased over the last decade, however administering ECMO to patients with hematologic malignancies may carry a particularly high risk. Here, we report the clinical outcomes of patients with hematologic malignancies and severe acute respiratory failure who were treated with ECMO. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of the medical records of patients with hematologic malignancies and severe acute respiratory failure who were treated with ECMO at the medical intensive care unit of a tertiary referral hospital between March 2010 and April 2015.


Subject(s)
Adult , APACHE , Critical Illness , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Hematologic Neoplasms , Hemorrhage , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Lung Injury , Male , Medical Records , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Weaning
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-225588

ABSTRACT

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a progressive, systemic, life-threatening disease, characterized by chronic uncontrolled complement activation. A retrospective analysis of 301 Korean PNH patients who had not received eculizumab was performed to systematically identify the clinical symptoms and signs predictive of mortality. PNH patients with hemolysis (lactate dehydrogenase [LDH] > or = 1.5 x the upper limit of normal [ULN]) have a 4.8-fold higher mortality rate compared with the age- and sex-matched general population (P < 0.001). In contrast, patients with LDH < 1.5 x ULN have a similar mortality rate as the general population (P = 0.824). Thromboembolism (TE) (odds ratio [OR] 7.11; 95% confidence interval [CI] (3.052-16.562), renal impairment (OR, 2.953; 95% CI, 1.116-7.818) and PNH-cytopenia (OR, 2.547; 95% CI, 1.159-5.597) are independent risk factors for mortality, with mortality rates 14-fold (P < 0.001), 8-fold (P < 0.001), and 6.2-fold (P < 0.001) greater than that of the age- and sex-matched general population, respectively. The combination of hemolysis and 1 or more of the clinical symptoms such as abdominal pain, chest pain, or dyspnea, resulted in a much greater increased mortality rate when compared with patients with just the individual symptom alone or just hemolysis. Early identification of risk factors related to mortality is crucial for the management of PNH. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01224483.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Area Under Curve , Child , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal/diagnosis , Hemolysis , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Kidney Diseases/complications , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , ROC Curve , Registries , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Thromboembolism/complications , Young Adult
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728449

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to externally validate a new dosing scheme for busulfan. Thirty-seven adult patients who received busulfan as conditioning therapy for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) participated in this prospective study. Patients were randomized to receive intravenous busulfan, either as the conventional dosage (3.2 mg/kg daily) or according to the new dosing scheme based on their actual body weight (ABW) (23×ABW(0.5) mg daily) targeting an area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of 5924 µM·min. Pharmacokinetic profiles were collected using a limited sampling strategy by randomly selecting 2 time points at 3.5, 5, 6, 7 or 22 hours after starting busulfan administration. Using an established population pharmacokinetic model with NONMEM software, busulfan concentrations at the available blood sampling times were predicted from dosage history and demographic data. The predicted and measured concentrations were compared by a visual predictive check (VPC). Maximum a posteriori Bayesian estimators were estimated to calculate the predicted AUC (AUC(PRED)). The accuracy and precision of the AUC(PRED) values were assessed by calculating the mean prediction error (MPE) and root mean squared prediction error (RMSE), and compared with the target AUC of 5924 µM·min. VPC showed that most data fell within the 95% prediction interval. MPE and RMSE of AUCPRED were -5.8% and 20.6%, respectively, in the conventional dosing group and −2.1% and 14.0%, respectively, in the new dosing scheme group. These fi ndings demonstrated the validity of a new dosing scheme for daily intravenous busulfan used as conditioning therapy for HCT.


Subject(s)
Adult , Area Under Curve , Behavior Therapy , Body Weight , Busulfan , Drug Dosage Calculations , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Hematopoietic Stem Cells , Humans , Pharmacokinetics , Prospective Studies
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727993

ABSTRACT

Severe graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is an often lethal complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The safety of clinical-grade mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been validated, but mixed results have been obtained due to heterogeneity of the MSCs. In this phase I study, the safety of bone marrow-derived homogeneous clonal MSCs (cMSCs) isolated by a new subfractionation culturing method was evaluated. cMSCs were produced in a GMP facility and intravenously administered to patients who had refractory GVHD to standard treatment resulting after allogeneic HSCT for hematologic malignancies. After administration of a single dose (1x10(6) cells/kg), 11 patients were evaluated for cMSC treatment safety and efficacy. During the trial, nine patients had 85 total adverse events and the rate of serious adverse events was 27.3% (3/11 patients). The only one adverse drug reaction related to cMSC administration was grade 2 myalgia in one patient. Treatment response was observed in four patients: one with acute GVHD (partial response) and three with chronic GVHD. The other chronic patients maintained stable disease during the observation period. This study demonstrates single cMSC infusion to have an acceptable safety profile and promising efficacy, suggesting that we can proceed with the next stage of the clinical trial.


Subject(s)
Bone Marrow , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Graft vs Host Disease , Hematologic Neoplasms , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Myalgia , Population Characteristics
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-123564

ABSTRACT

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), associated with acute myelocytic leukemia (AML), is a very rare disease. We here report a case of HLH occurring after induction chemotherapy for AML. AML-associated HLH can be triggered by AML itself, by chemotherapeutic agents, or by infectious complications. Our patient developed a high-grade fever of unknown cause, bilateral pulmonary infiltrates, and shock after successful treatment of AML with induction chemotherapy, and had high serum ferritin, hypertriglyceridemia, hypofibrinogenemia, hemophagocytic histiocytes in bone marrow, low natural killer cell activity, and elevated soluble interleukin-2 receptor levels. A diagnosis of HLH was made. Dexamethasone, cyclosporine, and etoposide were given and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was performed. Careful suspicion of HLH may be warranted if a patient experiences fever of unknown etiology, high ferritin levels, and liver dysfunction during AML treatment.


Subject(s)
Bone Marrow , Cyclosporine , Dexamethasone , Diagnosis , Etoposide , Ferritins , Fever , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Histiocytes , Humans , Hypertriglyceridemia , Induction Chemotherapy , Interleukin-2 , Killer Cells, Natural , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Liver Diseases , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Rare Diseases , Shock
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