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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894939

ABSTRACT

To investigate conditions that cause temporal lens opacity, we tested chemical and physical factors, such as anaesthesia dose, ocular surface dryness, and infrared (IR) light exposure in anaesthetised C57BL/6 N mice. Mice were anaesthetised with a low (80%; tiletamine/zolazepam 32 mg/kg and xylazine 8 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection) or high (120%; 48 mg/kg and 12 mg/kg) dose of anaesthetic and examined every 5 min from 10 to 30 min after anaesthesia was induced. Lens opacity levels were assessed and graded (1–6) using the standard classification system. Regardless of the anaesthetic dose, lens opacity grade was 1–2 in moisturised eyes with application of 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose, and 5–6 in dry ocular surface conditions. Lens opacity in mice with high-dose anaesthetic in the dry ocular surface condition was not different from that of mice with low-dose anaesthetic. Lens opacity grade 1–2 was noted in eyes in the wet ocular surface condition, regardless of IR light exposure. During IR light exposure in eyes in the dry ocular surface condition, lens opacity (grade 6) in mice with high-dose anaesthetic was not different from that (grade 6) in mice with low-dose anaesthetic. We demonstrated that ocular surface dryness might be a relevant factor for the formation and progression of lens opacity in anesthetized C57BL/6 N mice. Anaesthesia dose and IR light exposure did not strongly influence lens opacity formation. Furthermore, eyes with corneal dryness-induced lens opacity recovered to normal status without additional intervention.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894937

ABSTRACT

Aerobic exercise is well known to have a positive impact on body composition, muscle strength, and oxidative capacity. In animal model, both treadmill and wheel running exercise modalities have become more popular, in order to study physiological adaptation associated with aerobic exercise. However, few studies have compared physiological adaptations in response to either treadmill exercise (TE), or voluntary wheel running exercise (WE). We therefore compared each exercise intervention on body composition and oxidative markers in male C57BL/6 N mice. The total distance run was remarkably higher in the WE group than in the TE group. Both forms of exercise resulted in the reduction of body weight, fat mass, and adipocyte size. However, the average for grip strength of WE was higher than for control and TE. Interestingly, PGC-1α expression was increased in the gastrocnemius (glycolytic-oxidative) and soleus (oxidative) muscle of TE group, whereas WE showed a significant effect on PGC-1α expression only in the soleus muscle. However, muscle fiber type composition was not shifted remarkably in either type of exercise. These results suggest that TE and WE may exert beneficial effects in suppressing metabolic risks in mouse model through attenuating body weight, fat mass, size, and increase in mitochondria biogenesis marker, PGC-1α.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902643

ABSTRACT

To investigate conditions that cause temporal lens opacity, we tested chemical and physical factors, such as anaesthesia dose, ocular surface dryness, and infrared (IR) light exposure in anaesthetised C57BL/6 N mice. Mice were anaesthetised with a low (80%; tiletamine/zolazepam 32 mg/kg and xylazine 8 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection) or high (120%; 48 mg/kg and 12 mg/kg) dose of anaesthetic and examined every 5 min from 10 to 30 min after anaesthesia was induced. Lens opacity levels were assessed and graded (1–6) using the standard classification system. Regardless of the anaesthetic dose, lens opacity grade was 1–2 in moisturised eyes with application of 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose, and 5–6 in dry ocular surface conditions. Lens opacity in mice with high-dose anaesthetic in the dry ocular surface condition was not different from that of mice with low-dose anaesthetic. Lens opacity grade 1–2 was noted in eyes in the wet ocular surface condition, regardless of IR light exposure. During IR light exposure in eyes in the dry ocular surface condition, lens opacity (grade 6) in mice with high-dose anaesthetic was not different from that (grade 6) in mice with low-dose anaesthetic. We demonstrated that ocular surface dryness might be a relevant factor for the formation and progression of lens opacity in anesthetized C57BL/6 N mice. Anaesthesia dose and IR light exposure did not strongly influence lens opacity formation. Furthermore, eyes with corneal dryness-induced lens opacity recovered to normal status without additional intervention.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902641

ABSTRACT

Aerobic exercise is well known to have a positive impact on body composition, muscle strength, and oxidative capacity. In animal model, both treadmill and wheel running exercise modalities have become more popular, in order to study physiological adaptation associated with aerobic exercise. However, few studies have compared physiological adaptations in response to either treadmill exercise (TE), or voluntary wheel running exercise (WE). We therefore compared each exercise intervention on body composition and oxidative markers in male C57BL/6 N mice. The total distance run was remarkably higher in the WE group than in the TE group. Both forms of exercise resulted in the reduction of body weight, fat mass, and adipocyte size. However, the average for grip strength of WE was higher than for control and TE. Interestingly, PGC-1α expression was increased in the gastrocnemius (glycolytic-oxidative) and soleus (oxidative) muscle of TE group, whereas WE showed a significant effect on PGC-1α expression only in the soleus muscle. However, muscle fiber type composition was not shifted remarkably in either type of exercise. These results suggest that TE and WE may exert beneficial effects in suppressing metabolic risks in mouse model through attenuating body weight, fat mass, size, and increase in mitochondria biogenesis marker, PGC-1α.

5.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 165-171, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786407

ABSTRACT

Genetically engineered mouse models are used in high-throughput phenotyping screens to understand genotype-phenotype associations and their relevance to human diseases. However, not all mutant mouse lines with detectable phenotypes are associated with human diseases. Here, we propose the “Target gene selection system for Genetically engineered mouse models” (TarGo). Using a combination of human disease descriptions, network topology, and genotype-phenotype correlations, novel genes that are potentially related to human diseases are suggested. We constructed a gene interaction network using protein-protein interactions, molecular pathways, and co-expression data. Several repositories for human disease signatures were used to obtain information on human disease-related genes. We calculated disease- or phenotype-specific gene ranks using network topology and disease signatures. In conclusion, TarGo provides many novel features for gene function prediction.


Subject(s)
Animals , Computational Biology , Genes, vif , Genetic Association Studies , Humans , Mice , Phenotype , Systems Biology
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760473

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory
7.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 176-184, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718851

ABSTRACT

In this study, we observed chronological changes in the immunoreactivity and expression level of myelin basic protein (MBP), one of the most abundant proteins in the central nervous system, in the hippocampus of Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats and their control littermates (Zucker lean control; ZLC). In the ZLC group, body weight steadily increased with age; the body weight of the ZDF group, however, peaked at 30 weeks of age, and subsequently decreased. Based on the changes of body weight, animals were divided into the following six groups: early (12-week), middle (30-week), and chronic (52-week) diabetic groups and their controls. MBP immunoreactivity was found in the alveus, strata pyramidale, and lacunosum-moleculare of the CA1 region, strata pyramidale and radiatum of the CA3 region, and subgranular zone, polymorphic layer, and molecular layer of the dentate gyrus. MBP immunoreactivity was lowest in the hippocampus of 12-week-old rats in the ZLC group, and highest in 12-week-old rats in the ZDF group. Diabetes increased MBP levels in the 12-week-old group, while MBP immunoreactivity decreased in the 30-week-old group. In the 52-week-old ZLC and ZDF groups, MBP immunoreactivity was detected in the hippocampus, similar to the 30-week-old ZDF group. Western blot results corroborated with immunohistochemical results. These results suggested that changes in the immunoreactivity and expression of MBP in the hippocampus might be a compensatory response to aging, while the sustained levels of MBP in diabetic animals could be attributed to a loss of compensatory responses in oligodendrocytes.


Subject(s)
Aging , Animals , Blotting, Western , Body Weight , Central Nervous System , Dentate Gyrus , Hippocampus , Models, Animal , Myelin Basic Protein , Myelin Sheath , Oligodendroglia , Rats
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713484

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to evaluate the reporting quality of animal experiments in Korea using the Animals in Research: Reporting In Vivo Experiments (ARRIVE) guideline developed in 2010 to overcome the reproducibility problem and to encourage compliance with replacement, refinement and reduction of animals in research (3R's principle). We reviewed 50 papers published by a Korean research group from 2013 to 2016 and scored the conformity with the 20-items ARRIVE guideline. The median conformity score was 39.50%. For more precise evaluation, the 20 items were subdivided into 57 sub-items. Among the sub-items, status of experimental animals, housing and husbandry were described under the average level. Microenvironment sub-items, such as enrichment, bedding material, cage type, number of companions, scored under 10%. Although statistical methods used for the studies were given in most publications (84%), sample size calculation and statistical assumption were rarely described. Most publications mentioned the IACUC approval, but only 8% mentioned welfare-related assessments and interventions, and only 4% mentioned any implications of experimental methods or findings for 3R. We may recommend the revision of the present IACUC proposal to collect more detailed information and improving educational program for animal researchers according to the ARRIVE guideline.


Subject(s)
Animal Care Committees , Animal Experimentation , Animals , Compliance , Ethics , Friends , Housing , Humans , Korea , Sample Size
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-167822

ABSTRACT

In this study, we observed the ontogenetic changes in glucose transporter 3 (GLUT3) immunoreactivity, a major neuronal GLUT, in the dentate gyrus of mouse brains at various ages: postnatal day (P) 1, 7, 14, 28, and 56. At P1, cresyl violet staining showed abundant neurons in the dentate gyrus, whereas the granule cell layer was ill-defined. At P7, the granule cell layer was observed, and cresyl violet-positive cells were dispersed throughout the polymorphic layer. At P14, the granule cell layer was well-defined, and cresyl violet positive cells were detected abundantly in the polymorphic layer. At P28 and P56, cresyl violet-positive cells were observed in the granule cell layer, as well as in the polymorphic layer. At P1, GLUT3 immunoreactivity was detected in the dentate gyrus. At P7, GLUT3 immunoreactive cells were scattered in the polymorphic and molecular layer. However, at P14, GLUT3 immunoreactivity was observed in the polymorphic layer as well as subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. At P28, GLUT3 immunoreactivity was detected in the polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus. At P56, GLUT3 immunoreactivity was observed predominantly in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. GLUT3 immunoreactive cells were mainly colocalized with doublecortin, which is a marker for differentiated neuroblasts, in the polymorphic layer and subgranular zone of dentate gyrus at P14 and P56. These results suggest that the expression of GLUT3 is closely associated with postnatal development of the dentate gyrus and adult neurogenesis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Brain , Dentate Gyrus , Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative , Glucose , Humans , Mice , Neurogenesis , Neurons , Viola
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-121460

ABSTRACT

Aluminum (Al) accumulation increases with aging, and long-term exposure to Al is regarded as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we investigated the effects of Al and/or D-galactose on neural stem cells, proliferating cells, differentiating neuroblasts, and mature neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. AlCl3 (40 mg/kg/day) was intraperitoneally administered to C57BL/6J mice for 4 weeks. In addition, vehicle (physiological saline) or D-galactose (100 mg/kg) was subcutaneously injected to these mice immediately after AlCl3 treatment. Neural stem cells, proliferating cells, differentiating neuroblasts, and mature neurons were detected using the relevant marker for each cell type, including nestin, Ki67, doublecortin, and NeuN, respectively, via immunohistochemistry. Subchronic (4 weeks) exposure to Al in mice reduced neural stem cells, proliferating cells, and differentiating neuroblasts without causing any changes to mature neurons. This Al-induced reduction effect was exacerbated in D-galactose-treated mice compared to vehicle-treated adult mice. Moreover, exposure to Al enhanced lipid peroxidation in the hippocampus and expression of antioxidants such as Cu, Zn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase in D-galactose-treated mice. These results suggest that Al accelerates the reduction of neural stem cells, proliferating cells, and differentiating neuroblasts in D-galactose-treated mice via oxidative stress, without inducing loss in mature neurons.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aging , Aluminum , Alzheimer Disease , Animals , Antioxidants , Dentate Gyrus , Galactose , Hippocampus , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Lipid Peroxidation , Mice , Nestin , Neural Stem Cells , Neurons , Oxidative Stress , Risk Factors , Superoxide Dismutase
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110770

ABSTRACT

In this study, we investigated the effects of chronic aluminum (Al) exposure for 10 weeks on cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the hippocampus of type 2 diabetic rats. Six-week-old Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) and Zucker lean control (ZLC) rats were selected and randomly divided into Al- and non-Al-groups. Al was administered via drinking water for 10 weeks, after which the animals were sacrificed at 16 weeks of age. ZDF rats in both Al- and non-Al-groups showed increases in body weight and blood glucose levels compared to ZLC rats. Al exposure did not significantly affect body weight, blood glucose levels or pancreatic β-cells and morphology of the pancreas in either ZLC or ZDF rats. However, exposure to Al reduced cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in both ZLC and ZDF rats. Exposure to Al resulted in poor development of the dendritic processes of neuroblasts in both ZLC and ZDF rats. Furthermore, onset and continuation of diabetes reduced cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation, and Al exposure amplified reduction of these parameters. These results suggest that Al exposure via drinking water aggravates the impairment in hippocampal neurogenesis that is typically observed in type 2 diabetic animals.


Subject(s)
Aluminum/toxicity , Animals , Blood Glucose/analysis , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Hippocampus/drug effects , Neurogenesis/drug effects , Random Allocation , Rats, Zucker
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-165654

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We investigated the therapeutic effects of resistance training on Zucker rats before and after the onset of diabetes to understand the importance of the timing of exercise intervention. We assessed whether 8 weeks of resistance training ameliorated impaired glucose tolerance and altered muscle fiber type composition in Zucker rats. METHODS: Five-week-old male Zucker rats were divided into Zucker lean control (ZLC-Con), non-exercised Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF-Con), and exercised Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF-Ex) groups. The ZDF-Ex rats climbed a ladder three times a week for 8 weeks. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (IPGTT) were performed on the 1st and 8th weeks of training, and grip strength was measured during the last week. We also measured glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) expression by Western blot and immunofluorescence. Moreover, immunohistochemistry was performed to assess muscle fiber type composition. RESULTS: Fasting glucose levels and area under the curve responses to IPGTTs gradually increased as diabetes progressed in the ZDF-Con rats but decreased in the ZDF-Ex rats. Grip strength decreased in the ZDF-Con rats. However, resistance training did not improve grip strength in the ZDF-Ex rats. GLUT4 expression in the ZLC-Con and the ZDF-Con rats did not differ, but it increased in the ZDF-Ex rats. The proportions of myosin heavy chain I and II were lower and higher, respectively, in the ZDF-Con rats compared to the ZLC-Con rats. Muscle fiber type composition did not change in the ZDF-Ex rats. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that regular resistance training initiated at the onset of diabetes can improve glucose tolerance and GLUT4 expression without changing muscle morphology in Zucker rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blotting, Western , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Fasting , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Glucose Tolerance Test , Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative , Glucose , Hand Strength , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Male , Myosin Heavy Chains , Rats , Rats, Zucker , Resistance Training
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-207357

ABSTRACT

A novel Helicobacter species was identified from the gastrointestinal tract of the Korean striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius). Biochemical testing, ultrastructure characterization, and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis suggested that this bacterium represents a distinct taxon. The bacterium was positive for urease activity, susceptible to cephalothin and nalidixic acid, and weakly positive for oxidase and catalase activity. Electron microscopy revealed that the bacterium has spirally curved rod morphology with singular bipolar nonsheathed flagella. Genotypically, the isolated bacterial strains (YMRC 000215, YMRC 000216, and YMRC 000419) were most closely related to a reference strain of Helicobacter mesocricetorum (97.25%, 97.32%, and 97.03% 16S rRNA sequence similarities, respectively). The 16S rRNA sequences of these strains were deposited into GenBank under accession numbers AF284754, AY009129, and AY009130, respectively. We propose the name Helicobacter apodemus for this novel species.


Subject(s)
Animals , Catalase , Cephalothin , Databases, Nucleic Acid , Flagella , Gastrointestinal Tract , Genes, rRNA , Helicobacter , Korea , Mice , Microscopy, Electron , Murinae , Nalidixic Acid , Oxidoreductases , Sequence Analysis , Urease
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-206918

ABSTRACT

In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on lipid peroxidation and Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) levels in the hippocampus of Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats and lean control rats (ZLC) during the onset of diabetes. At 7 weeks of age, ZLC and ZDF rats were either placed on a stationary treadmill or made to run for 1 h/day for 5 consecutive days at 16~22 m/min for 5 weeks. At 12 weeks of age, the ZDF rats had significantly higher blood glucose levels and body weight than the ZLC rats. In addition, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the hippocampus of the ZDF rats were significantly higher than those of the ZLC rats whereas SOD1 levels in the hippocampus of the ZDF rats were moderately decreased. Notably, treadmill exercise prevented the increase of blood glucose levels in ZDF rats. In addition, treadmill exercise significantly ameliorated changes in MDA and SOD1 levels in the hippocampus although SOD activity was not altered. These findings suggest that diabetes increases lipid peroxidation and decreases SOD1 levels, and treadmill exercise can mitigate diabetes-induced oxidative damage in the hippocampus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diabetes Mellitus/enzymology , Female , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , Genotype , Hippocampus/enzymology , Lipid Peroxidation/physiology , Male , Malondialdehyde/metabolism , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Rats , Rats, Zucker , Superoxide Dismutase/genetics
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-66462

ABSTRACT

Inducible cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) has received much attention because of its role in neuro-inflammation and synaptic plasticity. Even though COX-2 levels are high in healthy animals, the function of this factor in adult neurogenesis has not been clearly demonstrated. Therefore, we performed the present study to compare the effects of pharmacological and genetic inhibition of COX-2 on adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Physiological saline or the same volume containing celecoxib was administered perorally every day for 5 weeks using a feeding needle. Compared to the control, pharmacological and genetic inhibition of COX-2 reduced the appearance of nestin-immunoreactive neural stem cells, Ki67-positive nuclei, and doublecortin-immunoreactive neuroblasts in the dentate gyrus. In addition, a decrease in phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein (pCREB) at Ser133 was observed. Compared to pharmacological inhibition, genetic inhibition of COX-2 resulted in significant reduction of neural stem cells, cell proliferation, and neuroblast differentiation as well as pCREB levels. These results suggest that COX-2 is part of the molecular machinery that regulates neural stem cells, cell proliferation, and neuroblast differentiation during adult hippocampal neurogenesis via pCREB. Additionally, genetic inhibition of COX-2 strongly reduced neural stem cell populations, cell proliferation, and neuroblast differentiation in the dentate gyrus compared to pharmacological inhibition.


Subject(s)
Animals , Celecoxib/pharmacology , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cyclooxygenase 2/genetics , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors/pharmacology , Dentate Gyrus/drug effects , Male , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Neural Stem Cells/drug effects , Neurogenesis/drug effects
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-66450

ABSTRACT

To standardize the corneal haze model in the resection depth and size for efficient corneal haze development, air assisted lamellar keratectomy was performed. The ex vivo porcine corneas were categorized into four groups depending on the trephined depth: 250 microm (G1), 375 microm (G2), 500 microm (G3) and 750 microm (G4). The stroma was equally ablated at the five measurement sites in all groups. Significant differences were observed between the trephined corneal depths for resection and ablated corneal thickness in G1 (p < 0.001). No significant differences were observed between the trephined corneal depth for resection and the ablated corneal thickness in G2, G3, and G4. The resection percentage was similar in all groups after microscopic imaging of corneal sections. Air assisted lamellar keratectomy (AK) and conventional keratectomy (CK) method were applied to six beagles, after which development of corneal haze was evaluated weekly until postoperative day 28. The occurrence of corneal haze in the AK group was significantly higher than that in the CK group beginning 14 days after surgery. Alpha-smooth muscle actin expression was significantly higher in the AK group (p < 0.001) than the CK group. Air assisted lamellar keratectomy was used to achieve the desired corneal thickness after resection and produce sufficient corneal haze.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cornea/surgery , Corneal Opacity/etiology , Disease Models, Animal , Dogs , Humans , Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures/methods , Sus scrofa , Wound Healing
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-69674

ABSTRACT

Type 1 diabetes is a common metabolic disorder accompanied by increased blood glucose levels along with glucocorticoid and cognitive deficits. The disease is also thought to be associated with environmental changes in brain and constantly induces oxidative stress in patients. Therefore, glucocorticoid-mediated negative feedback mechanisms involving the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binding site are very important to understand the development of this disease. Many researchers have used streptozotocin (STZ)-treated diabetic animals to study changes in GR expression in the brain. However, few scientists have evaluated the hyperglycemic period following STZ exposure. In the present study, we found GR expression in the hippocampus varied based on the period after STZ administration for up to 4 weeks. We performed immunohistochemistry and Western blotting to validate the sequential alterations of GR expression in the hippocampus of STZ-treated type 1 diabetic rats. GR protein expression increased significantly until week 3 but decreased at week 4 following STZ administration. GR expression after 70 mg/kg STZ administration was highest at 3 weeks post-treatment and decreased thereafter. Although STZ-induced increase in GR expression in diabetic animals has been described, our data indicate that researchers should consider the sequential GR expression changes during the hyperglycemic period following STZ exposure.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/chemically induced , Disease Models, Animal , Gene Expression Regulation , Hippocampus/metabolism , Humans , Male , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Receptors, Glucocorticoid/genetics , Time Factors
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-126819

ABSTRACT

Organ transplantation is limited by the shortage of human organs. Many studies have sought to overcome this hurdle by using animal organs. Porcine organs, especially from miniature pigs, have been used for organ xenotransplantation rather than nonhuman primates. While the molecular profiling for transplantation is well known in humans and rodents, the situation for pigs is almost completely unknown. The present study examined protein regulation of the developing stages of the pancreatic proteome (4 day-old miniature neonate, 19 day-old miniature piglet, and 14 month-old miniature adult pigs) using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Thirteen different expressed spots were observed and nine were identified. The data presented within this study provides critical direction relating to the development of pancreas of miniature pigs, which will assist future proteome analysis of the pancreas, and advance our understanding of the hurdles facing xenotransplantation.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animal Structures , Electrophoresis , Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Mass Spectrometry , Organ Transplantation , Pancreas , Primates , Proteome , Rodentia , Swine , Transplantation, Heterologous , Transplants
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-124667

ABSTRACT

Pig pancreas may be a therapeutic resource for human diabetic patients. However, this potential is hindered by a lack of knowledge of the molecular events of pig pancreas development. In this study, the embryonic day 60, neonate and 6-month protein profiles of pig pancreas were ascertained at using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Twenty four proteins were differentially expressed during pig pancreas development. Among them, 12 spots increased and 7 spots decreased according to development. The expression of 5 protein were highest at birth. Expression of digestive enzymes including trypsin, pancreatic triacylglycerol lipase and pancreatic alpha-amylase was elevated in adults, whereas chymotrypsins were highly expressed in neonates. Proteins that were abundantly expressed during gestation were alpha-1-antitrypsin, alpha-fetoprotein and transferrins. Taken together, we found out that several proteins were significantly up- or down- regulated from pig pancreas based on developmental stage. This study will provide basis for understanding development of pig pancreas.


Subject(s)
Adult , alpha-Amylases , alpha-Fetoproteins , Chymotrypsin , Electrophoresis , Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Lipase , Mass Spectrometry , Pancreas , Parturition , Pregnancy , Sus scrofa , Transferrin , Transferrins , Trypsin
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-130785

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Interleukin-15 (IL-15), a well-known myokine, is highly expressed in skeletal muscle and is involved in muscle-fat crosstalk. Recently, a role of skeletal muscle-derived IL-15 in the improvement of glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity has been proposed. However, little is known regarding the influence of endurance training on IL-15 expression in type 2 diabetic skeletal muscles. We investigated the effect of endurance exercise training on glucose tolerance and IL-15 expression in skeletal muscles using type 2 diabetic animal models. METHODS: Male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) and ZDF lean control (ZLC) rats were randomly divided into three groups: sedentary ZLC, sedentary ZDF (ZDF-Con), and exercised ZDF (ZDF-Ex). The ZDF-Ex rats were forced to run a motor-driven treadmill for 60 minutes once a day 5 times per week for 12 weeks. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) was performed after 12 weeks. Expression of IL-15 was measured using ELISA in extracted soleus (SOL) and gastrocnemius medial muscles. RESULTS: After 12 weeks of treadmill training, reduction of body weight was observed in ZDF-Ex compared to ZDF-Con rats. Glucose tolerance using IPGTT in diabetic rats was significantly improved in ZDF-Ex rats. Furthermore, the expression of IL-15 was significantly increased (P<0.01) only in the SOL of ZDF-Ex rats compared to ZDF-Con. Additionally, IL-15 expression in SOL muscles was negatively correlated with change of body weight (R=-0.424, P=0.04). CONCLUSION: The present study results suggest that 12 weeks of progressive endurance training significantly improved glucose tolerance with concomitant increase of IL-15 expression in SOL muscles of type 2 diabetic rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Body Weight , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Glucose Intolerance , Glucose Tolerance Test , Homeostasis , Insulin Resistance , Interleukin-15 , Male , Muscle, Skeletal , Muscles , Rats , Rats, Zucker
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