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1.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1579-1586, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902504

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the diagnostic performance of the modified Korean Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (K-TIRADS), and compare it with the 2016 version of K-TIRADS using the Thyroid Imaging Network of Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#Between June and September 2015, 5708 thyroid nodules (≥ 1.0 cm) from 5081 consecutive patients who had undergone thyroid ultrasonography at 26 institutions were retrospectively evaluated. We used a biopsy size threshold of 2 cm for K-TIRADS 3 and 1 cm for K-TIRADS 4 (modified K-TIRADS 1) or 1.5 cm for K-TIRADS 4 (modified K-TIRADS 3). The modified K-TIRADS 2 subcategorized the K-TIRADS 4 into 4A and 4B, and the cutoff sizes for the biopsies were defined as 1 cm for K-TIRADS 4B and 1.5 cm for K-TIRADS 4A. The diagnostic performance and the rate of unnecessary biopsies of the modified K-TIRADS for detecting malignancy were compared with those of the 2016 K-TIRAD, which were stratified by nodule size (with a threshold of 2 cm). @*Results@#A total of 1111 malignant nodules and 4597 benign nodules were included. The sensitivity, specificity, and unnecessary biopsy rate of the benign nodules were 94.9%, 24.4%, and 60.9% for the 2016 K-TIRADS; 91.0%, 39.7%, and 48.6% for the modified K-TIRADS 1; 84.9%, 45.9%, and 43.5% for the modified K-TIRADS 2; and 76.1%, 50.2%, and 40.1% for the modified K-TIRADS 3. For small nodules (1–2 cm), the diagnostic sensitivity of the modified K-TIRADS decreased by 5.2–25.6% and the rate of unnecessary biopsies reduced by 19.2–32.8% compared with those of the 2016 K-TIRADS (p 2 cm), the modified K-TIRADSs maintained a very high sensitivity for detecting malignancy (98%). @*Conclusion@#The modified K-TIRADSs significantly reduced the rate of unnecessary biopsies for small (1–2 cm) nodules while maintaining a very high sensitivity for malignancy for large (> 2 cm) nodules.

2.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1579-1586, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894800

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the diagnostic performance of the modified Korean Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (K-TIRADS), and compare it with the 2016 version of K-TIRADS using the Thyroid Imaging Network of Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#Between June and September 2015, 5708 thyroid nodules (≥ 1.0 cm) from 5081 consecutive patients who had undergone thyroid ultrasonography at 26 institutions were retrospectively evaluated. We used a biopsy size threshold of 2 cm for K-TIRADS 3 and 1 cm for K-TIRADS 4 (modified K-TIRADS 1) or 1.5 cm for K-TIRADS 4 (modified K-TIRADS 3). The modified K-TIRADS 2 subcategorized the K-TIRADS 4 into 4A and 4B, and the cutoff sizes for the biopsies were defined as 1 cm for K-TIRADS 4B and 1.5 cm for K-TIRADS 4A. The diagnostic performance and the rate of unnecessary biopsies of the modified K-TIRADS for detecting malignancy were compared with those of the 2016 K-TIRAD, which were stratified by nodule size (with a threshold of 2 cm). @*Results@#A total of 1111 malignant nodules and 4597 benign nodules were included. The sensitivity, specificity, and unnecessary biopsy rate of the benign nodules were 94.9%, 24.4%, and 60.9% for the 2016 K-TIRADS; 91.0%, 39.7%, and 48.6% for the modified K-TIRADS 1; 84.9%, 45.9%, and 43.5% for the modified K-TIRADS 2; and 76.1%, 50.2%, and 40.1% for the modified K-TIRADS 3. For small nodules (1–2 cm), the diagnostic sensitivity of the modified K-TIRADS decreased by 5.2–25.6% and the rate of unnecessary biopsies reduced by 19.2–32.8% compared with those of the 2016 K-TIRADS (p 2 cm), the modified K-TIRADSs maintained a very high sensitivity for detecting malignancy (98%). @*Conclusion@#The modified K-TIRADSs significantly reduced the rate of unnecessary biopsies for small (1–2 cm) nodules while maintaining a very high sensitivity for malignancy for large (> 2 cm) nodules.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893604

ABSTRACT

High-altitude cerebral edema (HACE) is a potentially fatal neurological syndrome that develops in persons traveling to a high altitude. We report the case of a 49-year-old male who had traveled to a high altitude, and lost consciousness for a few hours. Susceptibility-weighted images revealed multiple, fine black pepper like microbleeds along the corpus callosum with several microbleeds in the left frontal and parietal subcortical white matter. The T2-weighted images did not show any abnormal signal intensities along the corpus callosum. The diffusion-weighted images revealed small nodular high signal intensities in the basal ganglia. This report describes the atypical radiologic findings of HACE showing multiple microbleeds along the corpus callosum, without abnormal high-signal intensity on T2-weighted images.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893595

ABSTRACT

We report a case of Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) related disease involving the pterygoplataine fossa. A 83-year-old male presented with left ocular pain and visual disturbance. CT showed an isodense soft tissue lesion in the left pterygopalatine fossa with bony sclerotic changes and erosion. MRI revealed an infiltrative soft tissue mass in the left pterygopalatine fossa as a T2 slightly low signal intensity and heterogeneous enhancement. The patient underwent left ethmoidectomy, and biopsy of the mass was conducted. The histopathological diagnosis was IgG4-related disease. In this case, it was difficult to differentiate invasive aspergillosis, which is common in immunocompromised patients, considering the patient’s clinical history of diabetes mellitus. This report describes the imaging findings of IgG4-related disease mimicking invasive sinusitis such as invasive aspergillosis.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916854

ABSTRACT

The interpretation of MRI of partial-thickness rotator cuff tears can be challenging. This review describes the anatomic considerations for diagnosing partial-thickness tears, especially supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendon and summarizes the classification of partial-thickness rotator cuff tears, as well as provides an overview on partial-thickness tears with delamination.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901308

ABSTRACT

High-altitude cerebral edema (HACE) is a potentially fatal neurological syndrome that develops in persons traveling to a high altitude. We report the case of a 49-year-old male who had traveled to a high altitude, and lost consciousness for a few hours. Susceptibility-weighted images revealed multiple, fine black pepper like microbleeds along the corpus callosum with several microbleeds in the left frontal and parietal subcortical white matter. The T2-weighted images did not show any abnormal signal intensities along the corpus callosum. The diffusion-weighted images revealed small nodular high signal intensities in the basal ganglia. This report describes the atypical radiologic findings of HACE showing multiple microbleeds along the corpus callosum, without abnormal high-signal intensity on T2-weighted images.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901299

ABSTRACT

We report a case of Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) related disease involving the pterygoplataine fossa. A 83-year-old male presented with left ocular pain and visual disturbance. CT showed an isodense soft tissue lesion in the left pterygopalatine fossa with bony sclerotic changes and erosion. MRI revealed an infiltrative soft tissue mass in the left pterygopalatine fossa as a T2 slightly low signal intensity and heterogeneous enhancement. The patient underwent left ethmoidectomy, and biopsy of the mass was conducted. The histopathological diagnosis was IgG4-related disease. In this case, it was difficult to differentiate invasive aspergillosis, which is common in immunocompromised patients, considering the patient’s clinical history of diabetes mellitus. This report describes the imaging findings of IgG4-related disease mimicking invasive sinusitis such as invasive aspergillosis.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892746

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Sodium intake is persistently decreasing because of the government's sodium reduction policy. This study aimed to identify foods and dishes that contributed to the reduction of sodium intake and evaluate the effects of the sodium reduction policy. @*Methods@#The subjects were 57,809 participants in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey from 2010 to 2017. To identify food and dish sources of sodium intake, the food and dish groups were classified into 23 and 21 groups, respectively. Foods and dishes that contributed to sodium intake were categorized according to the production and cooking venues: production by manufacturers, home cooking, cooking at catering service, and restaurant cooking. @*Results@#Sodium intake was 4,876 mg in 2010 to 3,477 mg in 2017, showing a 29.7% decrease in intake in 2010. Sodium intake was decreased mainly in foods produced by manufacturers and home-cooked foods. The main contributory factors to sodium from the food and dish groups differed according to the food manufacturer and cooking venue. The kimchi produced by manufacturers, cooked soup/tang/jjigae/hotpot at home and catering services, and cooked noodles/dumplings in restaurants were the main contributors to the sodium intake. @*Conclusion@#The type of foods and dishes that contribute to sodium intake tended to expand over the years from specific foods and dishes to various groups of foods and dishes. These results provide evidence for the development and production of low-salt foods and dietary education related to low-salt intake.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900450

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Sodium intake is persistently decreasing because of the government's sodium reduction policy. This study aimed to identify foods and dishes that contributed to the reduction of sodium intake and evaluate the effects of the sodium reduction policy. @*Methods@#The subjects were 57,809 participants in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey from 2010 to 2017. To identify food and dish sources of sodium intake, the food and dish groups were classified into 23 and 21 groups, respectively. Foods and dishes that contributed to sodium intake were categorized according to the production and cooking venues: production by manufacturers, home cooking, cooking at catering service, and restaurant cooking. @*Results@#Sodium intake was 4,876 mg in 2010 to 3,477 mg in 2017, showing a 29.7% decrease in intake in 2010. Sodium intake was decreased mainly in foods produced by manufacturers and home-cooked foods. The main contributory factors to sodium from the food and dish groups differed according to the food manufacturer and cooking venue. The kimchi produced by manufacturers, cooked soup/tang/jjigae/hotpot at home and catering services, and cooked noodles/dumplings in restaurants were the main contributors to the sodium intake. @*Conclusion@#The type of foods and dishes that contribute to sodium intake tended to expand over the years from specific foods and dishes to various groups of foods and dishes. These results provide evidence for the development and production of low-salt foods and dietary education related to low-salt intake.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788584

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Flow cytometric analysis is the standard method for enumerating CD34+ stem cells in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. However, it has some limitations such as expensive instrumentation, high reagent costs, and discrepancies between technicians and laboratories. We compared counts of total nucleated cells (TNCs) and CD34+ cells counts obtained from a flow cytometer with a newly-developed image-based microscopic cell counter (ADAM II) to evaluate the possibility of clinical application of the ADAM II.METHODS: We used 18 samples of circulating peripheral blood (PB) and waste tube fractions of peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) harvested by apheresis after G-CSF mobilization from adult volunteer donors. We assessed the reproducibility and linearity of the new procedure and compared the numbers of TNCs and viable CD34+ cells determined with the ADAM II and two different flow cytometers (FACSCalibur, FACSCanto II).RESULTS: Numbers of viable CD34+ cells determined with the ADAM II were accurate over the expected range; the intra-assay coefficient of variation was ≤19.8%. Linearity was also satisfactory (R²=0.99). TNC counts obtained with the ADAM II were highly correlated with those obtained with the FACSCalibur (R²>0.9841, P<0.0001) and FACSCanto II (R²>0.9620, P<0.0001), as were the numbers of viable CD34+ cells obtained with the ADAM II and the FACSCalibur and FACSCanto II (R²>0.9911, P<0.0001 and R²>0.9791, P<0.0001), respectively.CONCLUSION: The newly developed image-based microscopic cell counter (ADAM II) appears to be suitable for enumerating TNCs and viable CD34+ cells.


Subject(s)
Adult , Blood Component Removal , Cell Count , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , Methods , Stem Cells , Tissue Donors , Volunteers
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-30888

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Flow cytometric analysis is the standard method for enumerating CD34+ stem cells in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. However, it has some limitations such as expensive instrumentation, high reagent costs, and discrepancies between technicians and laboratories. We compared counts of total nucleated cells (TNCs) and CD34+ cells counts obtained from a flow cytometer with a newly-developed image-based microscopic cell counter (ADAM II) to evaluate the possibility of clinical application of the ADAM II. METHODS: We used 18 samples of circulating peripheral blood (PB) and waste tube fractions of peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) harvested by apheresis after G-CSF mobilization from adult volunteer donors. We assessed the reproducibility and linearity of the new procedure and compared the numbers of TNCs and viable CD34+ cells determined with the ADAM II and two different flow cytometers (FACSCalibur, FACSCanto II). RESULTS: Numbers of viable CD34+ cells determined with the ADAM II were accurate over the expected range; the intra-assay coefficient of variation was ≤19.8%. Linearity was also satisfactory (R²=0.99). TNC counts obtained with the ADAM II were highly correlated with those obtained with the FACSCalibur (R²>0.9841, P0.9620, P0.9911, P0.9791, P<0.0001), respectively. CONCLUSION: The newly developed image-based microscopic cell counter (ADAM II) appears to be suitable for enumerating TNCs and viable CD34+ cells.


Subject(s)
Adult , Blood Component Removal , Cell Count , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , Methods , Stem Cells , Tissue Donors , Volunteers
13.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 290-296, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-105053

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Low-fluence 1,064 nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser has been widely used for the treatment of melasma. Although new Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers with photoacoustic twin pulse (PTP) mode have been recently developed for high-efficiency, there is limited information available for the new technique. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to investigate the efficacy and adverse effects after few sessions of repeated low fluence 1,064 nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser treatment with PTP mode in Asian women with melasma. METHODS: Twenty-two Korean women were treated with a total of five sessions of low-fluence PTP mode Nd:YAG laser treatment (Pastelle®) at 2 weeks interval. Responses to treatments were evaluated by using Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI) scoring, colorimeter measurement, and the investigators' and patients' overall assessments. Adverse events were recorded at each visit. RESULTS: Investigators' and patients' overall assessment showed that 'significantly improved' was assessed by 13 (59.1%) and 19 of 22 patients (86.4%), respectively. MASI scores were significantly reduced by 20.4%. The lightness, measured by using a colorimeter, was significantly increased by 1.3 point. Notable adverse events were not observed. CONCLUSION: After 5 sessions of laser therapy alone, about 60% of the subjects showed significant improvement. Few sessions of repeated laser toning treatment using the PTP mode is a safe and effective way to treat facial melasma.


Subject(s)
Asians , Female , Humans , Laser Therapy , Melanosis , Twins
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-182980

ABSTRACT

Reconstruction of defects on the lower third of the nose is always a challenge, as dissection of tissues in this area is not simple due to both a lack of elasticity and the structural complexity of the mid-facial area. When the defect size is less than 1.5 cm on the nose, primary closure or a bilobed flap is widely-used, while a skin graft is required for reconstruction of larger defects. Here we present two cases of a nasalis myocutaneous island pedicle flap with bilevel undermining with a relatively large nasal dorsum defect (>2 cm). The nasalis myocutaneous island pedicle flap with bilevel undermining was performed in order to maximize the movement of skin flaps and minimize the secondary movement of flaps after surgery. The nasal tip showed a slight upward movement immediately after surgery that subsequently moved down to a normal level. This technique can be utilized for reconstruction of the lower part of the nose for defects 2 cm or larger in size by maximizing the movement of the flap within the nasal structure. A major advantage is a higher flap survival rate due to proper arterial supply and the procedure results in relatively reduced secondary motion of the flap after the surgery.


Subject(s)
Elasticity , Nose , Skin , Survival Rate , Transplants
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-82810

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To identify magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of leukemic infiltration of optic nerve and optic neuritis in leukemic patients with emphasis of clinical findings as reference standard to differentiate them. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MRI and clinical findings of 7 patients diagnosed as leukemic infiltration of optic nerve (n = 5) and optic neuritis (n = 2) in our institution between July 2006 and August 2015were reviewed retrospectively. In particular, MR imaging findings involved perineural enhancement and thickening of optic nerve and its degree, signal intensity, laterality (unilateral/bilateral), intraconal fat infiltration and its degree, and associated central nervous system abnormalities. RESULTS: Of 5 cases of leukemic infiltration of optic nerve, 4 cases showed positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) study for leukemia relapse and 1 case was positive on bone marrow (BM) biopsy only. Moreover, of 5 leukemic infiltration of optic nerve, 2 cases showed the most specific MR findings for leukemic central nervous system involvement including 1 prominent leptomeningeal enhancement and 1 chloroma. However, other MR imaging findings of the patients with leukemic infiltration or optic neuritis such as thickening and perineural enhancement of optic nerves are overlapped. CONCLUSION: Enhancement and thickening of optic nerve were overlapped MR findings in leukemic infiltration of optic nerve and optic neuritis. Our findings suggest that enhancing optic nerve thickening with associated central nervous system MR abnormality favors the diagnosis of leukemic infiltration of optic nerve, especially in patients with history of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. However, CSF and BM study were required for differentiation between leukemic infiltration of optic nerve and optic neuritis.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Bone Marrow , Central Nervous System , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Diagnosis , Humans , Leukemia , Leukemic Infiltration , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Optic Nerve Diseases , Optic Nerve , Optic Neuritis , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Sarcoma, Myeloid
17.
Ultrasonography ; : 304-311, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-731081

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether it is possible to differentiate benign from malignant thyroid nodules according to the proportion of sponge-like appearance within the nodules. METHODS: A total of 201 thyroid nodules containing sponge-like appearance from 195 patients (157 women and 38 men) were included this study. Each thyroid nodule was classified into one of three grades by real-time ultrasonography (US) based on the areas with a sponge-like appearance within nodule: grade I had sponge-like areas occupying 75%. We evaluated whether a correlation existed between these grades and cytopathologic diagnoses. RESULTS: Of the 201 nodules, 196 were benign and five were malignant, and according to the US classification, 101 nodules were grade I, 45 were grade II, and 55 were grade III. Of the five malignant nodules, four were grade I, and one was grade II. No statistically significant difference was found in the rate of malignancy between grade III and grades I and II, due to insufficient statistical power. A sponge-like appearance was correlated with follicles filled with colloid and cholesterol granules in benign nodules and with papillary fronds around the dilated cystic spaces in malignant nodules. CONCLUSION: No malignancies were found in thyroid nodules with >75% sponge-like appearance. Due to the overall low incidence of malignancy and the limited number of patients, a statistically significant difference could not be found in the prevalence of malignancy depending on the proportion of sponge-like areas within the nodule.


Subject(s)
Cholesterol , Classification , Colloids , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Incidence , Prevalence , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Nodule , Ultrasonography
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-206791

ABSTRACT

Plexiform fibrohistiocytic tumor (PFHT) is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm of intermediate malignancy and possibly of myofibroblast origin. It is morphologically divided into 3 groups: cellular, fibrous, and mixed. A 4-year-old girl presented with an irregular shaped subcutaneous mass on her left popliteal fossa for 6 months. The biopsy specimen showed multinodular tumor islands extending from dermis to subcutaneous layer, composed of histiocytes and osteoclast-like multinucleated giant cells, and circumscribed by fibrous tissue. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for CD68 in giant cells and histiocyte-like cells within tumor islands and faintly positive for smooth muscle actin around nodules. A cellular variant of PFHT was eventually diagnosed. Although PFHT comprises morphologically normal cells, it has the biological potential for malignant change and distal metastasis. Therefore, PFHT is categorized as a neoplasm of intermediate malignancy, and wide total excision with close follow-up is crucial.


Subject(s)
Actins , Biopsy , Child, Preschool , Dermis , Female , Giant Cells , Histiocytes , Humans , Islands , Muscle, Smooth , Myofibroblasts , Neoplasm Metastasis
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-165909

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Acute myelitis patients exhibiting only sensory deficits upon initial presentation are not commonly encountered in clinical practice, but they definitely exist. Since acute sensory myelitis has not been investigated previously, this study evaluated the etiological spectrum of the condition with the aim of describing the clinical characteristics thereof. METHODS: Patients with acute myelitis who presented at the Ewha Womans University Medical Center (during 1999-2012) and the National Cancer Center (during 2005-2014) with only sensory symptoms as first clinical features were enrolled in this study. Their medical records, electrophysiological and laboratory data, and MRI findings were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: Of a total of 341 acute myelitis patients, 52 (15%) were identified as having acute sensory myelitis. The male-to-female ratio of these patients was 35:17, and their age at the onset of the condition was 41.7+/-10.5 years (mean+/-SD; range, 24-72 years). Acute sensory myelitis developed in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS; 14%), neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD; 17%), and acute myelitis associated with concurrent systemic diseases including Behcet's disease and cancer (6%). Despite detailed evaluation, the etiology of 33 patients with acute myelitis could not be determined. Longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis on spinal MRI and progression of the sensory level were observed most commonly in NMOSD patients (89% and 78%, respectively); however, these patients did not exhibit sensory dissociation. Residual negative sensory symptoms were observed more frequently in NMOSD patients (33%) than in those with acute myelitis of unknown cause (24%) or MS (14%). During the long-term follow-up (4.7+/-2.7 years) of patients who did not undergo maintenance immunotherapy, a monophasic clinical course was common in those with acute myelitis of unknown cause (76%), but not in NMOSD or MS patients. CONCLUSIONS: Accurate identification of the diverse nature of acute sensory myelitis may assist in patient care.


Subject(s)
Academic Medical Centers , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunotherapy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Medical Records , Multiple Sclerosis , Myelitis , Myelitis, Transverse , Neuromyelitis Optica , Patient Care , Retrospective Studies
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