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Childhood Kidney Diseases ; : 117-121, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913883


Chronic kidney disease (CKD)-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) is a common complication of CKD, often accompanied by extra-skeletal calcification in adult patients. As increased vascular calcification is predicted to increase cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, the revised Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guidelines recommend avoiding calcium-containing phosphate chelators. However, extra-skeletal calcification is less commonly noticed in pediatric patients. Here, we report our experience of such a complication in pediatric patients receiving maintenance peritoneal dialysis. Extra-skeletal calcification was noticed at the corneas, pelvic cavity, and soft tissues of the lower leg in 4 out of 32 patients on maintenance peritoneal dialysis. These patients experienced the aggravation of extra-skeletal calcifications during peritoneal dialysis, and 2 of them underwent excisional operations. It is required to monitor extra-skeletal calcifications in children on kidney replacement therapy.

Childhood Kidney Diseases ; : 122-127, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913882


C1q nephropathy is a rare glomerulopathy that typically presents with nephrotic syndrome in children. Treatment with immunosuppressive agents renders patients vulnerable to infection and its complications. Gastroenteritis is common in children, and rotavirus is a leading cause. Extraintestinal manifestations of rotavirus have recently been reported; however, there is a paucity of cases exploring the involvement of a rotavirus on the respiratory system. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a rapid onset respiratory failure characterized by noncardiogenic pulmonary edema and hypoxemia. Causes of ARDS include sepsis, pneumonia, pancreatitis, aspiration, and trauma. In this paper, we report a case of ARDS after rotavirus infection in a child with C1q nephropathy who had been treated with immunosuppressive agents.

Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831540


Renal tubular dysgenesis (RTD) is a rare fatal disorder in which there is poor development of proximal tubules, leading to oligohydramnios and the Potter sequences. RTD occurs secondary to renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade during the early stages of fetal development or due to autosomal recessive mutation of genes in the RAS pathway. A boy born at 33+1 weeks due to cord prolapse was found to be anuric and hypotensive. Pregnancy was complicated by severe oligohydramnios from gestational age 28+4 weeks. Abdominal sonography revealed diffuse globular enlargement of both kidneys with increased cortical parenchymal echogenicity. Infantogram showed a narrow thoracic cage and skull X-ray showed large fontanelles and wide sutures suggestive of ossification delay. Basal plasma renin activity was markedly elevated and angiotensin-converting enzyme was undetectable. Despite adequate use of medications, peritoneal dialysis, and respiratory support, he did not recover and expired on the 23rd day of life. At first, autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease was suspected, but severe oligohydramnios along with refractory hypotension, anuria, skull ossification delay and high renin levels made RTD suspicious. ACE gene analysis revealed compound heterozygous pathogenic variations of c.1454.dupC in exon 9 and c.2141dupA in exon 14, confirming RTD. Based on our findings, we propose that, although rare, RTD should be suspected in patients with severe oligohydramnios and refractory hypotension.