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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916891

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To assess the prevalence of incidentally detected lumbar spondylolysis in children. @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the data of 809 patients under the age of 11 years (mean age, 7.0 ± 2.7 years; boys:girls = 479:330) who underwent abdominal and pelvic CT between March 2014 and December 2018. We recorded the presence, level, and laterality (unilateral or bilateral) of spondylolysis. Patients were divided into two groups based on the presence of spondylolysis: the spondylolysis (SP) and non-SP groups. @*Results@#In total, 21 cases of spondylolysis were detected in 20 patients (20/809, 2.5%). The mean age of the SP group was higher than that of the non-SP group (7.8 ± 1.8 vs. 6.9 ± 2.7 years, p > 0.05). The prevalence of spondylolysis in boys was higher than that in girls (15/479 [3.1%] vs. 5/330 [1.5%], p > 0.05). The prevalence of spondylolysis in school-age children (6–10 year olds) was higher than that in preschool-age children (0–5 year olds) (17/538 [3.2%] vs. 3/271 [1.1%], p > 0.05). L5 was the most common level of spondylolysis (76.2%); one 8-year-old boy had twolevel spondylolysis. One case of isthmic spondylolisthesis was detected in a 10-year-old boy (1/809, 0.1%). There were 11 unilateral spondylolysis cases (11/21, 52.4%). @*Conclusion@#In our study, the prevalence of spondylolysis in children under the age of 11 was 2.5%. The prevalence was higher in boys than in girls and in school-age than in preschool-age children, despite the lack of any statistically significant differences.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902406

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the feasibility and diagnostic performance of ultrasound (US)-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology and core-needle biopsy (US-FNAC/CNB) for the diagnosis of laryngo-hypopharyngeal masses. @*Materials and Methods@#This was a single-center prospective case series. From January 2018 to June 2019, we initially enrolled 40 patients with highly suspicious laryngo-hypopharyngeal masses on laryngoscopic examinations. Of these, 28 patients with the mass involving or abutting the pre-epiglottic, paraglottic, pyriform sinus, and/or subglottic regions were finally included. These patients underwent US examinations with/without subsequent US-FNAC/CNB under local anesthesia for evaluation of the laryngo-hypopharyngeal mass. @*Results@#Of the 28 patients who underwent US examinations, a laryngo-hypopharyngeal mass was identified in 26 patients (92.9%). US-FNAC/CNB was performed successfully in 25 of these patients (96.2%), while the procedure failed to target the mass in 1 patient (3.8%). The performance of US caused minor subclinical hematoma in 2 patients (7.7%), but no major complications occurred. US-FNAC/CNB yielded conclusive results in 24 (96.0%) out of the 25 patients with a successful procedure, including 23 patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and 1 patient with a benign mass. In one patient with atypical cells in US-FNAC, additional direct laryngoscopic biopsy (DLB) was required to confirm SCC. Among the 26 patients who received US-FNAC/CNB, the time from first visit to pathological diagnosis was 7.8 days. For 24 patients finally diagnosed with SCC, the time from first visit to the initiation of treatment was 25.2 days. The mean costs associated with US-FNAC/CNB was $272 under the Korean National Health Insurance Service System. @*Conclusion@#US-FNAC/CNB for a laryngo-hypopharyngeal mass is technically feasible in selected patients, providing good diagnostic performance. This technique could be used as a first-line diagnostic modality by adopting appropriate indications to avoid general anesthesia and DLB-related complications.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901846

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To gather the opinions of hands-on workers for successful introduction of the Development Safety Update Report (DSUR) according to a five-year comprehensive plan for clinical trial development [Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, 2019]. @*Methods@#We conducted a survey on considerations that industry stakeholders may have related to the enforcement of the DSUR. A questionnaire was distributed among pharmacovigilance specialists from 13 pharmaceutical companies in South Korea on June 4, 2020. The questionnaire comprised two sections: 1) current status of the Drug Safety Data Management System and 2) considerations on the implementation and management of the DSUR. @*Results@#All respondents have agreed the introduction of DSUR is inevitable for regulatory harmonization and safety of trial subject. However, most respondents (85%) felt concern about additional workload with DSUR implementation. They answered that format and operation system of DSUR should be harmonized with those of international standards and authorities need to minimize double burden due to related report. @*Conclusion@#All respondents asserted that domestic DSUR should be harmonized with International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) E2F guidelines. Respondents from global companies also suggested regulatory authorities allow DSUR written in English to replace Korean version considering their deadline for submission.Moreover, every respondent agreed regulatory authorities need delicate effort when implementing mandatory submission of DSUR to ensure that even small pharmaceutical companies with no experience in DSUR can comply with the system.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900253

ABSTRACT

Dyslipidemia is a major cause of cardiovascular diseases which represent a leading cause of death in humans. Diverse immune cells are known to be involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. Conversely, dyslipidemia is known to be tightly associated with immune disorders in humans, as evidenced by a higher incidence of atherosclerosis in patients with autoimmune diseases including psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Given that the dyslipidemia-related autoimmune diseases are caused by autoreactive T cells and B cells, dyslipidemia seems to directly or indirectly regulate the adaptive immunity. Indeed, accumulating evidence has unveiled that proatherogenic factors can impact the differentiation and function of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and B cells. This review discusses an updated overview on the regulation of adaptive immunity by dyslipidemia and proposes a potential therapeutic strategy for immune disorders by targeting lipid metabolism.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898732

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Human CD34+hematopoietic stem cells can reconstitute the human hematopoietic system when transplanted into immunocompromised mice after irradiation. Human leukapheresis peripheral blood (LPB)-and cord blood (CB)-derived CD34+ cells have a similar capacity to reconstitute myeloid lineage cells in a humanized mice (hu-mice) model. However, potent stem cells, such as CB-CD34+ cells, efficiently reconstitute the lymphoid system in vivo compared to LPB-CD34 + cells. Modeling the human hematolymphoid system is vital for studying immune cell crosstalk in human xenografted mice, with CB-CD34+ cells used as an optimized cell source because they are essential in reconstituting lymphoid lineage cells. @*Methods@#and Results: In this study, we established hu-mice that combined human characteristics with long-term survival and investigated the efficiency of the engraftment of lymphoid lineage cells derived from LPB- and CB-CD34+cells in the bone marrow, spleen, and LPB. We found an overall increase in the transcriptional activity of lymphoid lineage genes in CB-CD34+ cells. Our results revealed that potent CB-CD34+ cells displaying a general upregulation of the expression of genes involved in lymphopoiesis could contribute to the hematolymphoid system in the humanized mice model with longevity. @*Conclusions@#Our data suggest that humanized mouse model by usage of CB-CD34 + cells displaying high expression of TFs for lymphoid lineage cells can contribute to study the immune response against lymphocytes.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897877

ABSTRACT

Background@#In Korea, in the case of patients with significant bleeding symptoms due to unknown causes, there are very few studies that evaluate bleeding disorders, including von Willebrand disease (VWD ). VWD should be considered as an important causative factor in patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and unexplained menorrhagia. This study aimed to understand the clinical characteristics of VWD and the significance of evaluation for VWD in premenopausal women in Korea with menorrhagia and ID A. @*Methods@#Premenopausal women who were diagnosed with IDA and menorrhagia from January 2009 to March 2020 were included. IDA was diagnosed by either low ferritin or transferrin saturation with microcytic anemia. Menorrhagia was evaluated based on the medical records obtained from a gynecologist. VWD diagnosis was defined as von Willebrand factor antigen <50% and von Willebrand factor ristocetin cofactor activity <50%, which were low according to the Hospital for Sick Children criteria. @*Results@#Out of a total of 120 patients, only 12 were tested for VWD, all of whom were pediatric patients. Four of the 12 pediatric patients tested were diagnosed with VWD and 4 of the 120 (3.3%) patients with IDA and menorrhagia were diagnosed with VWD. Three out of the 4 patients was diagnosed with VWD by repeat screening test. Although all parameters are not statistically significant, VWD patients tended to have ID A at a younger age (13.25 vs. 15.00 years) and were more likely to have recurrent IDA than patients without VWD. @*Conclusion@#Clinical doctors should consider VWD if patients have menorrhagia with ID A. If VWD is suspected, repeated VWD screening tests are necessary to increase the diagnosis rate. Accurate diagnosis of VWD in patients with significant bleeding may facilitate decisions for appropriate treatment.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896927

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To develop and validate a scale to assess people’s attitudes and perspectives toward persons with disabilities. @*Methods@#The three-stage development of the scale included a preliminary version drafted from the literature review and a nominal group process. Thereafter, the draft was examined further and revised through two rounds of Delphi survey by 16 disability experts. Lastly, the psychometric properties of the scale were assessed through an online survey of 1,359 employees at three university hospitals. @*Results@#A 32-item scale, defined after two Delphi surveys, was refined into 14 items with four subcategories: community integration, discomfort, charitability, and sense of burdening. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.839 and domain reliability from 0.638 to 0.845. Recent education on disabilities yielded more positive attitudes toward persons with disabilities. Meaningful acquaintances with disabilities yielded more positive attitudes toward persons with disabilities. @*Conclusion@#This newly developed scale that measures attitudes toward persons with disability is reliable and valid. A future use of the scale could be to measure attitudinal improvements toward persons with disabilities after awareness education.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894702

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the feasibility and diagnostic performance of ultrasound (US)-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology and core-needle biopsy (US-FNAC/CNB) for the diagnosis of laryngo-hypopharyngeal masses. @*Materials and Methods@#This was a single-center prospective case series. From January 2018 to June 2019, we initially enrolled 40 patients with highly suspicious laryngo-hypopharyngeal masses on laryngoscopic examinations. Of these, 28 patients with the mass involving or abutting the pre-epiglottic, paraglottic, pyriform sinus, and/or subglottic regions were finally included. These patients underwent US examinations with/without subsequent US-FNAC/CNB under local anesthesia for evaluation of the laryngo-hypopharyngeal mass. @*Results@#Of the 28 patients who underwent US examinations, a laryngo-hypopharyngeal mass was identified in 26 patients (92.9%). US-FNAC/CNB was performed successfully in 25 of these patients (96.2%), while the procedure failed to target the mass in 1 patient (3.8%). The performance of US caused minor subclinical hematoma in 2 patients (7.7%), but no major complications occurred. US-FNAC/CNB yielded conclusive results in 24 (96.0%) out of the 25 patients with a successful procedure, including 23 patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and 1 patient with a benign mass. In one patient with atypical cells in US-FNAC, additional direct laryngoscopic biopsy (DLB) was required to confirm SCC. Among the 26 patients who received US-FNAC/CNB, the time from first visit to pathological diagnosis was 7.8 days. For 24 patients finally diagnosed with SCC, the time from first visit to the initiation of treatment was 25.2 days. The mean costs associated with US-FNAC/CNB was $272 under the Korean National Health Insurance Service System. @*Conclusion@#US-FNAC/CNB for a laryngo-hypopharyngeal mass is technically feasible in selected patients, providing good diagnostic performance. This technique could be used as a first-line diagnostic modality by adopting appropriate indications to avoid general anesthesia and DLB-related complications.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894142

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To gather the opinions of hands-on workers for successful introduction of the Development Safety Update Report (DSUR) according to a five-year comprehensive plan for clinical trial development [Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, 2019]. @*Methods@#We conducted a survey on considerations that industry stakeholders may have related to the enforcement of the DSUR. A questionnaire was distributed among pharmacovigilance specialists from 13 pharmaceutical companies in South Korea on June 4, 2020. The questionnaire comprised two sections: 1) current status of the Drug Safety Data Management System and 2) considerations on the implementation and management of the DSUR. @*Results@#All respondents have agreed the introduction of DSUR is inevitable for regulatory harmonization and safety of trial subject. However, most respondents (85%) felt concern about additional workload with DSUR implementation. They answered that format and operation system of DSUR should be harmonized with those of international standards and authorities need to minimize double burden due to related report. @*Conclusion@#All respondents asserted that domestic DSUR should be harmonized with International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) E2F guidelines. Respondents from global companies also suggested regulatory authorities allow DSUR written in English to replace Korean version considering their deadline for submission.Moreover, every respondent agreed regulatory authorities need delicate effort when implementing mandatory submission of DSUR to ensure that even small pharmaceutical companies with no experience in DSUR can comply with the system.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892549

ABSTRACT

Dyslipidemia is a major cause of cardiovascular diseases which represent a leading cause of death in humans. Diverse immune cells are known to be involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. Conversely, dyslipidemia is known to be tightly associated with immune disorders in humans, as evidenced by a higher incidence of atherosclerosis in patients with autoimmune diseases including psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Given that the dyslipidemia-related autoimmune diseases are caused by autoreactive T cells and B cells, dyslipidemia seems to directly or indirectly regulate the adaptive immunity. Indeed, accumulating evidence has unveiled that proatherogenic factors can impact the differentiation and function of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and B cells. This review discusses an updated overview on the regulation of adaptive immunity by dyslipidemia and proposes a potential therapeutic strategy for immune disorders by targeting lipid metabolism.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891028

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Human CD34+hematopoietic stem cells can reconstitute the human hematopoietic system when transplanted into immunocompromised mice after irradiation. Human leukapheresis peripheral blood (LPB)-and cord blood (CB)-derived CD34+ cells have a similar capacity to reconstitute myeloid lineage cells in a humanized mice (hu-mice) model. However, potent stem cells, such as CB-CD34+ cells, efficiently reconstitute the lymphoid system in vivo compared to LPB-CD34 + cells. Modeling the human hematolymphoid system is vital for studying immune cell crosstalk in human xenografted mice, with CB-CD34+ cells used as an optimized cell source because they are essential in reconstituting lymphoid lineage cells. @*Methods@#and Results: In this study, we established hu-mice that combined human characteristics with long-term survival and investigated the efficiency of the engraftment of lymphoid lineage cells derived from LPB- and CB-CD34+cells in the bone marrow, spleen, and LPB. We found an overall increase in the transcriptional activity of lymphoid lineage genes in CB-CD34+ cells. Our results revealed that potent CB-CD34+ cells displaying a general upregulation of the expression of genes involved in lymphopoiesis could contribute to the hematolymphoid system in the humanized mice model with longevity. @*Conclusions@#Our data suggest that humanized mouse model by usage of CB-CD34 + cells displaying high expression of TFs for lymphoid lineage cells can contribute to study the immune response against lymphocytes.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890173

ABSTRACT

Background@#In Korea, in the case of patients with significant bleeding symptoms due to unknown causes, there are very few studies that evaluate bleeding disorders, including von Willebrand disease (VWD ). VWD should be considered as an important causative factor in patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and unexplained menorrhagia. This study aimed to understand the clinical characteristics of VWD and the significance of evaluation for VWD in premenopausal women in Korea with menorrhagia and ID A. @*Methods@#Premenopausal women who were diagnosed with IDA and menorrhagia from January 2009 to March 2020 were included. IDA was diagnosed by either low ferritin or transferrin saturation with microcytic anemia. Menorrhagia was evaluated based on the medical records obtained from a gynecologist. VWD diagnosis was defined as von Willebrand factor antigen <50% and von Willebrand factor ristocetin cofactor activity <50%, which were low according to the Hospital for Sick Children criteria. @*Results@#Out of a total of 120 patients, only 12 were tested for VWD, all of whom were pediatric patients. Four of the 12 pediatric patients tested were diagnosed with VWD and 4 of the 120 (3.3%) patients with IDA and menorrhagia were diagnosed with VWD. Three out of the 4 patients was diagnosed with VWD by repeat screening test. Although all parameters are not statistically significant, VWD patients tended to have ID A at a younger age (13.25 vs. 15.00 years) and were more likely to have recurrent IDA than patients without VWD. @*Conclusion@#Clinical doctors should consider VWD if patients have menorrhagia with ID A. If VWD is suspected, repeated VWD screening tests are necessary to increase the diagnosis rate. Accurate diagnosis of VWD in patients with significant bleeding may facilitate decisions for appropriate treatment.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915460

ABSTRACT

Background@#Infections caused by multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRPA) have been on the rise worldwide, and delayed active antimicrobial therapy is associated with high mortality. However, few studies have evaluated increases in P. aeruginosa infections with antimicrobial resistance and risk factors for such antimicrobial resistance in Korea. Here, we analyzed changes in antimicrobial susceptibility associated with P. aeruginosa bacteremia and identified risk factors of antimicrobial resistance. @*Methods@#The medical records of patients with P. aeruginosa bacteremia who were admitted to a tertiary hospital between January 2009 and October 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. Antibiotic resistance rates were compared among the time periods of 2009–2012, 2013–2016, and 2017–2020 and between the intensive care unit (ICU) and non-ICU setting. Empirical antimicrobial therapy was considered concordant, if the organism was susceptible to antibiotics in vitro, and discordant, if resistant. @*Results@#During the study period, 295 patients with P. aeruginosa bacteremia were identified. The hepatobiliary tract (26.8%) was the most common primary site of infection. The rates of carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa (CRPA), MDRPA, and extensively drug-resistant P. aeruginosa (XDRPA) were 24.7%, 35.9%, and 15.9%, respectively. XDRPA showed an increasing trend, and CRPA, MDRPA, and XDRPA were also gradually increasing in non-ICU setting. Previous exposure to fluoroquinolones and glycopeptides and urinary tract infection were independent risk factors associated with CRPA, MDRPA, and XDRPA. Previous exposure to carbapenems was an independent risk factor of CRPA. CRPA, MDRPA, and XDRPA were associated with discordant empirical antimicrobial therapy. @*Conclusion@#The identification of risk factors for antimicrobial resistance and analysis of antimicrobial susceptibility might be important for concordant empirical antimicrobial therapy in patients with P. aeruginosa bacteremia.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915430

ABSTRACT

Background@#Previous studies that have focused on the challenges faced by female surgeons, such as the gender pay gap, gender biases, lower likelihood of promotion, and gender differences in the perception of discrimination against women, are reviewed. A more comprehensive understanding of explicit and implicit gender discrimination and experiences and perceptions of discrimination is needed. This study aims to determine the current prevalence and degree of gender discrimination in the Korean Surgical Society and to compare the experiences and perceptions of gender discrimination between male and female surgeons. @*Methods@#We analyzed 400 responses from a survey sent to all members of the Korean Surgical Society. This electronic survey included 16 items on experiences of gender discrimination and 17 items on perceptions of gender discrimination. We conducted χ2 tests and binary logistic regression on the data regarding these experiences and perceptions of gender discrimination. @*Results@#Adjusted analyses found that female surgeons were more likely to experience gender discrimination than their male counterparts across all categories of discrimination. Further, adjusted analyses showed that female surgeons were more likely to confirm the presence of gender discrimination than male surgeons. @*Conclusion@#Female surgeons were more likely to experience implicit and explicit gender biases and discrimination throughout all stages of their career progression. We also discovered significant gender differences in the perception of gender discrimination, as well as the experience of it. Changing the male-dominated culture and raising awareness of gender biases and discrimination among male surgeons are crucial steps toward addressing gender discrimination in surgery.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914057

ABSTRACT

Hereditary spherocytosis is the most common hereditary red blood cell membrane disorder. It results from a deficiency in certain proteins that are part of the red blood cell membrane cytoskeleton. We report a case of adrenal myelolipoma in a 23-yearold patient with hereditary spherocytosis. She was diagnosed with hereditary spherocytosis at 7 months of age. As she grew older, hemoglobin level was low, so splenectomy was recommended, but continuous follow up was not possible due to the circumstances of the patient, so the splenectomy was delayed. Adrenal myelolipoma was discovered incidentally at the age of 23 with abdominal pain and cholecystitis with gallstones at the time. Myelolipoma is a benign tumor of the mesenchymal origin;its etiology remains unclear. Myelolipoma is composed of adipose and hematopoietic tissues and mainly arises from adrenal tissues. The mass is often detected during routine radiologic examinations because myelolipoma is usually asymptomatic and not generally associated with hematologic diseases. The prevalence of myelolipoma appears to be increasing due to the increased use of imaging modalities. The association of myelolipoma with hereditary spherocytosis has rarely been reported in the literature. To our best knowledge, this is the first report of adrenal myelolipoma associated with hereditary spherocytosis in the Korean population.

16.
Childhood Kidney Diseases ; : 128-132, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913881

ABSTRACT

Morning glory syndrome (MGS) is a rare congenital optic disc anomaly with a characteristic fundal finding with severe visual impairment. It may occur in association with various systemic manifestations, even though most of the reported cases were isolated. A 6-year-old male visited the nephrology clinic with a history of microscopic hematuria and at the age of 12 years, he was diagnosed thin glomerular basement membrane nephropathy by kidney biopsy. After the following years, the patient had progressive deterioration of visual acuity, and diagnosed as MGS. Whole Exome Sequencing of this patient and his mother revealed heterozygous COL4A4 mutations [c.81_86del (p.Ile29_Leu30del)]. It is more reasonable to consider MGS seen in this patient as a coincidental finding of autosomal dominant Alport syndrome. To our knowledge, this case represents the first case report of autosomal dominant Alport syndrome associated with MGS.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889223

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To develop and validate a scale to assess people’s attitudes and perspectives toward persons with disabilities. @*Methods@#The three-stage development of the scale included a preliminary version drafted from the literature review and a nominal group process. Thereafter, the draft was examined further and revised through two rounds of Delphi survey by 16 disability experts. Lastly, the psychometric properties of the scale were assessed through an online survey of 1,359 employees at three university hospitals. @*Results@#A 32-item scale, defined after two Delphi surveys, was refined into 14 items with four subcategories: community integration, discomfort, charitability, and sense of burdening. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.839 and domain reliability from 0.638 to 0.845. Recent education on disabilities yielded more positive attitudes toward persons with disabilities. Meaningful acquaintances with disabilities yielded more positive attitudes toward persons with disabilities. @*Conclusion@#This newly developed scale that measures attitudes toward persons with disability is reliable and valid. A future use of the scale could be to measure attitudinal improvements toward persons with disabilities after awareness education.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902896

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk of osteopenia and osteoporosis by examining the bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and femur in patients with gynecological cancer without bone metastasis and to evaluate the impact of treatment for different cancers on BMD. @*Methods@#This study retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 243 women with gynecological cancer and 240 controls between March 2010 and December 2016. Patients with cervical cancer (n=105), endometrial cancer (n=63), and ovarian cancer (n=75) were treated with total hysterectomy including bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and/or chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. For the control group, healthy post-menopausal women without gynecologic cancer were selected. @*Results@#Before anticancer treatment, the BMD of patients with cervical cancer and ovarian cancer was significantly lower than that of the controls, and the BMD of patients with endometrial cancer was not significantly different from that of the controls. However, the BMD of endometrial cancer significantly decreased after treatment. According to the treatment methods, there were significant differences in the BMD of L3, L4, and the femur neck. Changes in the BMD were lowest in patients who underwent surgical treatment only, and the highest bone loss was found in patients who underwent postoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy. @*Conclusion@#Patients with cervical and ovarian cancer had lower BMD than those in the control group before treatment, and patients with endometrial cancer had decreased bone density after treatment. Therefore, during the treatment of gynecological cancer, strategies should be implemented to mitigate these risks.

19.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 592-599, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898595

ABSTRACT

Background@#Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) is a disabling condition that often necessitates total hip arthroplasty (THA). Although ONFH occurs more frequently among patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) than among the general population, there is little epidemiological information regarding ONFH in Korean patients with HIV. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the incidence and clinical features of ONFH among Korean patients with HIV. @*Materials and Methods@#In this retrospective study, we reviewed the medical records of 1,250 Korean patients with HIV treated from January 1990 to December 2019. A standardised data collection sheet was used to obtain clinical information. Imaging data were analysed by a radiologist in accordance with the 2019 revised version of the Association Research Circulation Osseous (ARCO) staging system for ONFH. @*Results@#Among the 1,250 included patients, 13 patients (1.04%; 3 women, 10 men) were diagnosed with ONFH. The overall incidence of ONFH was 1.29 per 1,000 person-years (PYs) (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.7 – 2.4 per 1,000 PYs). Median age among the 13 patients with ONFH was 47 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 41 – 57 years). The median duration since HIV diagnosis was 4.8 years (IQR: 2.3 – 10.1 years). The median CD4 cell count at the time of ONFH diagnosis was 381 cells/ mm3 (IQR: 161 – 551 cells/mm3 ). At the initial diagnosis of ONFH, 83.3% of patients exhibited bilateral involvement. ARCO stage 3 or 4 osteonecrosis was observed in 83% of patients. Among 22 hips, stage 1 ONFH was noted in 2 (9.1%), stage 2 ONFH was noted in 7 (31.8%), stage 3 ONFH was noted in 9 (40.9%), and stage 4 ONFH was noted in 4 (18.2%). THA was eventually performed in 84.6% of patients.Five (38.5%) patients had a history of steroid use, 4 (30.8%) patients had a history of alcohol abuse and 10 (76.9%) were smokers. Eight (61.5%) patients had a history of acquired immune deficiency syndrome-defining illness, including 7 with tuberculosis and 1 with pneumocystis pneumonia. Nine patients (69.2%) had a nadir CD4 cell count <200/µL, and 3 (23.1%) had a history of bone fracture. Overall, 84% of patients were exposed to antiretroviral therapy, while 54% had taken protease inhibitors for more than 1 year. @*Conclusion@#Considering that relatively high incidence of ONFH in patients with HIV, a high index of suspicion for those with risk factors and those with groin or hip pain for is required in HIV-infected patients.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895192

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk of osteopenia and osteoporosis by examining the bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and femur in patients with gynecological cancer without bone metastasis and to evaluate the impact of treatment for different cancers on BMD. @*Methods@#This study retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 243 women with gynecological cancer and 240 controls between March 2010 and December 2016. Patients with cervical cancer (n=105), endometrial cancer (n=63), and ovarian cancer (n=75) were treated with total hysterectomy including bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and/or chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. For the control group, healthy post-menopausal women without gynecologic cancer were selected. @*Results@#Before anticancer treatment, the BMD of patients with cervical cancer and ovarian cancer was significantly lower than that of the controls, and the BMD of patients with endometrial cancer was not significantly different from that of the controls. However, the BMD of endometrial cancer significantly decreased after treatment. According to the treatment methods, there were significant differences in the BMD of L3, L4, and the femur neck. Changes in the BMD were lowest in patients who underwent surgical treatment only, and the highest bone loss was found in patients who underwent postoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy. @*Conclusion@#Patients with cervical and ovarian cancer had lower BMD than those in the control group before treatment, and patients with endometrial cancer had decreased bone density after treatment. Therefore, during the treatment of gynecological cancer, strategies should be implemented to mitigate these risks.

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