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1.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834917

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Little is known about percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and its benefits in elderly patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). This study compared the survival to discharge and the neurological outcomes across the age groups of patients with OHCA. @*Methods@#Using the national cardiac arrest registry, OHCA patients with a return of spontaneous circulation from 2013 to 2017 were included in this study. The PCI history of the patients was obtained from their medical records. The outcomes were cerebral performance category (CPC) 1 and 2 and survival to discharge. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed, and an interaction term was evaluated to compare the effects of PCI across the age groups. @*Results@#This study included 22,320 patients. In the interaction term, the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) for a good CPC was 2.84 (2.43-3.32) for the age group of 18-64 years, 3.26 (2.53-4.21) for the age group of 65-74 years, 3.37 (2.33-4.88) for the age group of 75-84 years, and 2.54 (0.92-7.01) for the age group of 85-106 years. The AOR (95% CI) for survival to hospital discharge was 3.31 (2.82-3.88) for the age group of 18-64 years, 2.65 (2.09-3.35) for the age group of 65-74 years, 2.20 (1.61-3.02) for the age group of 75-84 years, and 1.64 (0.73-3.67) for the age group of 85-106 years. @*Conclusion@#In the OHCA patients, the PCI group had more good outcomes (good CPC, survival to discharge) than the non-PCI group, but this benefit was not shown in those aged over 85 years. On the other hand, it could not explain why PCI should not be performed in the elderly, suggesting that age alone should not be used to make decisions regarding early invasive strategies.

2.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831696

ABSTRACT

Background@#s: The severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread worldwide. Cardiac injury after SARS-CoV-2 infection is a major concern. The present study investigated impact of the biomarkers indicating cardiac injury in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on patients' outcomes. @*Methods@#This study enrolled patients who were confirmed to have COVID-19 and admitted at a tertiary university referral hospital between February 19, 2020 and March 15, 2020. Cardiac injury was defined as an abnormality in one of the following result markers: 1) myocardial damage marker (creatine kinase-MB or troponin-I), 2) heart failure marker (N-terminal-pro B-type natriuretic peptide), and 3) electrical abnormality marker (electrocardiography). The relationship between each cardiac injury marker and mortality was evaluated. Survival analysis of mortality according to the scoring by numbers of cardiac injury markers was also performed. @*Results@#A total of 38 patients with COVID-19 were enrolled. Twenty-two patients (57.9%) had at least one of cardiac injury markers. The patients with cardiac injuries were older (69.6 ± 14.9 vs. 58.6 ± 13.9 years old, P = 0.026), and were more male (59.1% vs. 18.8%, P = 0.013).They showed lower initial oxygen saturation (92.8 vs. 97.1%, P = 0.002) and a trend toward higher mortality (27.3 vs. 6.3%, P = 0.099). The increased number of cardiac injury markers was significantly related to a higher incidence of in-hospital mortality which was also evidenced by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis (P = 0.008). @*Conclusion@#The increased number of cardiac injury markers is related to in-hospital mortality in patients with COVID-19.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785603

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Assessing the severity of injury and predicting outcomes are essential in traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, the respiratory rate and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) of the Revised Trauma Score (RTS) are difficult to use in the prehospital setting. This investigation aimed to develop a new prehospital trauma score for TBI (NTS-TBI) to predict mortality and disability.METHODS: We used a nationwide trauma database on severe trauma cases transported by fire departments across Korea in 2013 and 2015. NTS-TBI model 1 used systolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg, peripheral capillary oxygen saturation < 90% measured via pulse oximeter, and motor component of GCS. Model 2 comprised variables of model 1 and age >65 years. We assessed discriminative power via area under the curve (AUC) value for in-hospital mortality and disability defined according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale with scores of 2 or 3. We then compared AUC values of NTS-TBI with those of RTS.RESULTS: In total, 3,642 patients were enrolled. AUC values of NTS-TBI models 1 and 2 for mortality were 0.833 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.815 to 0.852) and 0.852 (95% CI, 0.835 to 0.869), respectively, while AUC values for disability were 0.772 (95% CI, 0.749 to 0.796) and 0.784 (95% CI, 0.761 to 0.807), respectively. AUC values of NTS-TBI model 2 for mortality and disability were higher than those of RTS (0.819 and 0.761, respectively) (P < 0.01).CONCLUSION: Our NTS-TBI model using systolic blood pressure, motor component of GCS, oxygen saturation, and age was feasible for prehospital care and showed outstanding discriminative power for mortality.


Subject(s)
Hypoxia , Area Under Curve , Blood Pressure , Brain Injuries , Capillaries , Fires , Glasgow Coma Scale , Glasgow Outcome Scale , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypotension , Korea , Mortality , Observational Study , Oxygen , Quality Improvement , Respiratory Rate
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785596

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Despite increased survival in patients with cardiac arrest, it remains difficult to determine patient prognosis at the early stage. This study evaluated the prognosis of cardiac arrest patients using brain injury, inflammation, cardiovascular ischemic events, and coagulation/fibrinolysis markers collected 24, 48, and 72 hours after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC).METHODS: From January 2011 to December 2016, we retrospectively observed patients who underwent therapeutic hypothermia. Blood samples were collected immediately and 24, 48, and 72 hours after ROSC. Neuron-specific enolase (NSE), S100-B protein, procalcitonin, troponin I, creatine kinase-MB, pro-brain natriuretic protein, D-dimer, fibrin degradation product, antithrombin-III, fibrinogen, and lactate levels were measured. Prognosis was evaluated using Glasgow-Pittsburgh cerebral performance categories and the predictive accuracy of each marker was evaluated. The secondary outcome was whether the presence of multiple markers improved prediction accuracy.RESULTS: A total of 102 patients were included in the study: 39 with good neurologic outcomes and 63 with poor neurologic outcomes. The mean NSE level of good outcomes measured 72 hours after ROSC was 18.50 ng/mL. The area under the curve calculated on receiver operating characteristic analysis was 0.92, which showed the best predictive power among all markers included in the study analysis. The relative integrated discrimination improvement and category-free net reclassification improvement models showed no improvement in prognostic value when combined with all other markers and NSE (72 hours).CONCLUSION: Although biomarker combinations did not improve prognostic accuracy, NSE (72 hours) showed the best predictive power for neurological prognosis in patients who received therapeutic hypothermia.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Brain Injuries , Creatine , Discrimination, Psychological , Fibrin , Fibrinogen , Heart Arrest , Humans , Hypothermia, Induced , Inflammation , Lactic Acid , Phosphopyruvate Hydratase , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Troponin I
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765169

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Longer transport adversely affects outcomes in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients who do not return to spontaneous circulation (ROSC). The aim of this study was to determine the association between the transport time interval (TTI) and neurological outcomes in OHCA patients without ROSC. METHODS: We analyzed adult OHCA patients with presumed cardiac etiology and without prehospital ROSC from 2012 to 2015. The study population was divided into 2 groups according to STI (short STI [1–5 minutes] and long STI [≥ 6 minutes]). The primary exposure was TTI, which was categorized as short (1–5 minutes), intermediate (6–10 minutes), or long (≥ 11 minutes). The primary outcome was a good neurological recovery at discharge. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used in each STI group. RESULTS: Among 57,822 patients, 23,043 (40%), 20,985 (36%), and 13,794 (24%) were classified as short, intermediate, and long TTI group. A good neurological recovery occurred in 1.0%, 0.6%, and 0.3% of the patients in the short, intermediate and long TTI group, respectively. Among 12,652 patients with short STI, a good neurological recovery occurred in 2.2%, 1.0%, and 0.4% of the patients in the short, intermediate and long TTI group, respectively. Among 45,570 patients with long STI, a good neurological recovery occurred in 0.7%, 0.5%, and 0.3% of the patients in the short, intermediate and long TTI group, respectively. When short TTI was used as a reference, the adjusted odds ratios (AOR) of TTI for good neurological recovery was different between short STI group and long STI group (AOR [95% confidence interval, 0.46 [0.32–0.67] vs. 0.72 [0.59–0.89], respectively, for intermediate TTI and 0.31 [0.17–0.55] vs. 0.49 [0.37–0.65], respectively, for long TTI). CONCLUSION: A longer TTI adversely affected the likelihood of a good neurological recovery in OHCA patients without prehospital ROSC. This negative effect was more prominent in short STI group.


Subject(s)
Adult , Emergency Medical Services , Humans , Logistic Models , Odds Ratio , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Sexually Transmitted Diseases
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765120

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of pediatric disability that results in many emergency department visits. The risk of TBI is high while playing sports. The aim of this study was to examine the demographics and clinical characteristics of sports-related TBI. METHODS: We performed a multicenter observational study using the Emergency Department–Based Injury In-Depth Surveillance database in Korea. Patients aged 5 to 18 years old, who sustained unintentional, sports-related head injuries between January 2011 and December 2016 were included. The type of sports was the main variable of interest, and it was classified into 6 categories. The primary outcome was TBI, and the secondary outcome was intracranial injury and hospital admission. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (aORs) with 95% confidence intervals for the outcomes by sports type. RESULTS: Of the 1,537,617 injured patients, 10,717 (0.7%) patients were included in the study. Most of the patients were male (87.5%), and the most prevalent sports type was field sports (51.2%). The proportion of TBI, intracranial injury, and admission were 15.7%, 1.2%, and 3.5%, respectively. The aORs of TBI, intracranial injury, and admission in bicycle and street sports compared to field sports were 1.77 (1.37–2.28), 4.99 (2.62–9.50), and 2.27 (1.42–3.61) respectively. CONCLUSION: This is the first nationwide epidemiologic study of pediatric sports-related TBI in Korea. The ratios of TBI, intracranial injury and admission were highest in bicycle and street sports. Prevention strategies for pediatric sports-related TBI can be developed according to sports types.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries , Child , Craniocerebral Trauma , Demography , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Epidemiologic Studies , Epidemiology , Humans , Korea , Logistic Models , Male , Observational Study , Odds Ratio , Sports
7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758475

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to achieve expert consensus for the evaluation of Emergency medical system operation fund (EMSOF) support projects using the Delphi method in Korea. METHODS: The Delphi study was performed in June 2018. Experts who are members of the policy committee of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine (KSEM) participated in the study. Respondents were asked to express their level of agreement of appropriateness for the following 6 categories for 21 projects: project contents, amount of support, indicators, performance, overall evaluation, and need to maintain. With a possible score of 9 points, the project categories were classified into 3 groups, inappropriate, moderate and appropriate, based on the median score of the respondents' ratings in each question. RESULTS: Sixteen of the 18 policy committee members participated in the survey. Their average professional work years were 8.2 years. All 21 projects were evaluated as appropriate for content. Amount of support and indicators were evaluated as moderate. Only 5 out of the 21 projects were evaluated as having appropriate indicators. No projects were evaluated as ineffective. Comprehensive evaluation of the projects was evaluated as moderate, and no project was evaluated as inappropriate in fund support. CONCLUSION: Overall, the contents of the EMSOF assistance project were rated high; however, there was a disagreement on the amount of support and evaluation indicators for each project. The results of this study are expected to be used as basic data to improve the use of EMSOF.


Subject(s)
Committee Membership , Consensus , Delphi Technique , Emergencies , Emergency Medicine , Financial Management , Korea , Methods , Resource Allocation , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758899

ABSTRACT

Scrapie is a mammalian transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or prion disease that predominantly affects sheep and goats. Scrapie has been shown to overcome the species barrier via experimental infection of other rodents. To confirm the re-transmissibility of the mouse-adapted ME7 scrapie strain to ovine prion protein (PrP) transgenic mice, mice of an ovinized transgenic mouse line carrying the Suffolk sheep PrP gene that contained the A₁₃₆ R₁₅₄ Q₁₇₁/ARQ allele were intracerebrally inoculated with brain homogenates obtained from terminally ill ME7-infected C57BL/6J mice. Herein, we report that the mouse-adapted ME7 scrapie strain was successfully re-transmitted to the transgenic mice expressing ovine PrP. In addition, we observed changes in the incubation period, glycoform profile, and pattern of scrapie PrP (PrP(Sc)) deposition in the affected brains. PrP(Sc) deposition in the hippocampal region of the brain of 2nd-passaged ovine PrP transgenic mice was accompanied by plaque formation. These results reveal that the mouse-adapted ME7 scrapie strain has the capacity to act as a template for the conversion of ovine normal monomeric precursors into a pathogenic form in ovine PrP transgenic mice. The change in glycoform pattern and the deposition of plaques in the hippocampal region of the brain of the 2nd-passaged PrP transgenic mice are most likely cellular PrP species dependent rather than being ME7 scrapie strain encoded.


Subject(s)
Alleles , Animals , Brain , Gliosis , Goats , Humans , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Plaque, Amyloid , Prion Diseases , PrPSc Proteins , Rodentia , Scrapie , Sheep , Terminally Ill
9.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1919-1924, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-802772

ABSTRACT

Background@#Differential diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson disease (IPD) and multiple system atrophy-Parkinson type (MSA-P) is challenging since they share clinical features with parkinsonism and autonomic dysfunction. To distinguish MSA-P from IPD when the symptoms are relatively mild, we investigated the usefulness of the quantitative fractionalized autonomic indexes and evaluated the correlations of autonomic test indexes and functional status.@*Methods@#Thirty-six patients with parkinsonism (22 with IPD and 14 with MSA-P) in Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital from February 2014 to June 2015 were prospectively enrolled in the study. We compared fractionalized autonomic indexes and composite autonomic scoring scale between patients with IPD and MSA-P with Hoehn and Yahr (H&Y) score ≤3. Parasympathetic indexes included expiratory/inspiratory ratio during deep breathing, Valsalva ratio (VR), and regression slope of systolic blood pressure (BP) in early phase II (vagal baroreflex sensitivity) during Valsalva maneuver. Sympathetic adrenergic indexes were pressure recovery time (PRT) and adrenergic baroreflex sensitivity (BRSa) (BP decrement associated with phase 3 divided by the PRT), sympathetic index 1, sympathetic index 3, early phase II mean BP drop, and pulse pressure reduction rate. Additionally, we compared the unified multiple system atrophy rating scale (UMSARS) and H&Y scores and the autonomic indexes in all patients.@*Results@#PRT was significantly different between the IPD and MSA-P groups (P = 0.004) despite the similar BP drop during tilt. Cutoff value of PRT was 5.5 s (sensitivity, 71.4%; specificity, 72.7%). VR (r = -0.455, P = 0.009) and BRSa (r = -0.356, P = 0.036) demonstrated a significant correlation with UMSARS and H&Y scores.@*Conclusions@#Among the cardiovascular autonomic indexes, PRT can be a useful parameter in differentiating the early stage of MSAP from that of IPD. Moreover, VR, and BRSa may be the optimal indexes in determining functional symptom severity.

10.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1919-1924, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774681

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Differential diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson disease (IPD) and multiple system atrophy-Parkinson type (MSA-P) is challenging since they share clinical features with parkinsonism and autonomic dysfunction. To distinguish MSA-P from IPD when the symptoms are relatively mild, we investigated the usefulness of the quantitative fractionalized autonomic indexes and evaluated the correlations of autonomic test indexes and functional status.@*METHODS@#Thirty-six patients with parkinsonism (22 with IPD and 14 with MSA-P) in Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital from February 2014 to June 2015 were prospectively enrolled in the study. We compared fractionalized autonomic indexes and composite autonomic scoring scale between patients with IPD and MSA-P with Hoehn and Yahr (H&Y) score ≤3. Parasympathetic indexes included expiratory/inspiratory ratio during deep breathing, Valsalva ratio (VR), and regression slope of systolic blood pressure (BP) in early phase II (vagal baroreflex sensitivity) during Valsalva maneuver. Sympathetic adrenergic indexes were pressure recovery time (PRT) and adrenergic baroreflex sensitivity (BRSa) (BP decrement associated with phase 3 divided by the PRT), sympathetic index 1, sympathetic index 3, early phase II mean BP drop, and pulse pressure reduction rate. Additionally, we compared the unified multiple system atrophy rating scale (UMSARS) and H&Y scores and the autonomic indexes in all patients.@*RESULTS@#PRT was significantly different between the IPD and MSA-P groups (P = 0.004) despite the similar BP drop during tilt. Cut-off value of PRT was 5.5 s (sensitivity, 71.4%; specificity, 72.7%). VR (r = -0.455, P = 0.009) and BRSa (r = -0.356, P = 0.036) demonstrated a significant correlation with UMSARS and H&Y scores.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Among the cardiovascular autonomic indexes, PRT can be a useful parameter in differentiating the early stage of MSA-P from that of IPD. Moreover, VR, and BRSa may be the optimal indexes in determining functional symptom severity.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718715

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: As aging progresses, clinical characteristics of elderly patients in the emergency department (ED) vary by age. We aimed to study differences among elderly patients in the ED by age group. METHODS: For 2 years, patients aged 65 and older were enrolled in the study and classified into three groups: youngest-old, ages 65 to 74 years; middle-old, 75 to 84 years; and oldest-old, ≥85 years. Participants’ sex, reason for ED visit, transfer from another hospital, results of treatment, type of admission, admission department and length of stay were recorded. RESULTS: During the study period, a total 64,287 patients visited the ED; 11,236 (17.5%) were aged 65 and older, of whom 14.4% were 85 and older. With increased age, the female ratio (51.5% vs. 54.9% vs. 69.1%, P < 0.001), medical causes (79.5% vs. 81.3% vs. 81.7%, P=0.045), and admission rate (35.3% vs. 42.8% vs. 48.5%, P < 0.001) increased. Admissions to internal medicine (57.5% vs. 59.3% vs. 64.7%, P < 0.001) and orthopedic surgery (8.5% vs. 11.6% vs. 13.8%, P < 0.001) also increased. The ratio of admission to intensive care unit showed no statistical significance (P=0.545). Patients over age 85 years had longer stays in the ED (330.9 vs. 378.9 vs. 407.2 minutes, P < 0.001), were discharged home less (84.4% vs. 78.9% vs. 71.5%, P < 0.001), and died more frequently (6.3% vs. 10.4% vs. 13.0%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: With increased age, the proportion of female patients and medical causes increased. Rates of admission and death increased with age and older patients had longer ED and hospital stays.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aging , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Internal Medicine , Length of Stay , Orthopedics
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718713

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: For patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), symptoms assessed by emergency medical services (EMS) providers have a critical role in prehospital treatment decisions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of EMS provider-assessed cardiac symptoms of AMI. METHODS: Patients transported by EMS to 4 study hospitals from 2008 to 2012 were included. Using EMS and administrative emergency department databases, patients were stratified according to the presence of EMS-assessed cardiac symptoms and emergency department diagnosis of AMI. Cardiac symptoms were defined as chest pain, dyspnea, palpitations, and syncope. Disproportionate stratified sampling was used, and medical records of sampled patients were reviewed to identify an actual diagnosis of AMI. Using inverse probability weighting, verification bias-corrected diagnostic performance was estimated. RESULTS: Overall, 92,353 patients were enrolled in the study. Of these, 13,971 (15.1%) complained of cardiac symptoms to EMS providers. A total of 775 patients were sampled for hospital record review. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of EMS provider-assessed cardiac symptoms for the final diagnosis of AMI was 73.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 70.8 to 75.7), 85.3% (95% CI, 85.3 to 85.4), 3.9% (95% CI, 3.6 to 4.2), and 99.7% (95% CI, 99.7 to 99.8), respectively. CONCLUSION: We found that EMS provider-assessed cardiac symptoms had moderate sensitivity and high specificity for diagnosis of AMI. EMS policymakers can use these data to evaluate the pertinence of specific prehospital treatment of AMI.


Subject(s)
Chest Pain , Diagnosis , Dyspnea , Emergencies , Emergency Medical Services , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospital Records , Humans , Medical Records , Myocardial Infarction , Observational Study , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity , Symptom Assessment , Syncope
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714042

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of the emergency medical services (EMS) response and clinical information on mass casualty chemical incidents in Korea. METHODS: This retrospective observational study analyzed the integrated data of the EMS rescue records and EMS-treated severe trauma registry from January 2012 to December 2013. Two databases were integrated using the unique accident identification number. Chemical incidents were defined by an in-depth review of the EMS rescue records according to a previous study. Mass casualty incidents were defined as more than 6 injured individuals. The rescue, EMS, and hospital variables of mass casualty chemical incidents were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 8 mass casualty chemical incidents and 73 patients were included. The mean responded rescue vehicles and EMS vehicles were 2.4 and 3.5, respectively. The 4 incidents were an oil spill due to traffic accidents and most patients suffered minor trauma. A carbon monoxide leak caused the largest number of patients (23 people). The explosion caused by flammable polyethylene leaks showed the highest severity. In that explosion, the mortality rate was 40% and 8 patients had a disability at discharge. CONCLUSION: This study evaluated the characteristics of the EMS response and clinical information on mass casualty chemical incidents in Korea.


Subject(s)
Accidents, Traffic , Carbon Monoxide , Chemical Hazard Release , Emergency Medical Services , Explosions , Humans , Korea , Mass Casualty Incidents , Mortality , Observational Study , Petroleum Pollution , Polyethylene , Retrospective Studies
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713325

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of alcohol use on emergency department (ED) length of stay (LOS) among minimally injured patients by mechanism of injury. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of injury surveillance data for injured patients (except poisoning), aged over 18 years, discharged home from the ED, and treated at seven academic EDs in Korea during 2008 to 2012. Patients were divided into alcohol-related and alcohol-unrelated groups based on self-report. We used multivariable quantile regression models for the analysis and adjusted covariates including age, sex, consciousness status, severity of injury, emergency medical service use, the season, day and time of visit, and hospital. To determine if there were different effects of alcohol use across mechanism of injury, all analyses were stratified by each mechanism. RESULTS: Among 192,200 patients, 95,807 patients were analyzed. The number of participants in the alcohol-related group was 16,249 (17.0%). In the multivariable quantile regression model, the alcohol-related group had significantly longer ED LOS at the 10th (7 minutes; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6 to 8), 50th (21 minutes; 95% CI, 19 to 23), and 90th (81 minutes; 95% CI, 74 to 87) percentiles when compared to the alcohol-unrelated group. The effect of alcohol use on increased ED LOS was most prominent in motor vehicle injuries. CONCLUSION: We found that alcohol use was associated with increased emergency ED LOS. Furthermore, if we limited our attention to the effect of alcohol use on the number of patients, the burden of alcohol use on the ED would have been underestimated.


Subject(s)
Consciousness , Emergencies , Emergency Medical Services , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Korea , Length of Stay , Motor Vehicles , Observational Study , Retrospective Studies , Seasons , Wounds and Injuries
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715764

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Injury is a major public health problem and accounts for 10% of the global burden of disease. This study intends to present the temporal trend in the injury burden in Korea and to compare the burden size by injury mechanism and age group. METHODS: This study was a nationwide population-based observational study. We used two data sets, the death certificates statistics and the Korean National Hospital Discharge Survey data (2004–2012). We calculated age-standardized disability-adjusted life year (DALY) from years of life lost (YLL) and years lived with disability (YLD) and trend analysis. RESULTS: The DALYs of road injury decreased (P = 0.002), falls did not exhibit a trend (P = 0.108), and self-harm increased overall (P = 0.045). In the road injury, the YLLs decreased across all 4 age groups (0–14, 15–49, 50–79, ≥ 80) and the YLDs decreased in the 0–14-year-old group. In total, the DALYs of road injuries decreased in the 0–14-year-old group. In the fall injury, although the YLLs decreased in the over 80-year-old group, the YLDs increased in the 50–79-year-old group and the over 80-year-old group. The burden of self-harm injury was high in the age group 15 years and over, especially in the 15–49-year-old group. CONCLUSION: The leading causes of the injury burden were road injuries, falls, and self-harm. The burden of road injury and self-harm have recently shown a gradual decreasing tendency. On the other hands, that of fall injuries are continually high in the age group over 50 years of age.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls , Accidents, Traffic , Aged, 80 and over , Dataset , Death Certificates , Hand , Health Care Surveys , Humans , Korea , Observational Study , Public Health , Suicide
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765813

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Postural instability and gait disturbance are the cardinal symptoms associated with falling among patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). The Tinetti mobility test (TMT) is a well-established measurement tool used to predict falls among elderly people. However, the TMT has not been established or widely used among PD patients in Korea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the TMT for PD patients. METHODS: Twenty-four patients diagnosed with PD were enrolled in this study. For the interrater reliability test, thirteen clinicians scored the TMT after watching a video clip. We also used the test-retest method to determine intrarater reliability. For concurrent validation, the unified Parkinson’s disease rating scale, Hoehn and Yahr staging, Berg Balance Scale, Timed-Up and Go test, 10-m walk test, and gait analysis by three-dimensional motion capture were also used. We analyzed receiver operating characteristic curve to predict falling. RESULTS: The interrater reliability and intrarater reliability of the Korean Tinetti balance scale were 0.97 and 0.98, respectively. The interrater reliability and intra-rater reliability of the Korean Tinetti gait scale were 0.94 and 0.96, respectively. The Korean TMT scores were significantly correlated with the other clinical scales and three-dimensional motion capture. The cutoff values for predicting falling were 14 points (balance subscale) and 10 points (gait subscale). CONCLUSION: We found that the Korean version of the TMT showed excellent validity and reliability for gait and balance and had high sensitivity and specificity for predicting falls among patients with PD.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls , Aged , Gait , Humans , Korea , Methods , Parkinson Disease , Reproducibility of Results , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Weights and Measures
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766721

ABSTRACT

Oculogyric crisis is an acute dystonia involving ocular muscles characterized by sustained conjugate upward or lateral deviation of the eyes. Metronidazole is a commonly used antimicrobial agent in treatment of anaerobic infections. However, its long-term use can cause toxic encephalopathy particularly in patients with hepatic dysfunction. Here, we describe a case of oculogyric crisis as a presenting manifestation of metronidazole-induced encephalopathy.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases , Dystonia , Humans , Metronidazole , Muscles , Neurotoxicity Syndromes
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-178682

ABSTRACT

Reversible lesion in the splenium of the corpus callosum in patients with epilepsy is often associated with some antiepileptic drugs. However, topiramate has never been reported as a possible inducer of the focal lesion. We report a case of reversible splenial lesion of the corpus callosum presumed to be induced by low dose topiramate in a patient with chronic migraine.


Subject(s)
Anticonvulsants , Corpus Callosum , Epilepsy , Humans , Migraine Disorders
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-226284

ABSTRACT

Facial asymmetry can be classified into the rolling-dominant type (R-type), translation-dominant type (T-type), yawing-dominant type (Y-type), and atypical type (A-type) based on the distorted skeletal components that cause canting, translation, and yawing of the maxilla and/or mandible. Each facial asymmetry type represents dentoalveolar compensations in three dimensions that correspond to the main skeletal discrepancies. To obtain sufficient surgical correction, it is necessary to analyze the main skeletal discrepancies contributing to the facial asymmetry and then the skeletal-dental relationships in the maxilla and mandible separately. Particularly in cases of facial asymmetry accompanied by mandibular yawing, it is not simple to establish pre-surgical goals of tooth movement since chin deviation and posterior gonial prominence can be either aggravated or compromised according to the direction of mandibular yawing. Thus, strategic dentoalveolar decompensations targeting the real basal skeletal discrepancies should be performed during presurgical orthodontic treatment to allow for sufficient skeletal correction with stability. In this report, we document targeted decompensation of two asymmetry patients focusing on more complicated yaw-dependent types than others: Y-type and A-type. This may suggest a clinical guideline on the targeted decompensation in patient with different types of facial asymmetries.


Subject(s)
Chin , Facial Asymmetry , Humans , Mandible , Maxilla , Orthognathic Surgery , Tooth Movement Techniques
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-222539

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Occult injuries are diagnosed using computed tomography (CT), often with intravenous (IV) contrast CT, in major trauma patients. The contrast dye is known to be potentially nephrotoxic. Thus, we measured the incidence and risk factors for contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in major trauma patients. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed on 247 patients who were treated by the activated trauma team between June 2012 and July 2014. The exclusion criteria were underlying renal failure, no IV contrast CT administered, and no creatinine (Cr) follow-up within 72 hours. We examined age, gender, initial vital signs, the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), initial Cr levels, Cr level within 72 hours after admission, the IV contrast CT number, Injury Severity Score (ISS). CIN was defined as 25% relative or 0.5 mg/dL absolute increase in serum Cr within 72 hours of presentation. RESULTS: One hundred forty-three patients were included in this study. CIN manifested in 12 patients (8.4%). The injury severity was associated with CIN (ISS≥16, p=0.003; GCS≤8, p<0.001; death, p<0.001). Initial Cr levels, elderly patients, and initial hypotension were not statistically significant (p=0.065, 0.176, and 0.402, respectively). The number of IV contrast CTs administered was also not associated with the occurrence of CIN (p=0.331). CONCLUSION: We found an 8.4% incidence of CIN in multiple trauma patients exposed to IV contrast. The number of IV contrasts, age, initial systolic blood pressure, and initial Cr levels were not associated with CIN. Only injury severity was associated with CIN occurrence; therefore, physicians should pay more attention to severely-injured patients.


Subject(s)
Aged , Blood Pressure , Creatinine , Follow-Up Studies , Glasgow Coma Scale , Humans , Hypotension , Incidence , Injury Severity Score , Multiple Trauma , Renal Insufficiency , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Vital Signs
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