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1.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 830-840, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939105

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Membranous nephropathy (MN) is a major cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of rituximab (RTX) in patients with idiopathic MN (iMN) who have a high risk of progression. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed data of 13 patients with iMN, who received RTX treatments from January 2014 to July 2020. RTX was indicated in patients with iMN with severe proteinuria and decreasing estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in the previous 6 months despite other immunosuppressive therapies. @*Results@#The patients were predominantly males (n = 11) and with a mean age of 55.3 years; median eGFR, 37.0 mL/min/1.73 m2 (interquartile range [IQR], 26.3 to 66.5); serum albumin level, 2.6 g/dL (IQR, 1.9 to 3.1); and spot urine protein-to-creatinine ratio at baseline, 6.6 g/g (IQR, 5.7 to 12.9). In a median follow-up of 22 months, eight patients (61.5%) achieved complete or partial remission. In responder group (n = 8), median eGFR increased from 31.5 to 61.5 mL/min/1.73 m2 (p = 0.049) and serum albumin level increased from 2.3 to 4.2 g/dL (p = 0.017) from RTX initiation to last follow-up. Antiphospholipase A2 receptor antibody (anti-PLA2R-Ab) was positive in six among seven tested patients, which markedly decreased in the responder group. There were no adverse events after RTX. @*Conclusions@#This study suggests that RTX is a safe and effective treatment option for patients with iMN who have a high risk of progression. Individualized therapy based on anti-PLA2R-Ab titer would be needed for better outcomes.

2.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 372-383, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938430

ABSTRACT

The number of elderly patients with end-stage kidney disease has been increasing, but the outcomes of kidney transplants (KT) remain poorly understood in elderly patients. Therefore, we evaluated the clinical outcomes of elderly KT recipients and analyzed the impact of elderly donors. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included patients who underwent KT between 2000 and 2019. KT recipients were divided into four groups according to a combination of recipient and donor age (≥60 or <60 years); elderly recipients: old-to-old (n = 46) and young-to-old (n = 83); young recipients: old-to-young (n = 98) and young-to-young (n = 796). We compared the risks of mortality, graft failure, and acute rejection between groups using Cox regression analysis. Results: The incidence of delayed graft function, graft failure, and acute rejection was not different among groups. Annual mean tacrolimus trough level was not lower in elderly recipients than young recipients during 10-year follow-up. Mortality was significantly higher in elderly recipients (p = 0.001), particularly infection-related mortality (p < 0.001). In multivariable Cox regression analysis, old-toold and young-to-old groups had increased risk of mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 2.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14– 7.32; p = 0.03; aHR, 3.06; 95% CI, 1.51–6.20; p = 0.002). However, graft failure and acute rejection risks were not increased in elderly recipients. Conclusion: In elderly recipients, graft survival and acute rejection-free survival were not inferior to those of young recipients. However, mortality, especially risk of infection-related death, was increased in elderly recipients. Thus, low immunosuppression intensity might help decrease mortality in elderly recipients.

3.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 520-533, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927021

ABSTRACT

Kidney transplantation is the preferred treatment for patients with end-stage kidney disease, because it prolongs survival and improves quality of life. Allograft biopsy is the gold standard for diagnosing allograft rejection. However, it is invasive and reactive, and continuous monitoring is unrealistic. Various biomarkers for diagnosing allograft rejection have been developed over the last two decades based on omics technologies to overcome these limitations. Omics technologies are based on a holistic view of the molecules that constitute an individual. They include genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. The omics approach has dramatically accelerated biomarker discovery and enhanced our understanding of multifactorial biological processes in the field of transplantation. However, clinical application of omics-based biomarkers is limited by several issues. First, no large-scale prospective randomized controlled trial has been conducted to compare omics-based biomarkers with traditional biomarkers for rejection. Second, given the variety and complexity of injuries that a kidney allograft may experience, it is likely that no single omics approach will suffice to predict rejection or outcome. Therefore, integrated methods using multiomics technologies are needed. Herein, we introduce omics technologies and review the latest literature on omics biomarkers predictive of allograft rejection in kidney transplant recipients.

4.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 77-88, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893829

ABSTRACT

Background@#Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated glomerulonephritis (AAGN) is a common cause of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis and requires prompt and proper immunosuppressive therapy to improve renal prognosis. This study aimed to evaluate the predictive value of two different classifications for renal outcomes in Korean AAGN patients. @*Methods@#Ninety-two patients who were diagnosed with AAGN at two tertiary hospitals between 2004 and 2018 were retrospectively analyzed retrospectively. The histopathologic classification according to glomerular pathology and the clinicopathologic classification according to normal glomeruli ratio, degree of interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy, and baseline renal function were evaluated using the Cox proportional hazards model. @*Results@#Forty-five patients (48.9%) progressed to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) during the observation period. The mean age was 61.0 ± 15.3 years, and most patients had myeloperoxidase-ANCA (93.5%). In the histopathologic classification, the best renal survival occurred in the focal class, whereas the sclerotic class had the worst renal survival (sclerotic class vs. focal class; adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 5.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32–19.31; p = 0.018). The mixed class had intermediate renal outcomes (mixed class vs. focal class; aHR, 4.23; 95% CI, 1.23–14.58; p = 0.022). In the clinicopathologic classification, the high-risk group had poor renal outcomes compared with the low-risk group (aHR, 6.56; 95% CI, 1.25–34.26; p = 0.026), but renal outcomes did not differ between the low- and medium-risk groups. @*Conclusion@#In Korean AAGN patients, histopathologic and clinicopathologic classifications had predictive value for renal outcomes, especially in the sclerotic class or the high-risk group with higher risk of progression to ESRD despite treatment.

5.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e218-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892157

ABSTRACT

Various coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines are being developed, which show practical preventive effects. Here, we report a 51-year-old healthy man with nephrotic syndrome secondary to minimal change disease (MCD) after Ad26.COV.2 (Janssen) vaccination. He had no comorbid disease and received Ad26.COV.2 on April 13, 2021. Seven days after vaccination, he developed edema and foamy urine. Edema rapidly aggravated with decreased urine volume. He was admitted to the hospital 28 days after vaccination, and his body weight increased by 21 kg after vaccination. His serum creatinine level was 1.54 mg/ dL, and 24-h urinary protein excretion was 8.6 g/day. Kidney biopsy revealed no abnormality in the glomeruli and interstitium of the cortex and medulla under the light microscope.Electron microscopy revealed diffuse effacement of the podocyte foot processes, thus, he was diagnosed with MCD. High-dose steroid therapy was applied, and his kidney function improved three days after steroid therapy. Three weeks after steroid use, his serum creatinine decreased to 0.95 mg/dL, and spot urine protein-to-creatine decreased to 0.2 g/g. This case highlights the risk of new-onset nephrotic syndrome secondary to MCD after vectored COVID-19 vaccination. Although the pathogenesis is uncertain, clinicians need to be careful about adverse renal effects of COVID-19 vaccines.

6.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 77-88, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901533

ABSTRACT

Background@#Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated glomerulonephritis (AAGN) is a common cause of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis and requires prompt and proper immunosuppressive therapy to improve renal prognosis. This study aimed to evaluate the predictive value of two different classifications for renal outcomes in Korean AAGN patients. @*Methods@#Ninety-two patients who were diagnosed with AAGN at two tertiary hospitals between 2004 and 2018 were retrospectively analyzed retrospectively. The histopathologic classification according to glomerular pathology and the clinicopathologic classification according to normal glomeruli ratio, degree of interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy, and baseline renal function were evaluated using the Cox proportional hazards model. @*Results@#Forty-five patients (48.9%) progressed to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) during the observation period. The mean age was 61.0 ± 15.3 years, and most patients had myeloperoxidase-ANCA (93.5%). In the histopathologic classification, the best renal survival occurred in the focal class, whereas the sclerotic class had the worst renal survival (sclerotic class vs. focal class; adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 5.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32–19.31; p = 0.018). The mixed class had intermediate renal outcomes (mixed class vs. focal class; aHR, 4.23; 95% CI, 1.23–14.58; p = 0.022). In the clinicopathologic classification, the high-risk group had poor renal outcomes compared with the low-risk group (aHR, 6.56; 95% CI, 1.25–34.26; p = 0.026), but renal outcomes did not differ between the low- and medium-risk groups. @*Conclusion@#In Korean AAGN patients, histopathologic and clinicopathologic classifications had predictive value for renal outcomes, especially in the sclerotic class or the high-risk group with higher risk of progression to ESRD despite treatment.

7.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e218-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899861

ABSTRACT

Various coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines are being developed, which show practical preventive effects. Here, we report a 51-year-old healthy man with nephrotic syndrome secondary to minimal change disease (MCD) after Ad26.COV.2 (Janssen) vaccination. He had no comorbid disease and received Ad26.COV.2 on April 13, 2021. Seven days after vaccination, he developed edema and foamy urine. Edema rapidly aggravated with decreased urine volume. He was admitted to the hospital 28 days after vaccination, and his body weight increased by 21 kg after vaccination. His serum creatinine level was 1.54 mg/ dL, and 24-h urinary protein excretion was 8.6 g/day. Kidney biopsy revealed no abnormality in the glomeruli and interstitium of the cortex and medulla under the light microscope.Electron microscopy revealed diffuse effacement of the podocyte foot processes, thus, he was diagnosed with MCD. High-dose steroid therapy was applied, and his kidney function improved three days after steroid therapy. Three weeks after steroid use, his serum creatinine decreased to 0.95 mg/dL, and spot urine protein-to-creatine decreased to 0.2 g/g. This case highlights the risk of new-onset nephrotic syndrome secondary to MCD after vectored COVID-19 vaccination. Although the pathogenesis is uncertain, clinicians need to be careful about adverse renal effects of COVID-19 vaccines.

8.
Blood Research ; : 91-98, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830997

ABSTRACT

Background@#Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules are cell-bound but can be identified in a soluble form. These soluble HLA (sHLA) molecules have an immunomodulatory function. We investigated whether natural sHLA in donor serum can neutralize donor-specific HLA alloantibodies (DSAs) in recipient serum. @*Methods@#Neutralizing effects of donor serum on DSAs in recipient serum were measured using inhibition assay principle of flow cytometric crossmatch (FCXM), performed using sera from 143 kidney transplant recipients and their donors. The adding of donor serum to recipient serum yielded lower mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) ratios (test/control) than when diluent was added [Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI) or third-party serum], which was presumed to be caused by the neutralizing effects of sHLA. @*Results@#In the recipient group with class I DSAs alone (N=14), donor serum addition to recipient serum resulted in lower T cell MFI ratios [2.25 (1.31‒32.51)] than those observed on RPMI addition [3.04 (1.33‒125.39), P <0.05]. In the recipient group with class II DSAs alone (N=27), donor serum addition showed no significant difference in B cell MFI ratios [5.03 (1.41‒103.53)] compared to diluent addition: RPMI [4.50 (1.34‒145.98)] or third-party serum [5.08 (1.44‒138.47)], P >0.05 for both. @*Conclusion@#Using inhibition FCXM, we verified that natural sHLA class I in donor serum neutralizes DSAs in recipient serum. However, no neutralizing effects of sHLA class II were revealed in this study. These potentially beneficial effects of sHLA infused via blood-derived products should be considered when desensitizing highly HLA-sensitized patients.

9.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 60-69, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834949

ABSTRACT

Background@#The worldwide incidence of renal disease diagnosed by a kidney biopsy varies with age, race, sex, and region. Owing to a lack of studies and limited research resources for this disease in Korea, we investigated renal disease patterns by analyzing data from kidney biopsies performed over 13 years in a university-based teaching hospital in Korea. @*Methods@#Among 2,053 kidney biopsies performed from 2001 to 2013 at Kyungpook National University Hospital, 1,924 were retrospectively analyzed for histopathologic, demographic, and clinical data as well as laboratory results. @*Results@#Among the 1,924 studied kidney biopsies, 1,078 were males (56.0%) and the mean age was 37.7 ± 16.5 years. Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities were the most common clinical manifestation (62.5%). Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) was the most common primary glomerular disease (37.4%), followed by minimal change disease (MCD), membranous nephropathy (MN), focal segmental glomerulonephritis and crescentic glomerulonephritis. Secondary glomerular diseases accounted for 10.3% of the total biopsies, with lupus nephritis being the most common (4.6%) followed by Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis and diabetic nephropathy. The most common cause of nephrotic syndrome was MCD (42.1%) followed by MN. Among patients seropositive for hepatitis B or C, IgAN (28.3% and 21.4%, respectively) was the most common cause. @*Conclusion@#IgAN and lupus nephritis were the most common primary and secondary glomerular diseases, respectively. Race, region, and practice patterns may affect renal disease patterns in different cohorts.

10.
Electrolytes & Blood Pressure ; : 23-30, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898120

ABSTRACT

The worldwide coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is still in progress, but much remains unknown about the disease. In this article, we review the association of hypertension or the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) with COVID-19 and the correlation between electrolyte disorders and disease severity. Underlying hypertension is likely to be associated with severe or critical COVID-19, but the relationship is not clear owing to confounding factors. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) plays an important role in the non-classical RAS pathway and binds to a receptor binding domain of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The RAS blockade is known to increase ACE2 levels, but controversy remains regarding the effect of RAS blockade therapy in the course of COVID-19. Some reports have indicated a protective effect of RAS blockade on COVID-19, whereas others have reported an association of RAS blockade therapy with the occurrence of severe complications such as acute kidney injury and admission to the intensive care unit. Electrolyte disorders are not uncommon in patients with COVID-19, and severe COVID-19 has frequently shown hypokalemia, hyponatremia, and hypocalcemia. Electrolyte imbalances are caused by alteration of RAS, gastrointestinal loss, effects of proinflammatory cytokines, and renal tubular dysfunction by the invasion of SARS-CoV-2.

11.
Electrolytes & Blood Pressure ; : 23-30, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890416

ABSTRACT

The worldwide coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is still in progress, but much remains unknown about the disease. In this article, we review the association of hypertension or the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) with COVID-19 and the correlation between electrolyte disorders and disease severity. Underlying hypertension is likely to be associated with severe or critical COVID-19, but the relationship is not clear owing to confounding factors. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) plays an important role in the non-classical RAS pathway and binds to a receptor binding domain of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The RAS blockade is known to increase ACE2 levels, but controversy remains regarding the effect of RAS blockade therapy in the course of COVID-19. Some reports have indicated a protective effect of RAS blockade on COVID-19, whereas others have reported an association of RAS blockade therapy with the occurrence of severe complications such as acute kidney injury and admission to the intensive care unit. Electrolyte disorders are not uncommon in patients with COVID-19, and severe COVID-19 has frequently shown hypokalemia, hyponatremia, and hypocalcemia. Electrolyte imbalances are caused by alteration of RAS, gastrointestinal loss, effects of proinflammatory cytokines, and renal tubular dysfunction by the invasion of SARS-CoV-2.

12.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 399-406, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759000

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases of chronic dialysis patients are often undertreated because of their higher surgical risk. This study aimed to assess mortality and morbidity after open heart surgery in chronic dialysis patients compared to those with normal renal function and identify risk factors for postoperative outcomes. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 2,432 patients who underwent open heart surgery from 2002 to 2017 and collected data from 116 patients (38 patients on dialysis and 78 age-, sex-, and diabetes mellitus status-matched control patients with normal kidney function). We assessed comorbidities, New York Heart Association (NYHA) class, laboratory data, surgical methods, and postoperative outcomes. RESULTS: The dialysis group had more comorbidities, higher NYHA classes, and greater need for urgent surgeries compared to the control group. They exhibited significantly higher postoperative mortality (18.4% vs. 2.6%, P = 0.005) and more overall complications (65.8% vs. 25.6%, P < 0.001). Dialysis itself significantly increased relative risk for in-hospital mortality after adjustment. EuroSCORE II was not as useful as in the general population. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that total (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 10.7; P = 0.029) and in-hospital death risk (AOR, 14.7; P = 0.033), the durations of postoperative hospitalization (AOR, 4.6; P = 0.034), CRRT (AOR 36.8; P = 0.004), and ventilator use (AOR, 7.6; P = 0.022) were significantly increased in the dialysis group. CONCLUSION: The dialysis group exhibited a higher risk for mortality and overcall complications after open heart surgery compared to the patients with normal renal function. Therefore, the benefit of surgical treatment must be balanced against potential risks.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus , Dialysis , Heart , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Kidney , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Logistic Models , Mortality , Odds Ratio , Renal Insufficiency , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Thoracic Surgery , Ventilators, Mechanical
13.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 94-95, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713362

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Arteriovenous Malformations
14.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 248-256, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717214

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) has been identified as a major autoantigen in primary membranous nephropathy (MN). We evaluated the association between anti-PLA2R antibodies and clinical outcome in Korean patients with primary MN. METHODS: A total of 66 patients with biopsy-proven MN were included. Serum level of anti-PLA2R antibodies was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Biochemical parameters were estimated initially and at follow-up. RESULTS: Anti-PLA2R antibodies were detected in 52.1% and 27.8% of patients with primary and secondary MN, respectively. Forty-eight patients with primary MN were grouped based on presence or absence of anti-PLA2R antibodies. Proteinuria was more severe in anti-PLA2R-positive patients than in anti-PLA2R-negative patients (urine protein/creatinine ratio 7.922 ± 3.985 g/g vs. 4.318 ± 3.304 g/g, P = 0.001), and anti-PLA2R antibody level was positively correlated with proteinuria. The incidence of chronic kidney disease stage ≥ 3 was higher in anti-PLA2R-positive patients compared with anti-PLA2R-negative patients (P = 0.004). The probabilities of spontaneous remission were higher in anti-PLA2R-negative patients compared with anti-PLA2R-positive patients (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that anti-PLA2R antibodies are an independent risk factor for developing chronic kidney disease stage ≥ 3 and for not reaching spontaneous remission. CONCLUSION: Detection of anti-PLA2R antibodies at diagnosis in patients with primary MN can predict prognosis and guide treatment decisions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antibodies , Diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Follow-Up Studies , Glomerulonephritis, Membranous , Incidence , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , Proteinuria , Receptors, Phospholipase A2 , Remission, Spontaneous , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Risk Factors
16.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 106-115, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-220496

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study analyzed the risk factors for technique survival in dialysis patients and compared technique survival rates between hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) in a prospective cohort of Korean patients. METHODS: A total of 1,042 patients undergoing dialysis from September 2008 to June 2011 were analyzed. The dialysis modality was defined as that used 90 days after commencing dialysis. Technique survival was compared between the two dialysis modalities, and the predictive risk factors were evaluated. RESULTS: The dialysis modality was an independent risk factor predictive of technique survival. PD had a higher risk for technique failure than HD (hazard ratio [HR], 10.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9 to 62.0; p = 0.008) during a median follow-up of 11.0 months. In the PD group, a high body mass index (BMI) was an independent risk factor for technique failure (HR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0 to 1.8; p = 0.036). Peritonitis was the most common cause of PD technique failure. The difference in technique survival between PD and HD was more prominent in diabetic patients with a good nutritional status and in non-diabetic patients with a poor nutritional status. CONCLUSIONS: In a prospective cohort of Korean patients with end-stage renal disease, PD was associated with a higher risk of technique failure than HD. Diabetic patients with a good nutritional status and non-diabetic patients with a poor nutritional status, as well as patients with a higher BMI, had an inferior technique survival rate with PD compared to HD.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Body Mass Index , Kidney Failure, Chronic/diagnosis , Nutritional Status , Peritoneal Dialysis/adverse effects , Prospective Studies , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Republic of Korea , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
17.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 1109-1113, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-157108

ABSTRACT

Diabetes insipidus (DI) is characterized by excessive urination and thirst. This disease results from inadequate output of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) from the pituitary gland or the absence of the normal response to ADH in the kidney. We present a case of transient central DI in a patient who underwent a cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). A 44-yr-old male underwent a CABG operation. An hour after the operation, the patient developed polyuria and was diagnosed with central DI. The patient responded to desmopressin and completely recovered five days after surgery. It is probable that transient cerebral ischemia resulted in the dysfunction of osmotic receptors in the hypothalamus or hypothalamus-pituitary axis during CPB. It is also possible that cardiac standstill altered the left atrial non-osmotic receptor function and suppressed ADH release. Therefore, we suggest that central DI is a possible cause of polyuria after CPB.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Antidiuretic Agents/therapeutic use , Coronary Artery Bypass/adverse effects , Coronary Vessels , Deamino Arginine Vasopressin/therapeutic use , Diabetes Insipidus, Neurogenic/diagnosis , Hypothalamus/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Pituitary Gland/diagnostic imaging , Polyuria/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis
18.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 234-241, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-165353

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We investigated the effects of gene polymorphisms on the development of IgA nephropathy and thin glomerular basement membrane (GBM) disease by analyzing polymorphisms in the interleukin (IL)-18, transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) genes in Korean patients. METHODS: This study included 146 normal individuals and 69 biopsy-proven IgA nephropathy and 44 thin GBM disease patients. The gene polymorphisms -607A/C and -137G/C in IL-18, -509C/T and T869C in TGF-beta, and -2578C/A and 405C/G in VEGF were investigated in DNA extracted from peripheral blood. RESULTS: The frequencies of the IL-18 -607CC genotype (43.5% vs. 21.2%, P=0.002, P corrected=0.012) and the VEGF 405GG genotype (37.7% vs. 21.2%, P=0.002, P corrected=0.012) were significantly increased in the IgA nephropathy group compared with the control group, whereas no significant differences in genotype frequency were observed between the thin GBM disease and control groups. However, there were no significant differences in genotype and allele frequencies between the IgA nephropathy and thin GBM disease groups. CONCLUSION: This study did not show any statistically significant differences of six selected gene polymorphisms of the IL-18, TGF-beta, and VEGF genes between IgA nephropathy and thin GBM disease. Additional extensive studies are required to clarify the potential role of gene polymorphism to discriminate IgA nephropathy and thin GBM disease without renal biopsy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biopsy , DNA , Gene Frequency , Genotype , Glomerular Basement Membrane , Glomerulonephritis, IGA , Hematuria , Immunoglobulin A , Interleukin-18 , Interleukins , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Transforming Growth Factors , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
19.
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine ; : 47-54, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-119602

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine abnormal MRI findings in adults hospitalized with acute severe axial LBP. METHOD: Sixty patients with back pain were divided into 3 groups consisting of 1) 23 adults with acute axial severe LBP who could not sit up or stand up for several days, but had not experienced previous back-related diseases or trauma (group A), 2) 19 adults who had been involved in a minor traffic accident, and had mild symptoms but not limited mobility (group B), and 3) 18 adults with LBP with radicular pain (group C)., Various MRI findings were assessed among the above 3 groups and compared as follows: disc herniation (protrusion, extrusion), lumbar disc degeneration (LDD), annular tear, high intensity zone (HIZ), and endplate changes. RESULTS: The MRI findings of A group were as follows: disc herniation (87%), LDD (100%), annular tear (100%), HIZ (61%), and end plate changes (4.4%). The findings of disc herniation, annular tear, HIZ, and LDD were more prevalent in A group than in B group (p<0.01). HIZ findings were more prevalent in A group than in group B or group C (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Patients with acute severe axial LBP were more likely to have disc herniation, LDD, annular tear, HIZ. Among LBP groups, there was a significant association of HIZ on MRI with acute severe axial LBP.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Accidents, Traffic , Back Pain , Intervertebral Disc Degeneration , Low Back Pain , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Magnetics , Magnets
20.
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine ; : 248-253, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-72472

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the relation between postvoid residual (PVR) and the occurrence of urinary tract infection (UTI) in stroke patients. METHOD: One hundred and eighty-eight stroke patients who were admitted to an inpatient rehabilitation unit and who did not have UTI on admission (105 males, 83 females, mean age 67.1 years) were included in this study. The PVR was measured 3 times within 72 hours after admission. Mean PVR, demographic variables, K-MMSE (Korean Mini-Mental State Examination), initial K-MBI (Korean Modified Barthel Index), Foley catheter indwelling time and stroke type were defined and the relation to the occurrence of UTI was analyzed. RESULTS: UTI occurred in 74 patients (39.4%) during admission to the rehabilitation unit. There were significant differences between the UTI and non-UTI groups in K-MMSE, K-MBI, Foley catheter indwelling time (p<0.01). However, age, gender, stroke location and type were not associated. The occurrence of UTI was 4.87 times higher in the patients with a mean PVR over 100 ml than in those with a mean PVR <100 ml. The mean PVR was 106.5 ml in the UTI group, while it was 62.7 ml in the non-UTI group (p<0.01). PVR was not associated with age. CONCLUSION: The UTI rate is higher when the mean PVR is over 100 ml irrespective of gender and age. Close monitoring of PVR and appropriate intervention is needed to reduce the occurrence of UTI in stroke patients.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Catheters , Inpatients , Stroke , Urinary Tract , Urinary Tract Infections
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