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1.
Gut and Liver ; : 894-904, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000396

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Although an association between achalasia and esophageal cancer has been reported, whether achalasia confers a substantial increase in mortality is unknown. Moreover, the causes of death related to achalasia have not been investigated. We performed this nationwide, population-based cohort study on achalasia because no such study has been performed since the introduction of high-resolution manometry in 2008. @*Methods@#This study was performed using data extracted from the Korean National Health Insurance Service database, covering a 9-year period from 2009 to 2017. Control participants without a diagnostic code for achalasia were randomly selected and matched by sex and birth year at a case-to-control ratio of 1:4. Data on the cause of death from Statistics Korea were also analyzed. @*Results@#The overall incidence of achalasia was 0.68 per 100,000 person-years, and the prevalence was 6.46 per 100,000 population. Patients with achalasia (n=3,063) had significantly higher adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) for esophageal cancer (aHR, 3.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25 to 9.22; p=0.017), pneumonia (aHR, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.89 to 2.81; p<0.001), aspiration pneumonia (aHR, 3.92; 95% CI, 2.38 to 6.48; p<0.001), and mortality (aHR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.44 to 1.94; p<0.001). Esophageal cancer carried the highest mortality risk (aHR, 8.82; 95% CI, 2.35 to 33.16; p=0.001), while pneumonia had the highest non-cancer mortality risk (aHR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.31 to 3.96; p=0.004). @*Conclusions@#In this nationwide study, achalasia was associated with increased risk of mortality.Esophageal cancer and pneumonia were the most common comorbidities and the major causes of death in patients with achalasia.

2.
Korean Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery ; : 99-105, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969061

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#The aim of this study was to identify the frequency of indicators of National Health Insurance (NHI) coverage for positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy and to investigate the changes in patients receiving coverage for PAP therapy after the alterations were made in the insurance benefit standards for mild obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).Subjects and Method We divided the mild OSA patients into two groups according to altered categorization in insurance benefit standards (Mild1: 5≤AHI<10; Mild2: 10≤AHI<15). Eight indicators related to the NHI coverage were identified: four symptoms, three complications, and the minimal blood oxygen saturation during polysomnography (min SpO2) of ≤85% during polysomnography. We also investigated the change in the number of patients receiving insurance benefits under the altered insurance benefit standards. @*Results@#Of the 233 OSA patients, 66, 57, and 110 patients were diagnosed as mild, moderate and severe OSA, respectively. For all of them, the most common indicator related to NHI coverage for PAP therapy was the minimum SpO2 of less than 85% during polysomnography, and the second most common indicator was daytime sleepiness. In the mild OSA group, however, daytime sleepiness was found to be the most common indicator, found in 46 (70%) patients, followed by 38 (58%) patients with min SpO2 of less than 85%. In this group, 59 (89.4%) would have been benefited before the change in the insurance benefit standards whereas 51 patients (77.3%) would now be benefited under the changed insurance benefit standards. @*Conclusion@#Daytime sleepiness was the most commonly observed indicator in the mild OSA patients. The number of patients receiving insurance benefits for PAP therapy significantly decreased after the change was made in the NHI benefit standards for mild OSA

3.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 67-76, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914031

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) seroconversion may occur during screening for gastric cancer. Our study aimed to assess the number of seroconverted subjects with H. pylori and their results in follow-up tests. @*Methods@#Data were consecutively collected on subjects who were H. pylori-seronegative and presented for gastric cancer screening. Subjects who were followed up using the same serology test and pepsinogen (PG) assays on the day of endoscopy were included in the study. @*Results@#During the follow-up of 57.7 ± 21.4 months, 61 (15.0%) of 407 seronegative subjects showed seroconversion. H. pylori infection was detected in six (9.8%) of 61 seroconverted subjects. A diffuse red fundal appearance, with a significant increase in the Kyoto classification scores for gastritis, was observed in the infected subjects (p<0.001). Compared to the false-seropositive subjects, infected subjects showed higher serology titers (p<0.001) and PG II levels (p<0.001), and lower PG I/II ratios (p=0.002), in the follow-up tests. @*Conclusions@#Seroconversion occurred in 3.3% of seronegative subjects per year; however, only 9.8% had H. pylori infection. The majority (90.2%) of the seroconverted subjects showed false seropositivity without significant changes in the follow-up test results. The diffuse red fundal appearance could be an indicator of H. pylori infection.

4.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 283-290, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926108

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Non-celiac gluten sensitivity is characterized by intestinal and extra intestinal symptoms associated with the consumption of gluten-containing food. Since biomarkers for non-celiac gluten sensitivity are lacking, its prevalence is estimated based on self-reported symptoms. However, no data exist on self-reported non-celiac gluten sensitivity in the Korean population. Thus, we aim to investigate the prevalence of self-reported non-celiac gluten sensitivity in the Korean population and to determine its demographic and clinical characteristics. @*Methods@#This study surveyed Korean participants aged 18-80 years who visited gastroenterology outpatient clinics at 9 tertiary hospitals in South Korea from January 2016 to February 2017. They were questioned regarding symptoms related to gluten ingestion: degree of discomfort (visual analog scale score), frequency, time of symptom onset, and duration. Abdominal discomfort caused by 11 differentkinds of gluten-containing Korean food items was investigated. @*Results@#More non-celiac gluten sensitivity self-reporters were identified among those with irritable bowel syndrome (33.6%) than among controls (5.8%). Major gastrointestinal symptoms included bloating (75.0%), abdominal discomfort (71.3%), and belching (45.0%).Common extra-intestinal symptoms included fatigue (20.0%) and headache (13.7%). More than half of those who self-reported nonceliac gluten sensitivity (66.3%) developed symptoms within 1 hour of food ingestion, and symptoms were localized in the upper abdomen (37.5%) and entire abdomen (30.0%). @*Conclusion@#Our findings suggest that if there are gluten-related symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome, the possibility of accompanying non-celiacgluten sensitivity should be considered.

5.
Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology ; : 183-193, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925726

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#. Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine tumor, with rapidly increasing incidence worldwide. However, its transcriptomic characteristics associated with immunological signatures, driver fusions, and recurrence markers remain unclear. We aimed to investigate the transcriptomic characteristics of advanced papillary thyroid cancer. @*Methods@#. This study included 282 papillary thyroid cancer tumor samples and 155 normal samples from Chungnam National University Hospital and Seoul National University Hospital. Transcriptomic quantification was determined by high-throughput RNA sequencing. We investigated the associations of clinical parameters and molecular signatures using RNA sequencing. We validated predictive biomarkers using the Cancer Genome Atlas database. @*Results@#. Through a comparison of differentially expressed genes, gene sets, and pathways in papillary thyroid cancer compared to normal tumor-adjacent tissue, we found increased immune signaling associated with cytokines or T cells and decreased thyroid hormone synthetic pathways. In addition, patients with recurrence presented increased CD8+ T-cell and Th1-cell signatures. Interestingly, we found differentially overexpressed genes related to immune-escape signaling such as CTLA4, IDO1, LAG3, and PDCD1 in advanced papillary thyroid cancer with a low thyroid differentiation score. Fusion analysis showed that the PI3K and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways were regulated differently according to the RET fusion partner genes (CCDC6 or NCOA4). Finally, we identified HOXD9 as a novel molecular biomarker that predicts the recurrence of thyroid cancer in addition to known risk factors (tumor size, lymph node metastasis, and extrathyroidal extension). @*Conclusion@#. We identified a high association with immune-escape signaling in the immune-hot group with aggressive clinical characteristics among Korean thyroid cancer patients. Moreover, RET fusion differentially regulated PI3K and MAPK signaling depending on the partner gene of RET, and HOXD9 was found to be a recurrence marker for advanced papillary thyroid cancer.

6.
Gut and Liver ; : 216-227, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925011

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The long-term course of Crohn’s disease (CD) has never been evaluated in non-Caucasian population-based cohorts. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the longterm prognosis of Korean CD patients in the well-defined population-based Songpa-Kangdong inflammatory bowel disease cohort. @*Methods@#Outcomes of disease and their predictors were evaluated for 418 patients diagnosed with CD between 1986 and 2015. @*Results@#During a median of 123 months, systemic corticosteroids, thiopurines, and anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents were administered to 58.6%, 81.3%, and 37.1% of patients, respectively. Over time, the cumulative probability of starting corticosteroids significantly decreased (p=0.001), whereas that of starting thiopurines and anti-TNFs significantly increased (both p<0.001). The cumulative probability of behavioral progression was 54.5% at 20 years, and it significantly decreased during the anti-TNF era. Intestinal resection was required for 113 patients (27.0%). The cumulative probabilities of intestinal resection at 1, 5, 10, 20, and 25 years after CD diagnosis were 12.7%, 16.5%, 23.8%, 45.1%, and 51.2%, respectively. Multivariable Cox regression analysis identified stricturing behavior at diagnosis (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 2.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.55 to 4.71), penetrating behavior at diagnosis (aHR, 11.15; 95% CI, 6.91 to 17.97), and diagnosis of CD during the anti-TNF era (aHR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.35 to 0.76) as independently associated with intestinal resection. The standardized mortality ratio among CD patients was 1.36 (95% CI, 0.59 to 2.68). @*Conclusions@#The long-term prognosis of Korean patients with CD is at least as good as that of Western CD patients, as indicated by the low intestinal resection rate. Moreover, behavioral progression and intestinal resection rates have decreased over the past 3 decades.

7.
Gut and Liver ; : 742-751, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898477

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics and long-term prognosis of elderly-onset ulcerative colitis (EOUC) in Korean patients over a 30-year period using a wellestablished population-based cohort in the Songpa-Kangdong district of Seoul, Korea. @*Methods@#Clinical characteristics and prognosis were compared between two groups: EOUC,defined as UC diagnosed in individuals aged ≥60 years and non-EOUC (N-EOUC), defined asUC diagnosed in individuals aged 18 to 59 years. @*Results@#We identified 99 patients with EOUC (10.3%) and 866 patients with N-EOUC (89.7%) between 1986 and 2015. During the median follow-up of 104.5 months, the overall exposure tomedications was comparable between patients with EOUC and N-EOUC (p=0.091 for corticosteroids, p=0.794 for thiopurines, and p=0.095 for anti-tumor necrosis factor agents). The cumula-tive risks of disease outcomes were also comparable between patients with EOUC and N-EOUC (22.4% vs 30.4% for proximal disease extension [p=0.351], 11.9% vs 18.1% for hospitalization [p=0.240], and 2.3% vs 1.8% for colectomy [p=0.977]) at 10 years after diagnosis. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that corticosteroid use at diagnosis was an independent predic-tor of proximal disease extension (hazard ratio [HR], 6.216; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.314 to 28.826) and hospitalization (HR, 11.241; 95% CI, 3.027 to 41.742) in patients with EOUC. @*Conclusions@#In this population-based study from Korea, the pattern of medication use seemed comparable between the EOUC and N-EOUC groups. Moreover, patients with EOUC and those with N-EOUC have a similar disease course in terms of proximal disease extension, hospitaliza-tion, and colectomy.

8.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 708-716, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904229

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To determine the efficacy of a potassium-competitive acid blocker (P-CAB)-based first-line eradication therapy with bismuth compared with that of proton pump inhibitor-based first-line therapy with bismuth. @*Materials and Methods@#Eradication-naive H. pylori-infected patients were consecutively enrolled from January to November 2020. Before approval of the P-CAB-based eradication therapy, twice daily administration of a regimen containing lansoprazole 30 mg, amoxicillin 1 g, clarithromycin 500 mg, and bismuth potassium citrate 300 mg was prescribed for 7 days. After approval, lansoprazole was replaced with tegoprazan (50 mg). Clarithromycin resistance was examined in patients who underwent gastroscopic biopsy at our center. Efficacy was assessed via the 13C-urea breath test. @*Results@#Of the 381 eradication-naive patients, eradication was successful in 88.3% (151/171) treated with tegoprazan and 82.8% (140/169) treated with lansoprazole in per-protocol analysis (p=0.151). In intention-to-treat analysis, eradication rates were 78.8% (152/193) in the tegoprazan and 74.5% (140/188) in the lansoprazole group (p=0.323). Clarithromycin resistance was observed in 30 (20.1%) of the 148 patients (74 from each group), and only four of the 16 clarithromycin-resistant patients in the tegoprazan group achieved successful eradication. Clarithromycin resistance [odds ratio (OR)=42.1, 95% confidence intervals (CIs)=12.6– 141.0] and poor patient compliance (OR=17.1, 95% CIs=1.6–189.1) were independent risk factors for eradication failure. @*Conclusion@#In eradication-naive patients, eradication success rates for 7-day first-line triple therapy regimen exceeded 82% with bismuth administration. In clarithromycin-resistant patients, neither tegoprazan 50 mg nor lansoprazole 30 mg achieved acceptable eradication rates when administered twice daily for 7 days.

9.
The Korean Journal of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research ; : 226-234, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903655

ABSTRACT

Autoimmune gastritis is a corpus-dominant type of gastritis with positive serum anti-parietal cell antibodies (APCA) and/or anti-intrinsic factor antibodies. Serum APCA and pepsinogen (PG) assays were performed in subjects with corpus-dominant gastritis detected by endoscopy. Serum APCA was positive in five patients. All these patients were postmenopausal women (four Koreans and one Caucasian from the Russian Federation) with a mean age of 59.0±3.2 years. They displayed low PG I levels ranging from 8.1 to 18.8 ng/mL (mean, 11.4±4.8 ng/mL) and low PG I/II ratios ranging from 0.7 to 2.4 (mean, 1.2±0.7). Three of the patients were being treated for autoimmune thyroiditis. Multiple gastric neuroendocrine tumors were observed in two Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-naive patients with high serum gastrin levels exceeding 700 pg/mL and serum chromogranin A levels exceeding 1,000 ng/mL. In the remaining three patients, intestinal metaplasia was observed in the biopsied specimens from the antrum, suggesting a history of H. pylori infection. Our findings indicate the value of positive serum APCA findings, low serum PG I levels, and low serum PG I/II ratios in confirming autoimmune gastritis in patients showing corpus-dominant atrophy, regardless of their H. pylori infection status.

10.
The Korean Journal of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research ; : 311-321, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918986

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) can disseminate between couples. The present study compared the findings of gastric cancer screening between seronegative subjects according to the presence of an infected spouse. @*Materials and Methods@#Follow-up data of seronegative subjects were analyzed among married couples who underwent gastric cancer screening via gastroscopy, serum pepsinogen, and anti-H. pylori IgG assays between January 2010 and May 2016. New detection rates of H. pylori infection and gastric neoplasm at the follow-up screening were compared between seronegative subjects according to the H. pylori-infected status of spouse. @*Results@#Among 246 seronegative subjects with an H. pylori-infected spouse, 92 underwent follow-up tests (case group). Among 278 seronegative subjects with seronegative spouse, 94 underwent follow-up tests (control group). The past infection rate was higher in the case group than in the control group (52/92 vs. 34/94; P=0.005). New H. pylori infection was diagnosed in three of the 92 cases and two of the 94 controls (3.2% vs. 2.1%; P=0.681). During the mean follow-up of 67.9±36.0 months, three adenocarcinomas and two adenomas (5/184) were newly detected among the cases and their spouses, whereas none (0/188) were detected among the controls and their spouses (2.7% vs. 0%; P=0.029). @*Conclusions@#Gastric neoplasm occurred more frequently in couples with an H. pylori-infected spouse. Because the past infection rate is higher among seronegative subjects with an infected spouse, gastric cancer screening is recommended in both partners when the spouse is infected.

11.
Korean Journal of Legal Medicine ; : 111-121, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917837

ABSTRACT

We analyzed the manner and cause of death in 945 forensic autopsies from the Jungbu province (Central part of South Korea) conducted by the National Forensic Service Daejeon institute in 2020. Analysis of the manner of death revealed that 43.6% (412/945 cases) were natural deaths, 41.6% (393/945 cases) were unnatural deaths, and 14.8% (140/945 cases) deaths were unknown. Among the unnatural deaths, the major manner of death (40.7%, 160/393 cases) were by accidents, 29.5% (116/393 cases) were by suicide, 21.6% (85/393 cases) were undetermined, and 8.1% (32/393 cases) were by homicide. Among the unnatural deaths, the major cause of death (42.7%, 168/393 cases) were by trauma, 19.3% (76/393 cases) were by poisoning, and 16.5% (65/393 cases) were by asphyxia. Falling was the major cause of death by trauma (42.9%, 72/168 cases) and strangulation was the major cause of death by asphyxia (72.3%, 47/65 cases). Among natural deaths, heart disease was the major cause (43.7%, 180/412 cases), followed by vascular disease (18.9%, 78/412 cases). This study is the first statistical analysis of the manner and cause of deaths in the Jungbu province. A time-series statistical analysis of the manner and cause of deaths in this province might allow more advanced interpretations about both public safety and healthcare in the future.

12.
Korean Journal of Legal Medicine ; : 7-13, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917824

ABSTRACT

Acute myocardial infarction is one of the main causes of unusual death. However, diagnosing acute myocardial infarction based on post-mortem examination may be difficult; notably, it cannot be diagnosed based on postmortem inspection. In this study, we aimed to investigate the usefulness of cardiac marker analysis in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction and to review the possibility of its application in post-mortem inspections. This study included 69 autopsy cases, including 29 cases in which the post-mortem interval was ≤24 hours, performed at the National Forensic Service Seoul Institute from July to November 2018. Tests for three cardiac markers (myoglobin, creatinine kinase-MB, and cardiac troponin I) were performed in each case using portable equipment, Triage Meter. The reliability of the equipment enzyme levels according to cause of death, and factors affecting the postmortem test results were analyzed. Cardiac marker concentrations were not significantly different between the heart disease and other disease groups, and Triage Meter was not found to be suitable for postmortem examination. Therefore, we can conclude that using cardiac marker analysis in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction using portable equipment at the scene of postmortem inspection is inappropriate.

13.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 708-716, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896525

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To determine the efficacy of a potassium-competitive acid blocker (P-CAB)-based first-line eradication therapy with bismuth compared with that of proton pump inhibitor-based first-line therapy with bismuth. @*Materials and Methods@#Eradication-naive H. pylori-infected patients were consecutively enrolled from January to November 2020. Before approval of the P-CAB-based eradication therapy, twice daily administration of a regimen containing lansoprazole 30 mg, amoxicillin 1 g, clarithromycin 500 mg, and bismuth potassium citrate 300 mg was prescribed for 7 days. After approval, lansoprazole was replaced with tegoprazan (50 mg). Clarithromycin resistance was examined in patients who underwent gastroscopic biopsy at our center. Efficacy was assessed via the 13C-urea breath test. @*Results@#Of the 381 eradication-naive patients, eradication was successful in 88.3% (151/171) treated with tegoprazan and 82.8% (140/169) treated with lansoprazole in per-protocol analysis (p=0.151). In intention-to-treat analysis, eradication rates were 78.8% (152/193) in the tegoprazan and 74.5% (140/188) in the lansoprazole group (p=0.323). Clarithromycin resistance was observed in 30 (20.1%) of the 148 patients (74 from each group), and only four of the 16 clarithromycin-resistant patients in the tegoprazan group achieved successful eradication. Clarithromycin resistance [odds ratio (OR)=42.1, 95% confidence intervals (CIs)=12.6– 141.0] and poor patient compliance (OR=17.1, 95% CIs=1.6–189.1) were independent risk factors for eradication failure. @*Conclusion@#In eradication-naive patients, eradication success rates for 7-day first-line triple therapy regimen exceeded 82% with bismuth administration. In clarithromycin-resistant patients, neither tegoprazan 50 mg nor lansoprazole 30 mg achieved acceptable eradication rates when administered twice daily for 7 days.

14.
The Korean Journal of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research ; : 226-234, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895951

ABSTRACT

Autoimmune gastritis is a corpus-dominant type of gastritis with positive serum anti-parietal cell antibodies (APCA) and/or anti-intrinsic factor antibodies. Serum APCA and pepsinogen (PG) assays were performed in subjects with corpus-dominant gastritis detected by endoscopy. Serum APCA was positive in five patients. All these patients were postmenopausal women (four Koreans and one Caucasian from the Russian Federation) with a mean age of 59.0±3.2 years. They displayed low PG I levels ranging from 8.1 to 18.8 ng/mL (mean, 11.4±4.8 ng/mL) and low PG I/II ratios ranging from 0.7 to 2.4 (mean, 1.2±0.7). Three of the patients were being treated for autoimmune thyroiditis. Multiple gastric neuroendocrine tumors were observed in two Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-naive patients with high serum gastrin levels exceeding 700 pg/mL and serum chromogranin A levels exceeding 1,000 ng/mL. In the remaining three patients, intestinal metaplasia was observed in the biopsied specimens from the antrum, suggesting a history of H. pylori infection. Our findings indicate the value of positive serum APCA findings, low serum PG I levels, and low serum PG I/II ratios in confirming autoimmune gastritis in patients showing corpus-dominant atrophy, regardless of their H. pylori infection status.

15.
Gut and Liver ; : 742-751, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890773

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics and long-term prognosis of elderly-onset ulcerative colitis (EOUC) in Korean patients over a 30-year period using a wellestablished population-based cohort in the Songpa-Kangdong district of Seoul, Korea. @*Methods@#Clinical characteristics and prognosis were compared between two groups: EOUC,defined as UC diagnosed in individuals aged ≥60 years and non-EOUC (N-EOUC), defined asUC diagnosed in individuals aged 18 to 59 years. @*Results@#We identified 99 patients with EOUC (10.3%) and 866 patients with N-EOUC (89.7%) between 1986 and 2015. During the median follow-up of 104.5 months, the overall exposure tomedications was comparable between patients with EOUC and N-EOUC (p=0.091 for corticosteroids, p=0.794 for thiopurines, and p=0.095 for anti-tumor necrosis factor agents). The cumula-tive risks of disease outcomes were also comparable between patients with EOUC and N-EOUC (22.4% vs 30.4% for proximal disease extension [p=0.351], 11.9% vs 18.1% for hospitalization [p=0.240], and 2.3% vs 1.8% for colectomy [p=0.977]) at 10 years after diagnosis. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that corticosteroid use at diagnosis was an independent predic-tor of proximal disease extension (hazard ratio [HR], 6.216; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.314 to 28.826) and hospitalization (HR, 11.241; 95% CI, 3.027 to 41.742) in patients with EOUC. @*Conclusions@#In this population-based study from Korea, the pattern of medication use seemed comparable between the EOUC and N-EOUC groups. Moreover, patients with EOUC and those with N-EOUC have a similar disease course in terms of proximal disease extension, hospitaliza-tion, and colectomy.

16.
Korean Journal of Legal Medicine ; : 24-30, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811382

ABSTRACT

Near-infrared spectroscopy is a device used to determine whether traumatic intracranial hemorrhage has occurred and is primarily used for screening in emergency situations. In this study we examined the applicability of this equipment in postmortem inspection. This study included 124 autopsy cases and 59 postmortem inspection cases performed in the National Forensic Service from July 2017 to October 2018. We carried out the test using Infrascanner Model 2000 (Infrascan Inc.). Autopsy cases were divided into four groups (epidural hemorrhage or subdural hemorrhage group, traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage or cerebral contusion group, nontraumatic intracerebral hemorrhage group, and control group) and analyzed. There was no difference in the test results according to the presence and type of intracranial hemorrhage. The possibility that variables related to postmortem change affected the test results was considered. In conclusion, this study confirmed that near-infrared spectroscopy is not suitable for the detection of traumatic intracranial hemorrhage in postmortem inspection.

17.
The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology ; : 149-156, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903902

ABSTRACT

Sodium 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (mesna) is a protective agent that is widely used in medicine because of its antioxidant effects. Recently, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were shown to increase pigmentation. Thus, ROS scavengers and inhibitors of ROS production may suppress melanogenesis. Forkhead box-O3a (FoxO3a) is an antimelanogenic factor that mediates ROS-induced skin pigmentation. In this study, we aimed to investigate the whitening effect of mesna and the signaling mechanism mediating this effect. Human melanoma (MNT-1) cells were used in this study. mRNA and protein expression were measured by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting analysis to track changes in FoxO3a-related signals induced by mesna. An immunofluorescence assay was performed to determine the nuclear translocation of FoxO3a. When MNT-1 melanoma cells were treated with mesna, melanin production and secretion decreased. These effects were accompanied by increases in FoxO3a activation and nuclear translocation, resulting in downregulation of four master genes of melanogenesis: MITF, TYR, TRP1, and TRP2. We found that mesna, an antioxidant and radical scavenger, suppresses melanin production and may therefore be a useful agent for the clinical treatment of hyperpigmentation disorders.

18.
Korean Journal of Legal Medicine ; : 24-30, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902177

ABSTRACT

Near-infrared spectroscopy is a device used to determine whether traumatic intracranial hemorrhage has occurred and is primarily used for screening in emergency situations. In this study we examined the applicability of this equipment in postmortem inspection. This study included 124 autopsy cases and 59 postmortem inspection cases performed in the National Forensic Service from July 2017 to October 2018. We carried out the test using Infrascanner Model 2000 (Infrascan Inc.). Autopsy cases were divided into four groups (epidural hemorrhage or subdural hemorrhage group, traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage or cerebral contusion group, nontraumatic intracerebral hemorrhage group, and control group) and analyzed. There was no difference in the test results according to the presence and type of intracranial hemorrhage. The possibility that variables related to postmortem change affected the test results was considered. In conclusion, this study confirmed that near-infrared spectroscopy is not suitable for the detection of traumatic intracranial hemorrhage in postmortem inspection.

19.
The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology ; : 149-156, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896198

ABSTRACT

Sodium 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (mesna) is a protective agent that is widely used in medicine because of its antioxidant effects. Recently, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were shown to increase pigmentation. Thus, ROS scavengers and inhibitors of ROS production may suppress melanogenesis. Forkhead box-O3a (FoxO3a) is an antimelanogenic factor that mediates ROS-induced skin pigmentation. In this study, we aimed to investigate the whitening effect of mesna and the signaling mechanism mediating this effect. Human melanoma (MNT-1) cells were used in this study. mRNA and protein expression were measured by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting analysis to track changes in FoxO3a-related signals induced by mesna. An immunofluorescence assay was performed to determine the nuclear translocation of FoxO3a. When MNT-1 melanoma cells were treated with mesna, melanin production and secretion decreased. These effects were accompanied by increases in FoxO3a activation and nuclear translocation, resulting in downregulation of four master genes of melanogenesis: MITF, TYR, TRP1, and TRP2. We found that mesna, an antioxidant and radical scavenger, suppresses melanin production and may therefore be a useful agent for the clinical treatment of hyperpigmentation disorders.

20.
Korean Journal of Legal Medicine ; : 24-30, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894473

ABSTRACT

Near-infrared spectroscopy is a device used to determine whether traumatic intracranial hemorrhage has occurred and is primarily used for screening in emergency situations. In this study we examined the applicability of this equipment in postmortem inspection. This study included 124 autopsy cases and 59 postmortem inspection cases performed in the National Forensic Service from July 2017 to October 2018. We carried out the test using Infrascanner Model 2000 (Infrascan Inc.). Autopsy cases were divided into four groups (epidural hemorrhage or subdural hemorrhage group, traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage or cerebral contusion group, nontraumatic intracerebral hemorrhage group, and control group) and analyzed. There was no difference in the test results according to the presence and type of intracranial hemorrhage. The possibility that variables related to postmortem change affected the test results was considered. In conclusion, this study confirmed that near-infrared spectroscopy is not suitable for the detection of traumatic intracranial hemorrhage in postmortem inspection.

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