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1.
Annals of Clinical Microbiology ; : 145-153, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966219

ABSTRACT

Background@#We compared the antimicrobial resistance rates (AMRs) of major glucose nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli, Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, under different clinical conditions. The purpose of the study was to provide useful background data to set up infection control strategies for infection-vulnerable patients. @*Methods@#The AMRs of blood isolates were compared in various clinical conditions, using data from the Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System in Korea. @*Results@#A. baumannii blood isolates from patients with healthcare-associated infections, inpatients, or intensive care unit (ICU)-admitted patients consistently exhibited higher AMRs to most antimicrobials, except minocycline, tigecycline, and colistin, compared with those from patients with community-acquired infections, outpatients, or non-ICU-admitted patients, respectively. P. aeruginosa blood isolates from patients with healthcare-associated infections showed higher AMRs to most antimicrobials, except ceftazidime and aztreonam, compared with those from patients with community-acquired infections, but not compared to those from inpatients or ICU-admitted patients. @*Conclusion@#Higher AMRs were associated with A. baumannii bloodstream infections under various clinical conditions, such as healthcare-associated infections and infections in inpatients and ICU-admitted patients. Considering the high AMRs and the limited number of treatment options of A. baumannii, vigorous efforts should be used to prevent the spreading of A. baumannii infections in patients with vulnerable conditions.

2.
Annals of Clinical Microbiology ; : 59-65, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937127

ABSTRACT

Background@#Recently, CrpP enzymes have been described as a novel cause of ciprofloxacin resistance. The crpP gene encodes a novel protein that specifically confers resistance to ciprofloxacin through an adenosine triphosphate-dependent mechanism that phosphorylates the antimicrobial. In this study, the current prevalence of the crpP gene in carbapenemaseproducing Pseudomonas aeruginosa blood isolates was evaluated. @*Methods@#During the study of the Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System in Korea, 22 blood isolates of carbapenemase-producing P. aeruginosa were collected from nine general hospitals and two nursing homes in the year 2020. Resistance genes and phylogenic trees were analyzed with the whole genome sequencing data. @*Results@#A total of 11 P. aeruginosa blood isolates coharbored the crpP and carbapenemase genes (nine IMP-6 producers and two GES-5-producers). Nine NDM-1-producers coharbored aac(6')-Ib-cr and qnrVC1 . One GES-9-producer also carried aac(6')-Ib-cr, and one NDM-1-producer also carried qnrVC1. The phylogenic tree showed no epidemiologic link among the 22 carbapenemase-producing P. aeruginosa isolates. @*Conclusion@#This is the first report on the current prevalence of the crpP gene in carbapenemaseproducing P. aeruginosa blood isolates in Korea.

3.
Annals of Clinical Microbiology ; : 21-26, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874078

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the STANDARD F Influenza A/B FIA test (SD Biosensor Inc., Korea) for the rapid detection of influenza A virus in comparison with the Sofia Influenza A+B FIA (Quidel Corp., USA) and SD BIOLINE Influenza Ag A/B/A(H1N1) (Standard Diagnostic, Inc., Korea) tests. @*Methods@#A total of 227 non-duplicated nasopharyngeal aspirates submitted for real-time RT-PCR analysis were included in the study. We used the three commercial tests in remnant samples from routine assays, according to the manufacturer’s instructions. We analyzed the diagnostic performance, including sensitivity and specificity, of the three tests. @*Results@#Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that 67 (29.5%) samples were positive and 160 (70.5%) were negative for influenza A virus, and that all the specimens were negative for influenza B. The overall sensitivity and specificity for influenza A virus detection were 50.7% and 100% for the STANDARD F, 50.7% and 100% for the Sofia, and 29.9% and 100% for the SD BIOLINE tests, respectively. The STANDARD F and SD BIOLINE tests showed negative results for influenza B virus in all specimens, whereas the Sofia test showed two false-positive results. @*Conclusion@#The STANDARD F Influenza A/B test showed a good diagnostic performance and may be useful for the rapid diagnosis of influenza A.

4.
Journal of Korean Academy of Oral Health ; : 34-40, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-820819

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We investigated the characteristics of Streptococcus mutans in the national culture collection from Korea. Twenty-nine (dental plaque, n=27; endodontic infections, n=1; blood, n=1) isolates were included in this study.METHODS: Antimicrobial susceptibilities were tested using the disk diffusion test. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST), serotyping, and collagen-binding genes were used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing. A collagen-binding (to assess the adhesion properties) assay was performed. S. mutans demonstrated high susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. Differences in collagen-binding abilities of the cnm-positive and -negative groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test (P<0.05).RESULTS: MLST analyses revealed 25 sequence types (STs), 17 of which (ST213-ST229) contained new alleles. The strains were classified into four serotypes with the c type encompassing 79.3% of all strains, while the e, f, and k types representing 6.9% each. Analysis of the cnm and cbm genes, which encode the two surface adhesin components of S. mutans, revealed three cnm-positive strains, each displaying greater adhesion ability than those of the cnm-negative strains.CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the presence of a wide variety of S. mutans genotypes in Korea. These findings may provide useful information regarding the pathogenesis of infectious diseases, such as dental caries.


Subject(s)
Alleles , Anti-Infective Agents , Bacteremia , Communicable Diseases , Dental Caries , Diffusion , Genotype , Inflammation , Korea , Molecular Epidemiology , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Serogroup , Serotyping , Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus
5.
Annals of Clinical Microbiology ; : 1-8, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739013

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates producing CTX-M extendedspectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) were assessed for antimicrobial resistance phenotypes varied by group of enzymes. METHODS: A total of 1,338 blood isolates, including 959 E. coli and 379 K. pneumoniae, were studied. All the strains were collected between January and July 2017 from eight general hospitals in South Korea. The species were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined by disk diffusion methods and ESBL phenotypes by double-disk synergy tests using disks containing cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefepime, aztreonam, and clavulanic acid (CA). The genes for β-lactamases were identified by PCR and sequencing. RESULTS: Of total microbes, 31.6% (303/959) E. coli and 24.0% (91/379) K. pneumoniae were resistant to cefotaxime and 28.1% (269/959) E. coli and 20.1% (76/379) K. pneumoniae were CTX-M-type ESBL producers. Among the detected CTX-M ESBLs, 58.0% (156/269) in E. coli and 86.8% (66/76) in K. pneumoniae belonged to group 1, 46.8% (126/269) in E. coli and 14.5% (11/76) in K. pneumoniae were group 9. Ten E. coli and one K. pneumoniae isolates co-produced both groups of CTX-M ESBL. The group 1 CTX-M producers had a higher level of resistance to cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefepime, and aztreonam and exhibited stronger synergistic activities when combined with CA compared to group 9. CONCLUSION: ESBL phenotypes differ by CTX-M ESBL group and phenotype testing with drugs including 4th generation cephalosporins and monobactams is critical for screening CTX-M-producers with better sensitivity.


Subject(s)
Aztreonam , Cefotaxime , Ceftazidime , Cephalosporins , Clavulanic Acid , Diffusion , Escherichia coli , Hospitals, General , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Korea , Mass Screening , Mass Spectrometry , Monobactams , Phenotype , Pneumonia , Polymerase Chain Reaction
6.
Annals of Clinical Microbiology ; : 9-13, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739012

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The isolation of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) has become increasingly common. Continuous surveillance for these organisms is essential because their infections are closely related to outbreaks of illness and are associated with high mortality rates. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate multiplex PCR as a means of detecting several important CPE genes simultaneously. METHODS: We aimed to develop a multiplex PCR that could detect seven CPE genes simultaneously. The multiplex PCR was composed of seven primer sets for the detection of KPC, IMP, VIM, NDM-1, GES, OXA-23, and OXA-48. We designed different PCR product sizes of at least 100 bp. We evaluated the performance of this new test using 69 CPE-positive clinical isolates. Also, we confirmed the specificity to rule out false-positive reactions by using 71 carbapenem-susceptible clinical strains. RESULTS: A total of 69 CPE clinical isolates showed positive results and were correctly identified as KPC (N=14), IMP (N=13), OXA-23 (N=12), OXA-48 (N=11), VIM (N=9), GES (N=5), and NDM (N=5) by the multiplex PCR. All 71 carbapenem-susceptible clinical isolates, including Enterococcus faecalis , Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, showed negative results. CONCLUSION: This multiplex PCR can detect seven CPE genes at a time and will be useful in clinical laboratories.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter baumannii , Disease Outbreaks , Enterobacteriaceae , Enterococcus faecalis , Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Mortality , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Sensitivity and Specificity
7.
Annals of Laboratory Medicine ; : 537-544, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762441

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several factors contribute to differences in Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype distribution. We investigated the serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of S. pneumoniae isolated between 2014 and 2016 in Korea. METHODS: We collected a total of 1,855 S. pneumoniae isolates from 44 hospitals between May 2014 and May 2016, and analyzed the serotypes by sequential multiplex PCR. We investigated the distribution of each serotype by patient age, source of the clinical specimen, and antimicrobial resistance pattern. RESULTS: The most common serotypes were 11A (10.1%), followed by 19A (8.8%), 3 (8.5%), 34 (8.1%), 23A (7.3%), and 35B (6.2%). The major invasive serotypes were 3 (12.6%), 19A (7.8%), 34 (7.8%), 10A (6.8%), and 11A (6.8%). Serotypes 10A, 15B, 19A, and 12F were more common in patients ≤5 years old, while serotype 3 was more common in patients ≥65 years old compared with the other age groups. The coverage rates of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV)7, PCV10, PCV13, and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine 23 were 11.8%, 12.12%, 33.3%, and 53.6%, respectively. Of the 1,855 isolates, 857 (46.2%) were multi-drug resistant (MDR), with serotypes 11A and 19A predominant among the MDR strains. The resistance rates against penicillin, cefotaxime, and levofloxacin were 22.8%, 12.5%, and 9.4%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: There were significant changes in the major S. pneumoniae serotypes in the community. Non-PCV13 serotypes increased in patients ≤5 years old following the introduction of national immunization programs with the 10- and 13-polyvalent vaccines.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cefotaxime , Immunization Programs , Korea , Levofloxacin , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Penicillins , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Pneumonia , Serogroup , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Streptococcus , Vaccines
8.
Annals of Clinical Microbiology ; : 55-60, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762289

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Salmonella is an important pathogen that causes gastroenteritis and sepsis in humans. Recently, changes in serotype prevalence and an increase in antimicrobial resistance have been reported. This study investigated the distribution of Salmonella serotypes and determined the antimicrobial susceptibility of various strains. METHODS: We collected 113 Salmonella isolates other than Salmonella serotype Typhi from 18 university hospitals in 2015. The serotypes were identified by Salmonella antisera O and H according to the Kauffman White scheme. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests for 12 antibiotics were performed using the disk diffusion method or E-test. RESULTS: We identified 22 serotypes. Serotype group B (44.2%) was the most common, followed by groups C (34.5%) and D (21.2%). Salmonella I 4,[5],12:i:- (23.0%), S. Enteritidis (16.8%), and S. Typhimurium (12.4%) were the most common species. Resistance rates for ampicillin, chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole were 46.9%, 18.5%, 8.8%, and 5.3%, respectively. The intermediate resistance rate to ciprofloxacin was 29.2%. Six isolates were extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producers, including 5 bla(CTX-M-15) and 1 bla(CTX-M-55). CONCLUSION: There have been changes in the serotype prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella in Korea, with a high prevalence of CTX-M 15-positive strains. Continuous monitoring of Salmonella serotypes and antimicrobial resistance is warranted.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ampicillin , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Ceftriaxone , Chloramphenicol , Ciprofloxacin , Diffusion , Gastroenteritis , Hospitals, University , Immune Sera , Korea , Methods , Prevalence , Salmonella , Sepsis , Serogroup , Serotyping
9.
Korean Journal of Medical Mycology ; : 52-57, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917925

ABSTRACT

Purpureocillium is a genus of saprophytic fungi that is commonly found in soil or rotting material. Although rarely a pathogen in humans, it can cause serious infections in immunocompromized patients. An 85-year-old woman presented with a 2-week history of pruritic erythematous plaques with yellowish crusts on her right forearm and dorsal hand. Histopathological analysis identified fungal hyphae and spores in the dermis, and Purpureocillium lilacinum was identified through tissue culture, polymerase chain reaction, and DNA sequencing. The skin lesion barely responded to 4 weeks of itraconazole treatment but improved upon the addition of terbinafine. The skin lesion was completely cured after 12 weeks, with no recurrence to date. Here, we report a rare deep cutaneous fungal infection caused by P. lilacinum in an immunocompetent patient and postulate that, in this case, the patient's agricultural lifestyle increased the possibility of P. lilacinum infection.

10.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 181-187, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713792

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Point-of-Care Systems
11.
Hanyang Medical Reviews ; : 93-98, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715032

ABSTRACT

C. striatum is part of the normal skin and mucous membrane flora in humans and is widely disseminated in the environment. Traditionally, these strains have been considered contaminants. However, C. striatum has been linked to respiratory infection, bacteremia, and endocarditis; and it is strongly related to nosocomial outbreaks. At present, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) is the most accurate routine identification method. Many C. striatum strains are multi-drug resistant, being susceptible only to vancomycin and linezolid. We should survey the antimicrobial susceptibility results regularly to monitor its resistance and consider it a possible pathogen.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacteremia , Corynebacterium , Disease Outbreaks , Endocarditis , Linezolid , Mass Spectrometry , Methods , Mucous Membrane , Skin , Vancomycin
12.
Journal of Laboratory Medicine and Quality Assurance ; : 23-30, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-156757

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Stool cultures are essential for diagnosing bacterial gastrointestinal infections. Laboratory procedures and target organisms for stool culture testing can vary by institute. Therefore, a nationwide survey was conducted to determine the stool culture procedures performed in clinical laboratories of Korea. METHODS: Questionnaires were delivered by electronic mail to 98 clinical microbiologists and by Google survey to the 301 institutes participating in the Korean External Quality Control Program of Bacterial Cultures. RESULTS: Of the 68 institutes sent complete responses, Gram staining and wet smears were performed in 73.5% and 64.7%, respectively. A molecular test was conducted in 32.4% of laboratories, and blood agar plates were used in 23.5%. Staphylococcus aureus , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Candida species were reported for predominant growth by 17.6%, 8.8%, and 7.4% of the respondents, respectively. Campylobacter culture was available only in 25.0% of laboratories, whereas Clostridium difficile could be cultivated in 38.2%. Susceptibility testing results of Salmonella-Shigella were reported for all tested antibiotics in 22.1% of laboratories, whereas 69.1% reported results for antibiotics specified by the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: Methods and results of gram staining, wet smears, use of stool culture media, target microorganisms, and antibiotic susceptibility differed among the institutes. Further discussion is needed to develop a standardized protocol for stool culture to maximize isolation of bacterial pathogens that cause gastroenteritis.


Subject(s)
Academies and Institutes , Agar , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Campylobacter , Candida , Clostridioides difficile , Culture Media , Diagnosis , Diarrhea , Electronic Mail , Gastroenteritis , Korea , Methods , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Quality Control , Staphylococcus aureus , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; : 27-34, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-124436

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A sputum culture is the most reliable indicator of the infectiousness of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB); however, a spontaneous sputum specimen may not be suitable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the infectious period in patients with non–drug-resistant (DR) PTB receiving adequate standard chemotherapy, using induced sputum (IS) specimens. METHODS: We evaluated the duration of infectiousness of PTB using a retrospective cohort design. RESULTS: Among the 35 patients with PTB, 22 were smear-positive. The rates of IS culture positivity from baseline to the sixth week of anti-tuberculosis medication in the smear-positive PTB group were 100%, 100%, 91%, 73%, 36%, and 18%, respectively. For smear-positive PTB cases, the median time of conversion to culture negativity was 35.0 days (range, 28.0–42.0 days). In the smear-negative PTB group (n=13), the weekly rates of positive IS culture were 100%, 77%, 39%, 8%, 0%, and 0%, respectively, and the median time to conversion to culture-negative was 21.0 days (range, 17.5–28.0 days). CONCLUSION: The infectiousness of PTB, under adequate therapy, may persist longer than previously reported, even in patients with non-DR PTB.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cohort Studies , Drug Therapy , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Retrospective Studies , Sputum , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary
14.
Annals of Clinical Microbiology ; : 48-53, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-26909

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common human pathogen causing community-acquired pneumonia. There is little information on the recent antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of S. pneumoniae in Busan and Gyeongnam of Korea. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution and antimicrobial resistance of S. pneumoniae at 4 university hospitals in Busan and Gyeongnam. METHODS: We collected and analyzed the antimicrobial susceptibility results of 850 S. pneumoniae strains isolated from regional 4 university hospitals during the last 2 years from July 2013 through June 2015. RESULTS: Among 850 S. pneumoniae strains, 635 strains were isolated from respiratory specimens, followed by blood (N=121), CSF (N=13), and others (N=81). Antimicrobial susceptibility rates to penicillin, cefotaxime and ceftriaxone were 79.4%, 76.6% and 83.6%, respectively. The resistant rates to erythromycin and clindamycin were 80.9% and 68.2%, respectively. The resistant rates to levofloxacin were 9.2%. There were some differences in resistant rates by age groups, years, and specimen types. CONCLUSION: We found the changes of antimicrobial resistance of S. pneumoniae during the last 2 years. It is necessary to monitor the antimicrobial susceptibility of S. pneumoniae regularly for empirical therapy and for early detection of the changes of resistance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cefotaxime , Ceftriaxone , Clindamycin , Drug Resistance , Erythromycin , Hospitals, University , Korea , Levofloxacin , Penicillins , Pneumonia , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Streptococcus
15.
Korean Journal of Medical Mycology ; : 122-128, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-8020

ABSTRACT

A 71-year-old female presented with erythematous ulcerative patches on her right cheek, chest and right upper arm. She admitted to neurosurgery intensive care unit (NSICU) with mental change related to intracerebral hemorrhage. She had no underlying disease. Histopathologic examination of her right upper arm showed multiple non-septated broad hyphae with right-angled branching in dermis. She was diagnosed as primary cutaneous mucormycosis. The fungal culture demonstrated Cunninghamella species. We postulated that mucormycosis occurred after inoculation of fungi following fall down trauma. Mucormycosis, which commonly affects immunocompromised patient, is a rare fungal infection caused by the order Mucorales. Cutaneous mucormycosis is caused either by direct inoculation of fungal spores or by hematologic spread from another primary source. Clinical manifestations are various from indolent ulceration to rapidly progressive necrosis. Mucormycosis can be diagnosed based on the histologic findings and the fungal culture. Mucormycosis by Cunninghamella species have been increasingly reported, but most of them are pulmonary mucormycosis in immunocompromised patients. Herein, we report a rare case of multiple primary cutaneous mucormycosis caused by Cunninghamella species in a patient without underlying disease.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Arm , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Cheek , Cunninghamella , Dermis , Fungi , Hyphae , Immunocompromised Host , Intensive Care Units , Mucorales , Mucormycosis , Necrosis , Neurosurgery , Spores, Fungal , Thorax , Ulcer
16.
Korean Journal of Blood Transfusion ; : 79-83, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-229071

ABSTRACT

We report a case of an intravascular hemolytic reaction attributable to anti-Jk(b) antibodies that were not detected using an enzyme phase antibody identification test. A 61-year-old male who had received two units of red blood cells was admitted to the emergency room because his urine was dark. LISS/Coombs gel column agglutination tests suggested the presence of anti-Jk(b) and anti-E antibodies. However, his serum was negative for the Jk(b) antigen when an enzyme phase test was performed. A positive reaction was evident, however, when EDTA-treated plasma was tested; this excluded any possible complement-mediated reaction. The patient was diagnosed with an intravascular hemolytic transfusion reaction, caused by anti-Jk(b), and was later discharged without specific complications after receiving antigen-negative blood transfusions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Agglutination Tests , Antibodies , Blood Group Incompatibility , Blood Transfusion , Edetic Acid , Emergency Service, Hospital , Erythrocytes , Kidd Blood-Group System , Plasma
17.
Laboratory Medicine Online ; : 27-32, 2015.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-148920

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most important causes of lower respiratory tract infection. The rapid antigen test is a simple, cheap, and quick method for RSV detection, however, it has an acknowledged low sensitivity. The aim of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the rapid antigen test by comparing it with a multiplex reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). METHODS: A total of 557 nasopharyngeal aspirates or swabs that were submitted for both a rapid antigen test, Binax NOW RSV (Binax; Alere Scarborough, Inc., USA) and multiplex RT-PCR, Seeplex RV7 (Seegene Inc., Korea) were included in this study. We performed both tests according to the manufacturer's recommendations and analyzed the diagnostic performances of a rapid antigen tests based on the results of multiplex RT-PCR. RESULTS: Among the 557 specimens, the positive rates determined from the rapid antigen test and multiplex RT-PCR were 12.2% (N=68) and 25.1% (N=140), respectively. The relative sensitivity and specificity of the rapid antigen test were 46.4% and 99.3% based on the multiplex RT-PCR, respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were 95.6% and 84.7%, respectively. The diagnostic sensitivity was lower (28.6%) in children >36 months compared with children < or =36 months of age. Test sensitivity declined when RSV infection was accompanied by infection with other respiratory viruses. CONCLUSIONS: Binax NOW RSV exhibited good diagnostic performance, easy handling, and rapidity. However, it does have the possibility of false-negative results, and additional tests are needed when there is clinical suspicion of RSV infection.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses , Respiratory Tract Infections , Sensitivity and Specificity
18.
Annals of Clinical Microbiology ; : 69-75, 2015.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110952

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There have been steady changes and improvements in diagnostic tests for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, so it is necessary to carry out periodic surveys to understand the current situation. The aims of this study were to investigate the changes in principal practices and quality control for M. tuberculosis using a nationwide survey in the Republic of Korea. METHODS: We constructed a questionnaire composed of four subseries with 42 items. We e-mailed this survey to members of the Korean Society of Clinical Microbiology from April to September 2014 and analyzed the replies. RESULTS: Employees at a total of 65 hospital laboratories and 5 commercial laboratories participated in the survey. AFB staining was reportedly performed in all 70 institutions, and fluorescent staining was used as the primary detection method in 59 (84.3%) laboratories. Solid and liquid culture methods for Mycobacterium were performed at 62 (88.6%) and 59 (84.3%) laboratories, respectively. There were 57 laboratories (90.5%) that identified strains growing on primary culture media using a rapid antigen kit or molecular method. The mean values of positive and contamination rates for solid culture media were 8.2% (range 3.7-19.9%) and 4.0% (0.4-8.4%), respectively. In liquid culture, the mean values of positive and contamination rates were 11.5% (4.8-22.3%) and 6.8% (0.3-18.7%), respectively. CONCLUSION: There have been significant changes and improvements in overall mycobacterial testing, especially in the numbers of laboratories using fluorescent staining, liquid culture, and identification of M. tuberculosis cultured media compared with previous surveys in Korea.


Subject(s)
Culture Media , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Electronic Mail , Korea , Laboratories, Hospital , Mycobacterium , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Quality Control , Republic of Korea , Tuberculosis
19.
Laboratory Medicine Online ; : 188-195, 2015.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-55298

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The XN-series (Sysmex, Japan) is the new hematology analyzer from Sysmex, with new channels to improve the accuracy of differential leukocyte count and platelet count in the low cell count range. We evaluated the analytical performance and low white blood cell (WBC) mode of the XN-2000. METHODS: Precision, linearity, and carryover were evaluated for the analyzer. We analyzed the accordance of complete blood count (CBC), reticulocyte count, and differential leukocyte count between the XN-2000 and XE-2100 (Sysmex), using 200 samples from normal controls and patients. For 80 samples with a WBC count 0.9800 for all CBC parameters except mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, mean platelet volume, and platelet distribution width, and >0.9900 for differential leukocyte count except monocytes and basophils. The low WBC mode provided accurate counts for neutrophils and lymphocytes, with r>0.9300 for samples with a WBC count of 0.1-1.5x10(9) cells/L. CONCLUSIONS: The XN-2000 showed good analytical performance and correlation with the existing model, the XE-2100. The XN-2000 provided accurate results for differential leukocyte count in samples with a WBC count of 0.1-1.5x10(9) cells/L, and reduced manual slide reviews.


Subject(s)
Humans , Basophils , Blood Cell Count , Blood Platelets , Cell Count , Erythrocyte Indices , Hematology , Leukocyte Count , Leukocytes , Lymphocytes , Mean Platelet Volume , Monocytes , Neutrophils , Platelet Count , Reticulocyte Count
20.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 325-334, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-152280

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: We evaluated the trend in the rates of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) over time, as well as the difference in the drug-resistance pattern between pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) at a private referral center in South Korea. METHODS: All patients with culture-confirmed TB from 2006 to 2013 were included. RESULTS: In total, 1,745 patients were included: 1,431 (82.0%) were new cases, and 314 (18.0%) were cases treated previously; 1,610 (92.3%) were diagnosed with PTB, and 135 (7.7%) were diagnosed with EPTB. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB were detected in 5.8% and 2.0% of new cases and in 20.1% and 8.6% of previously treated cases, respectively. The MDR TB rate during the study period decreased remarkably, whereas the MDR and XDR TB rates decreased significantly in previously treated cases. No difference in the drug-resistance rate was detected between PTB and EPTB. CONCLUSIONS: The TB drug-resistance rate, particularly that of MDR TB, remained high at a private referral hospital, and the drug-resistance rate did not decrease significantly from 2006 to 2013. This finding underscores the need for a national survey regarding the prevalence of drug-resistant TB to obtain the most accurate and current drug-resistance status in South Korea, including the private sector.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Hospitals, Private , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis
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