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1.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 113-119, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896158

ABSTRACT

The computer vision diagnostic approach currently generates several malaria diagnostic tools. It enhances the accessible and straightforward diagnostics that necessary for clinics and health centers in malaria-endemic areas. A new computer malaria diagnostics tool called the malaria scanner was used to investigate living malaria parasites with easy sample preparation, fast and user-friendly. The cultured Plasmodium parasites were used to confirm the sensitivity of this technique then compared to fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis and light microscopic examination. The measured percentage of parasitemia by the malaria scanner revealed higher precision than microscopy and was similar to FACS. The coefficients of variation of this technique were 1.2-6.7% for Plasmodium knowlesi and 0.3-4.8% for P. falciparum. It allowed determining parasitemia levels of 0.1% or higher, with coefficient of variation smaller than 10%. In terms of the precision range of parasitemia, both high and low ranges showed similar precision results. Pearson’s correlation test was used to evaluate the correlation data coming from all methods. A strong correlation of measured parasitemia (r2=0.99, P<0.05) was observed between each method. The parasitemia analysis using this new diagnostic tool needs technical improvement, particularly in the differentiation of malaria species.

2.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 113-119, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903862

ABSTRACT

The computer vision diagnostic approach currently generates several malaria diagnostic tools. It enhances the accessible and straightforward diagnostics that necessary for clinics and health centers in malaria-endemic areas. A new computer malaria diagnostics tool called the malaria scanner was used to investigate living malaria parasites with easy sample preparation, fast and user-friendly. The cultured Plasmodium parasites were used to confirm the sensitivity of this technique then compared to fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis and light microscopic examination. The measured percentage of parasitemia by the malaria scanner revealed higher precision than microscopy and was similar to FACS. The coefficients of variation of this technique were 1.2-6.7% for Plasmodium knowlesi and 0.3-4.8% for P. falciparum. It allowed determining parasitemia levels of 0.1% or higher, with coefficient of variation smaller than 10%. In terms of the precision range of parasitemia, both high and low ranges showed similar precision results. Pearson’s correlation test was used to evaluate the correlation data coming from all methods. A strong correlation of measured parasitemia (r2=0.99, P<0.05) was observed between each method. The parasitemia analysis using this new diagnostic tool needs technical improvement, particularly in the differentiation of malaria species.

3.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 116-119, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895828

ABSTRACT

Diabetes mellitus is known to be associated with more severe outcomes and increased mortality in patients presenting with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 [SARS-CoV-2]) infection. The government driven so-called lock down strategy to prevent the spread of COVID-19 infection has changed not only social life styles but also disease related behaviors of diabetic patients. The mortality and morbidity of diabetic patients may be increasing during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this short article, I will describe this complex situation from the view-points of both diabetic patients and health care specialists, and offer several suggestions to solve these problems.

4.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 116-119, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903532

ABSTRACT

Diabetes mellitus is known to be associated with more severe outcomes and increased mortality in patients presenting with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 [SARS-CoV-2]) infection. The government driven so-called lock down strategy to prevent the spread of COVID-19 infection has changed not only social life styles but also disease related behaviors of diabetic patients. The mortality and morbidity of diabetic patients may be increasing during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this short article, I will describe this complex situation from the view-points of both diabetic patients and health care specialists, and offer several suggestions to solve these problems.

5.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 91-95, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713692

ABSTRACT

In this study, we aimed to evaluate the economic loss due to the diagnosis of breast cancer within the female South Korean working-age population. A population-based cost analysis was performed for cancer-related diagnoses between 1999 and 2014, using respective public government funded databases. Among the five most common cancers, breast cancer mortality was strongly associated with the growth in gross domestic product between 1999 and 2014 (R=0.98). In the female population, breast cancer represented the greatest productivity loss among all cancers, which was a consequence of the peak in the incidence of breast cancer during mid-working age in the working-age population, in addition to being the most common and fastest growing cancer among South Korean women. Our study shows that breast cancer not only represents a significant disease burden for individual patients, but also contributes a real, nonnegligible loss in productivity in the South Korean economy.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Costs and Cost Analysis , Diagnosis , Efficiency , Employment , Epidemiology , Financial Management , Gross Domestic Product , Incidence , Mortality , Quality of Life
6.
Korean Journal of Physical Anthropology ; : 65-70, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715126

ABSTRACT

Diabetic calcaneal insufficiency avulsion (CIA) fracture are unusual injury. The treatment may be challenging due to the low healing potential from diabetes or Charcot neuroarthropathy, so far. The poor surgical outcomes and surgical failures from treatment of the traumatic calcaneal avulsion fractures were associated with poor bone stock, lack of proper fixation, and the wound problem. Thus, the proper treatment for diabetic CIA fracture was still controversy. This report described two cases of diabetic CIA fracture treated with fixation of fracture fragment and calcaneal tenodesis. In both cases, fracture fragments were re-avulsed despite of fixation. Through investigation for the fate of fracture fragment from these cases, we discussed the proper treatment strategy in diabetic CIA fracture.


Subject(s)
Tenodesis , Wounds and Injuries
7.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 71-75, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-726887

ABSTRACT

The management of type 2 diabetes mellitus should comprise healthy lifestyle modifications along with tailored pharmacologic treatment. Traditionally, the American Diabetes Association (ADA)'s Diabetes Management Guidelines have not prioritized specific anti-diabetic drugs over others with regard to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality prevention. Recently, two novel anti-diabetic medications proved to be significantly protective against future CVD and mortality, regardless of the glycemic levels achieved in type 2 diabetic patients with pre-existing CVD. The 2018 ADA Guidelines recommend SGLT2 inhibitor and/or GLP-1 receptor agonist be used for type 2 diabetes patients with atherosclerotic CVD after metformin monotherapy failure. Considering the value of CVD protection in the management of diabetes mellitus, this minor guideline adjustment could have far-reaching implications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor , Life Style , Metformin , Mortality , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2
8.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 377-385, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-123915

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this multicenter, randomized, double-blind study was to examine the effect of lobeglitazone, a novel thiazolidinedione, on the changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: A 24-week, double-blinded phase was followed by a 28-week, open-label phase, in which the placebo group also started to receive lobeglitazone. A total of 170 patients aged 34 to 76 years were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive lobeglitazone 0.5 mg or a matching placebo orally, once daily. BMD was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at week 24 and at the end of the study (week 52). RESULTS: During the double-blinded phase, the femur neck BMD showed decreasing patterns in both groups, without statistical significance (−0.85%±0.36% and −0.78%±0.46% in the lobeglitazone and placebo groups, respectively). The treatment difference between the groups was 0.07%, which was also not statistically significant. Further, minimal, nonsignificant decreases were observed in both groups in the total hip BMD compared to values at baseline, and these differences also did not significantly differ between the groups. During the open-label phase, the BMD was further decreased, but not significantly, by −0.32% at the femur neck and by −0.60% at the total hip in the lobeglitazone group, and these changes did not significantly differ compared with the original placebo group switched to lobeglitazone. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that treatment with lobeglitazone 0.5 mg over 52 weeks showed no detrimental effect on the BMD compared to the placebo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Absorptiometry, Photon , Bone Density , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Double-Blind Method , Femur Neck , Hip , Thiazolidinediones
9.
Korean Journal of Physical Anthropology ; : 39-46, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-121499

ABSTRACT

This pilot study was performed to compare the functional and clinical results including complications after surgery in the open repair of Achilles tendon rupture with regard to the type of suture material. A consecutive series of twenty patients with acute Achilles tendon rupture who underwent open repair were enrolled in this pilot study. The patients were divided equally into 2 groups according to suture type. In the nonabsorbable suture group, No. 2 braided nonabsorbable polyethylene terephthalate sutures were used, and in the absorbable suture group, braided absorbable polyglactin sutures were used. The Korean version of the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) and complications were assessed to evaluate functional and clinical result. Mean total Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) was 89.8 (range, 71.1~100) in the nonabsorbable suture group and 82.7 (range, 61.9~92.5) in the absorbable suture group (p=0.22). All patients returned to their previous life activity. The absorbable suture group had fewer postoperative complications (10%) than the nonabsorbable suture group (20%), but there was no significant difference between two groups (p=0.45). This pilot study showed that use of an absorbable suture for Achilles tendon repair had functional and clinical results comparable to those of the nonabsorbable suture. However, a use of an absorbable suture was associated with a lower incidence of complications than the use of nonabsorbable suture. Therefore, these results have to be confirmed in a randomized controlled cohort trial with larger population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Achilles Tendon , Ankle , Cohort Studies , Foot , Incidence , Pilot Projects , Polyethylene Terephthalates , Polyglactin 910 , Postoperative Complications , Rupture , Sutures
10.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 385-391, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-13392

ABSTRACT

The discovery and understanding of antigenic proteins are essential for development of a vaccine against malaria. In Plasmodium falciparum, Pf92 have been characterized as a merozoite surface protein, and this protein is expressed at the late schizont stage, but no study of Pv92, the orthologue of Pf92 in P. vivax, has been reported. Thus, the protein structure of Pv92 was analyzed, and the gene sequence was aligned with that of other Plasmodium spp. using bioinformatics tools. The recombinant Pv92 protein was expressed and purified using bacterial expression system and used for immunization of mice to gain the polyclonal antibody and for evaluation of antigenicity by protein array. Also, the antibody against Pv92 was used for subcellular analysis by immunofluorescence assay. The Pv92 protein has a signal peptide and a sexual stage s48/45 domain, and the cysteine residues at the N-terminal of Pv92 were completely conserved. The N-terminal of Pv92 was successfully expressed as soluble form using a bacterial expression system. The antibody raised against Pv92 recognized the parasites and completely merged with PvMSP1-19, indicating that Pv92 was localized on the merozoite surface. Evaluation of the human humoral immune response to Pv92 indicated moderate antigenicity, with 65% sensitivity and 95% specificity by protein array. Taken together, the merozoite surface localization and antigenicity of Pv92 implicate that it might be involved in attachment and invasion of a merozoite to a new host cell or immune evasion during invasion process.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Computational Biology , Cysteine , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Immune Evasion , Immunity, Humoral , Immunization , Malaria , Merozoites , Parasites , Plasmodium falciparum , Plasmodium vivax , Plasmodium , Protein Array Analysis , Protein Sorting Signals , Schizonts , Sensitivity and Specificity
11.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 134-138, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-726742

ABSTRACT

Fulminant type 1 diabetes is characterized by acute onset, no evidence of islet-related autoantibodies, low glycated hemoglobin(HbA1c) level at onset, and metabolic complications such as diabetic ketoacidosis. Fulminant type 1 diabetes development during pregnancy can result in severe maternal and fetal complications. Most of the patients with fulminant type 1 diabetes during pregnancy have been reported in Japan. In Korea, reports of fulminant type 1 diabetes during pregnancy are uncommon. We report a 36-year-old Korean woman with fulminant type 1 diabetes developed at 32 weeks of gestation who demonstrate a good outcome.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Autoantibodies , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Japan , Korea
12.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 396-405, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-84889

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment and brain damage in diabetes is suggested to be associated with hypoglycemia. The mechanisms of hypoglycemia-induced neural death and apoptosis are not clear and reperfusion injury may be involved. Recent studies show that glucose deprivation/reperfusion induced more neuronal cell death than glucose deprivation itself. The forkhead box O (FOXO) transcription factors are implicated in the regulation of cell apoptosis and survival, but their role in neuronal cells remains unclear. We examined the role of FOXO transcription factors and the involvement of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and apoptosis-related signaling pathways in PC-12 cells exposed to repeated glucose deprivation/reperfusion. METHODS: PC-12 cells were exposed to control (Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium [DMEM] containing 25 mM glucose) or glucose deprivation/reperfusion (DMEM with 0 mM glucose for 6 hours and then DMEM with 25 mM glucose for 18 hours) for 5 days. MTT assay and Western blot analysis were performed for cell viability, apoptosis, and the expression of survival signaling pathways. FOXO3/4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining was done to ascertain the involvement of FOXO transcription factors in glucose deprivation/reperfusion conditions. RESULTS: Compared to PC-12 cells not exposed to hypoglycemia, cells exposed to glucose deprivation/reperfusion showed a reduction of cell viability, decreased expression of phosphorylated Akt and Bcl-2, and an increase of cleaved caspase-3 expression. Of note, FOXO3 protein was localized in the nuclei of glucose deprivation/reperfusion cells but not in the control cells. CONCLUSION: Repeated glucose deprivation/reperfusion caused the neuronal cell death. Activated FOXO3 via the PI3K/Akt pathway in repeated glucose deprivation/reperfusion was involved in genes related to apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Blotting, Western , Brain , Caspase 3 , Cell Death , Cell Survival , Cognition Disorders , Eagles , Glucose , Hypoglycemia , Neurons , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase , Reperfusion , Reperfusion Injury , Transcription Factors
13.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 143-148, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-95384

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated postoperative outcomes in patients who have lumbar foraminal or extraforaminal disc herniation (FELDH) and suggested the risk factors for poor outcomes. METHODS: A total of 234 patients were selected for this study. Pre- and post-operative Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Korean version Oswestry Disability Index (KODI) were evaluated and the changes of both score were calculated. Outcome was defined as excellent, good, fair, and poor based on Mcnab classification. The percentage of superior facetectomy was calculated by using the Maro-view 5.4 Picture Archiving Communication System (PACS). RESULTS: Paramedian lumbar discectomy was performed in 180 patients and combined lumbar discectomy was performed in 54 patients. Paramedian lumbar discectomy group showed better outcome compared with combined discectomy group. p value of VAS change was 0.009 and KODI was 0.013. The average percentage of superior facetectomy was 33% (range, 0-79%) and it showed negative correlation with VAS and KODI changes (Pearson coefficient : -0.446 and -0.498, respectively). Excellent or good outcome cases (Group I) were 136 (58.1%) and fair or poor outcome cases (Group II) were 98 (41.9%). The percentage of superior facetectomy was 26.5% at Group I and 42.5% at Group II. There was significant difference in superior facetectomy percentage between Group I and II (p=0.000). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that paramedian lumbar discectomy with preservation of facet joints is an effective and good procedure for FELDH. At least 60% of facet should be preserved for excellent or good outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Classification , Diskectomy , Risk Factors , Zygapophyseal Joint
14.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 230-239, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-145676

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We compared the efficacies of vildagliptin (50 mg twice daily) relative to pioglitazone (15 mg once daily) as an add-on treatment to metformin for reducing glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: The present study was a multicenter, randomized, active-controlled investigation comparing the effects of vildagliptin and pioglitazone in Korean patients receiving a stable dose of metformin but exhibiting inadequate glycemic control. Each patient underwent a 16-week treatment period with either vildagliptin or pioglitazone as an add-on treatment to metformin. RESULTS: The mean changes in HbA1c levels from baseline were -0.94% in the vildagliptin group and -0.6% in the pioglitazone group and the difference between the treatments was below the non-inferiority margin of 0.3%. The mean changes in postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) levels were -60.2 mg/dL in the vildagliptin group and -38.2 mg/dL in the pioglitazone group and these values significantly differed (P=0.040). There were significant decreases in the levels of total, low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein (HDL), and non-HDL cholesterol in the vildagliptin group but increases in the pioglitazone group. The mean change in body weight was -0.07 kg in the vildagliptin group and 0.69 kg in the pioglitazone group, which were also significantly different (P=0.002). CONCLUSION: As an add-on to metformin, the efficacy of vildagliptin for the improvement of glycemic control is not inferior to that of pioglitazone in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes. In addition, add-on treatment with vildagliptin had beneficial effects on PPG levels, lipid profiles, and body weight compared to pioglitazone.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood Glucose , Body Weight , Cholesterol , Glycated Hemoglobin , Lipoproteins , Metformin , Thiazolidinediones
15.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 403-411, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-225157

ABSTRACT

Plasmodium falciparum can invade all stages of red blood cells, while Plasmodium vivax can invade only reticulocytes. Although many P. vivax proteins have been discovered, their functions are largely unknown. Among them, P. vivax reticulocyte binding proteins (PvRBP1 and PvRBP2) recognize and bind to reticulocytes. Both proteins possess a C-terminal hydrophobic transmembrane domain, which drives adhesion to reticulocytes. PvRBP1 and PvRBP2 are large (> 326 kDa), which hinders identification of the functional domains. In this study, the complete genome information of the P. vivax RBP family was thoroughly analyzed using a prediction server with bioinformatics data to predict B-cell epitope domains. Eleven pvrbp family genes that included 2 pseudogenes and 9 full or partial length genes were selected and used to express recombinant proteins in a wheat germ cell-free system. The expressed proteins were used to evaluate the humoral immune response with vivax malaria patients and healthy individual serum samples by protein microarray. The recombinant fragments of 9 PvRBP proteins were successfully expressed; the soluble proteins ranged in molecular weight from 16 to 34 kDa. Evaluation of the humoral immune response to each recombinant PvRBP protein indicated a high antigenicity, with 38-88% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Of them, N-terminal parts of PvRBP2c (PVX_090325-1) and PvRBP2 like partial A (PVX_090330-1) elicited high antigenicity. In addition, the PvRBP2-like homologue B (PVX_116930) fragment was newly identified as high antigenicity and may be exploited as a potential antigenic candidate among the PvRBP family. The functional activity of the PvRBP family on merozoite invasion remains unknown.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Immunodominant Epitopes/chemistry , Malaria, Vivax/immunology , Plasmodium vivax/chemistry , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Protozoan Proteins/chemistry , Reticulocytes/parasitology
16.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 272-279, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-215486

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The present study evaluated the efficacy of a combination of ibandronate and cholecalciferol on the restoration of the levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and various bone markers in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, prospective 16-week clinical trial conducted in 20 different hospitals. A total of 201 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis were assigned randomly to one of two groups: the IBN group, which received a once-monthly pill containing 150 mg ibandronate (n=99), or the IBN+ group, which received a once-monthly pill containing 150 mg ibandronate and 24,000 IU cholecalciferol (n=102). Serum levels of 25(OH)D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and various bone markers were assessed at baseline and at the end of a 16-week treatment period. RESULTS: After 16 weeks of treatment, the mean serum levels of 25(OH)D significantly increased from 21.0 to 25.3 ng/mL in the IBN+ group but significantly decreased from 20.6 to 17.4 ng/mL in the IBN group. Additionally, both groups exhibited significant increases in mean serum levels of PTH but significant decreases in serum levels of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and C-telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX) at 16 weeks; no significant differences were observed between the groups. However, in subjects with a vitamin D deficiency, IBN+ treatment resulted in a significant decrease in serum CTX levels compared with IBN treatment. CONCLUSION: The present findings demonstrate that a once-monthly pill containing ibandronate and cholecalciferol may be useful for the amelioration of vitamin D deficiency in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Moreover, this treatment combination effectively decreased serum levels of resorption markers, especially in subjects with a vitamin D deficiency, over the 16-week treatment period.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Alkaline Phosphatase , Cholecalciferol , Collagen Type I , Osteoporosis , Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal , Parathyroid Hormone , Prospective Studies , Vitamin D Deficiency
17.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 92-97, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-150113

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In vitro experiments using only beta-cell lines instead of islets are limited because pancreatic islets are composed of four different types of endocrine cells. Several recent studies have focused on cellular interactions among these cell types, especially alpha- and beta-cells. Because islet isolation needs time and experience, we tested a simple co-culture system with alpha- and beta-cells. Their morphology and function were assessed by comparison to each single cell culture and pancreatic islets. METHODS: alpha TC-6 cells and beta TC-1 cells were maintained in Dulbecco's Minimal Essential Medium containing 5 mM glucose and 10% fetal bovine serum. Cells were mixed at a 1:1 ratio (5x10(5)) in 6-well plates and cultured for 24, 48, and 72 hours. After culture, cells were used for insulin and glucagon immunoassays and tested for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). RESULTS: alpha TC-6 and beta TC-1 cells became condensed by 24 hours and were more strongly compacted after 48 hours. beta TC-1 cells showed both beta-beta and beta-alpha cell contacts. GSIS increased with increasing glucose concentration in co-cultured cells, which showed lower secreted insulin levels than beta TC-1 cells alone. The increase in the secreted insulin/insulin content ratio was significantly lower for co-cultured cells than for beta-cells alone (P=0.04). Compared to islets, the alpha-/beta-cell co-culture showed a higher ratio of GSIS to insulin content, but the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.09). CONCLUSION: alpha TC-6 and beta TC-1 cells in the co-culture system showed cell-to-cell contacts and a similar stimulated insulin secretion pattern to islets. The co-culture system may be used to better mimic pancreatic islets in in vitro assessments.


Subject(s)
Cell Culture Techniques , Coculture Techniques , Endocrine Cells , Glucagon , Glucose , Immunoassay , Insulin , Islets of Langerhans
18.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 201-204, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-121886

ABSTRACT

This study was undertaken to characterize the properties of a 100 kDa somatic antigen from Metagonimus yokogawai. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were produced against this 100 kDa antigen, and their immunoreactivity was assessed by western blot analysis with patients' sera. The mAbs against the 100 kDa antigen commonly reacted with various kinds of trematode antigens, including intestinal (Gymnophalloides seoi), lung (Paragonimus westermani), and liver flukes (Clonorchis sinensis and Fasciola hepatica). However, this mAb showed no cross-reactions with other helminth parasites, including nematodes and cestodes. To determine the topographic distribution of the 100 kDa antigen in worm sections, indirect immunoperoxidase staining was performed. A strong positive reaction was observed in the tegumental and subtegumental layers of adult M. yokogawai and C. sinensis. The results showed that the 100 kDa somatic protein of M. yokogawai is a common antigen which recognizes a target epitope present over the tegumental layer of different trematode species.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Antibodies, Helminth/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antigens, Helminth/immunology , Clonorchis sinensis/immunology , Cross Reactions/immunology , Fasciola hepatica/immunology , Helminth Proteins/immunology , Heterophyidae/immunology , Immunologic Tests , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Paragonimus westermani/immunology , Trematode Infections/diagnosis
19.
Korean Journal of Physical Anthropology ; : 123-129, 2014.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-36947

ABSTRACT

Recent development of cyber lecture system has greatly influenced on the medical education especially on anatomy related subjects. Furthermore, the technology associated to the cyber lecture system is now widely used as the evaluation tool for the medical students. The purposes of this study are to evaluate the opinions of students according to the types of cyber lectures which were applied to a basic medical subject (neuroanatomy) and to suggest practical services and applications available for the medical students. In this study, we adopted several teaching strategies such as online lecture system and web assisted instruction to the neuroanatomy class. Medical students of Dankook universitiy were classified into three groups (online lecture group, web assisted instruction group, and cyber lecture non-experienced group) and asked to complete anonymous survey in private. The majority of students had already experienced web-based leaning at least once. The degree of student satisfaction at the cyber lecture contents were relatively high in both online lecture group and web assisted instruction group. Students in all groups slightly preferred classical lecture room lecture but also seem to be familiar to the cyber lecture. Students from all groups suggested parallel progress with lecture room lecture as the proper application of cyber lecture. Growing demands of cyber lectures based on network technology is likely to make new paradigm of medical education in the near future. Practically, application of cyber lecture system to the lab course of sectional neuroanatomy and also to the preparation for the wide scoped examination might be suggested at this time.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anonyms and Pseudonyms , Education, Medical , Lecture , Neuroanatomy , Students, Medical
20.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 14-18, 2014.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-69099

ABSTRACT

Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibition is a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, independent of insulin secretion and activity. SGLT2 inhibitors have a unique mechanism of action via inhibition of renal glucose reabsorption, which is different from the mechanisms of prior medications. Clinical trials have supported the efficacy of SGLT2 inhibitors in the reduction of HbA1c as monotherapy or add-on therapy with other existing medications, including insulin. In addition to their glucose-lowering effect, SGLT2 inhibitors can significantly reduce blood pressure and body weight. The most concerning side effects are genital and urinary tract infections, especially in females. SGLT2 inhibitors offer a promising potential strategy for diabetes treatment because they can be combined with nearly any existing anti-diabetic medication, cause less hypoglycemia, and possess additional metabolic benefits beyond glucose level reduction.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Blood Pressure , Body Weight , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Glucose , Hypoglycemia , Insulin , Sodium , Urinary Tract Infections
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