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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927005

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The objective of this study was to determine whether the newly developed two-dimensional shear wave elastography (2D-SWE, RS85, Samsung-shearwave imaging) was more valid and reliable than transient elastography (TE) for predicting the stage of liver fibrosis. @*Methods@#The study prospectively enrolled a total of 116 patients with chronic liver disease who underwent 2D-SWE, TE, laboratory testing, and liver biopsy on the same day from two tertiary care hospitals. One patient with unreliable measurement was excluded. The measurement of 2D-SWE was considered acceptable when a homogenous color pattern in a region of interest of at least 10 mm was detected at 10 different sites. Diagnostic performance was calculated using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). @*Results@#Liver fibrosis stages included F0 (18%), F1 (19%), F2 (24%), F3 (22%), and F4 (17%). Interclass correlation coefficient for inter-observer agreement in 2D-SWE was 0.994 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.988 to 0.997). Overall, the results of 2D-SWE and stages of histological fibrosis were significantly correlated (r = 0.601, p < 0.001). For The 2D-SWE showed good diagnostic ability (AUROC, 0.851; 95% CI, 0.773 to 0.911) comparable to TE (AUROC, 0.859; 95% CI, 0.781 to 0.916) for the diagnosis of significant fibrosis (≥ F2), and the cut-off value was 5.8 kPa. AUROC and optimal cut-off of 2D-SWE for the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis were 0.889 (95% CI, 0.817 to 0.940) and 9.6 kPa, respectively. TE showed similar diagnostic performance in distinguishing cirrhosis (AUROC, 0.938; 95% CI, 0.877 to 0.974; p = 0.08). @*Conclusions@#2D-SWE is comparable to TE in diagnosing significant fibrosis and liver cirrhosis with high reliability.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926502

ABSTRACT

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) can affect quality of life (QoL) because it requires arduous lifelong management. This study analyzed QoL differences between DN patients and patients with other chronic kidney diseases (CKDs). Methods: The analysis included subjects (n = 1,766) from the KNOW-CKD (Korean Cohort Study for Outcomes in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease) cohort who completed the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form questionnaire. After implementing propensity score matching (PSM) using factors that affect the QoL of DN patients, QoL differences between DN and non-DN participants were examined. Results: Among all DN patients (n = 390), higher QoL scores were found for taller subjects, and lower scores were found for those who were unemployed or unmarried, received Medical Aid, had lower economic status, had higher platelet counts or alkaline phosphatase levels, or used clopidogrel or insulin. After PSM, the 239 matched DN subjects reported significantly lower patient satisfaction (59.9 vs. 64.5, p = 0.02) and general health (35.3 vs. 39.1, p = 0.04) than the 239 non-DN subjects. Scores decreased in both groups during the 5-year follow-up, and the scores in the work status, sexual function, and role-physical domains were lower among DN patients than non-DN patients, though those differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Socioeconomic factors of DN were strong risk factors for impaired QoL, as were high platelet, alkaline phosphatase, and clopidogrel and insulin use. Clinicians should keep in mind that the QoL of DN patients might decrease in some domains compared with non-DN CKDs.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937328

ABSTRACT

The global burden of chronic liver disease (CLD) is substantial. Due to the limited indication of and accessibility to antiviral therapy in viral hepatitis and lack of effective pharmacological treatment in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, the beneficial effects of antidiabetics and non–antidiabetics in clinical practice have been continuously investigated in patients with CLD. In this narrative review, we focused on non-antidiabetic drugs, including ursodeoxycholic acid, silymarin, dimethyl4,4’-dimethoxy-5,6,5’,6’-dimethylenedixoybiphenyl-2,2’-dicarboxylate, L-ornithine L-aspartate, branched chain amino acids, statin, probiotics, vitamin E, and aspirin, and summarized their beneficial effects in CLD. Based on the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory properties, and regulatory functions in glucose or lipid metabolism, several non–antidiabetic drugs have shown beneficial effects in improving liver histology, aminotransferase level, and metabolic parameters and reducing risks of hepatocellular carcinoma and mortality, without significant safety concerns, in patients with CLD. Although the effect as the centerpiece management in patients with CLD is not robust, the use of these non-antidiabetic drugs might be potentially beneficial as an adjuvant or combined treatment strategy.

4.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 81-86, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900265

ABSTRACT

Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is a useful treatment option for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). TACE can particularly be used as a treatment for localized HCC, where surgical resection is impossible due to decreased liver function. However, TACE is associated with several complications, including vascular complications, liver failure, non-target embolization, infection, and death. The main risk factor for complications after TACE is decreased liver function. There have been only few reports of brain abscesses after TACE that are difficult to be distinguished from hepatic encephalopathy. Here, we report a rare case of brain abscess caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae that occurred after TACE.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874440

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) reflects portal hypertension, but its measurement is invasive. Transient elastography (TE) is a noninvasive method for evaluating liver stiffness (LS). We investigated the correlation between the value of LS, LS to platelet ratio (LPR), LS-spleen diameter-to-platelet ratio score (LSPS) and HVPG according to the etiology of cirrhosis, especially focused on alcoholic cirrhosis. @*Methods@#Between January 2008 and March 2017, 556 patients who underwent HVPG and TE were consecutively enrolled. We evaluated LS, LPR, and LSPS according to the etiology of cirrhosis and analyzed their correlations with HVPG. @*Results@#The LS value was higher in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis than viral cirrhosis based on the HVPG (43.5 vs. 32.0 kPa, P<0.001). There were no significant differences in the LPR or LSPS between alcoholic and viral cirrhosis groups, and the areas under the curves for the LPR and LSPS in subgroups according to HVPG levels were not superior to that for LS. In alcoholic cirrhosis, the LS cutoff value for predicting an HVPG ≥10 mmHg was 32.2 kPa with positive predictive value (PPV) of 94.5% and 36.6 kPa for HVPG ≥12 mmHg with PPV of 91.0%. @*Conclusions@#The LS cutoff value should be determined separately for patients with alcoholic and viral cirrhosis. In alcoholic cirrhosis, the LS cutoff values were 32.2 and 36.6 kPa for predicting an HVPG ≥10 and ≥12 mmHg, respectively. However, there were no significant differences in the LPR or LSPS between alcoholic and viral cirrhosis groups.

6.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 81-86, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892561

ABSTRACT

Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is a useful treatment option for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). TACE can particularly be used as a treatment for localized HCC, where surgical resection is impossible due to decreased liver function. However, TACE is associated with several complications, including vascular complications, liver failure, non-target embolization, infection, and death. The main risk factor for complications after TACE is decreased liver function. There have been only few reports of brain abscesses after TACE that are difficult to be distinguished from hepatic encephalopathy. Here, we report a rare case of brain abscess caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae that occurred after TACE.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897823

ABSTRACT

The prevalence and progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is mediated via several factors correlating with hepatic necroinflammation (adipokines/cytokines). This study was performed to analyze the level of inflammatory markers according to the presence of NAFLD and to identify related nutritional factors. A total of 80 adults were classified into 2 groups (healthy and NAFLD), and their body composition, blood tests, and eating habits were evaluated. In addition, inflammatory markers (adiponectin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [CRP], and tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-α]), nutrient intake status, and dietary quality were compared. The quality of diet was assessed according to the nutrient adequacy ratio and the mean adequacy ratio (MAR). The NAFLD group had a higher body mass index (p < 0.001) than the healthy group and also carried significantly higher CRP levels (p < 0.001) but lower adiponectin (p = 0.001). TNF-α levels increased significantly with fatty liver grade (p = 0.023). The NAFLD group showed significantly higher intake of energy, carbohydrates, iron, sodium, vitamin A and saturated fatty acids, but significantly lower intake of zinc and vitamin E than the healthy group. The MAR values were slightly higher in the NAFLD group but without any significant difference. The levels of adiponectin and vitamin E showed a significant inverse correlation (p < 0.05). Nutritional management of NAFLD patients is important, and the intake of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory nutrients such as zinc and vitamin E should be emphasized.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890119

ABSTRACT

The prevalence and progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is mediated via several factors correlating with hepatic necroinflammation (adipokines/cytokines). This study was performed to analyze the level of inflammatory markers according to the presence of NAFLD and to identify related nutritional factors. A total of 80 adults were classified into 2 groups (healthy and NAFLD), and their body composition, blood tests, and eating habits were evaluated. In addition, inflammatory markers (adiponectin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [CRP], and tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-α]), nutrient intake status, and dietary quality were compared. The quality of diet was assessed according to the nutrient adequacy ratio and the mean adequacy ratio (MAR). The NAFLD group had a higher body mass index (p < 0.001) than the healthy group and also carried significantly higher CRP levels (p < 0.001) but lower adiponectin (p = 0.001). TNF-α levels increased significantly with fatty liver grade (p = 0.023). The NAFLD group showed significantly higher intake of energy, carbohydrates, iron, sodium, vitamin A and saturated fatty acids, but significantly lower intake of zinc and vitamin E than the healthy group. The MAR values were slightly higher in the NAFLD group but without any significant difference. The levels of adiponectin and vitamin E showed a significant inverse correlation (p < 0.05). Nutritional management of NAFLD patients is important, and the intake of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory nutrients such as zinc and vitamin E should be emphasized.

9.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 177-182, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836098

ABSTRACT

JX-594 is a modified oncolytic poxvirus designed to selectively replicate in and destroy cancer cells. In a pilot study, JX-594 injection followed by sorafenib was well-tolerated in three patients and associated with objective tumor responses. In this study, we report a case in which a patient with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma and portal vein thrombosis was treated with a combination of JX-594 and sorafenib.

10.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 78-83, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836088

ABSTRACT

Sorafenib is the standard treatment for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with portal vein thrombosis (PVT). Additionally, hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy has been used as a treatment option for advanced HCC. Here, we report a case of sustained partial response in a patient with advanced HCC with PVT after hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy and radiation therapy.

11.
Gut and Liver ; : 783-791, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833170

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Plug-assisted retrograde transvenous obliteration (PARTO) is widely used to manage gastric varices with a portosystemic shunt. It is not clear whether portal pressure and the incidence of complications increase after PARTO. The aim of this study was to determine the changes in portal pressure and the associated changes in liver func-tion, ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, and especially esopha-geal varix (EV) after PARTO. @*Methods@#From March 2012 to February 2018, 54 patients who underwent PARTO were analyzed retrospectively. The parameters collected included liver function and episodes of cirrhotic complications before and at 1 and 6 months after PARTO. @*Results@#The analysis of 54 patients showed improvement in liver function during the 6-month follow-up period (Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score: change from 11.46±4.35 to 10.33±2.96, p=0.021).Among these 54 patients, 25 patients were evaluated for their hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) before and after PARTO (change from 12.52±3.83 to 14.68±5.03 mm Hg; p<0.001). Twenty-five patients with portal pressure mea-sured before and after PARTO were evaluated for risk factors affecting liver function improvement and EV deterioration. No factor associated with portal pressure was affected by liver function improvement. Post-PARTO portal pressure was a risk factor affecting EV deterioration (HVPG-post: odds ratio, 1.341; 95% confidence interval, 1.017 to 1.767; p=0.037). @*Conclusions@#The artificial blockade of the portosystemic shunt evidently leads to an increase in HVPG. Liver function was improved over the 6-month follow-up period. Portal pres-sure after PARTO was a significant risk factor for EV deterioration. Portal pressure measurement is helpful for predicting the patient’s clinical outcome.

12.
Gut and Liver ; : 377-386, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833146

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Patients with an intermediate stage of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represent a highly heterogeneous population; therefore, many models have been proposed to predict the survival of these patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic performance of a novel subclassification for tumors classified as Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage B using the Model to Estimate Survival in Ambulatory HCC patients (MESIAH). @*Methods@#This analysis was based on 377 patients with HCC treated at Seoul National University Hospital (training cohort) and 189 patients at the Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital (validation cohort). Four subclassification systems were tested: MESIAH; original BCLC B subclassification (B1, B2, B3, and B4); modified model A (B1, B2, and B3+B4); and modified model B (B1, B2+B3, and B4). @*Results@#Median survival progressively decreased from stage B1 through stages B2 to B3 according to the new MESIAH subclassification (p<0.001). Moreover, significantly different survival among contiguous stages was observed. In the multivariable Cox regression, the MESIAH subclassification was an independent predictor of overall survival (p<0.001). In terms of discrimination and calibration, MESIAH performed better than the original BCLC B subclassification, modified model A and modified model B. @*Conclusions@#The MESIAH model would be an effective tool for stratifying heterogeneous BCLC stage B cancer, and the ability of this model to predict survival is better than that of the other previously proposed models.

13.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832255

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Liver biopsy (LB) remains the gold standard for the evaluation of liver disease. However, over the past two decades, many noninvasive tests have been developed and utilized in clinical practice as alternatives to LB. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical use and safety of LB in the era of noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis. @*Methods@#This retrospective study included 1,944 consecutive cases of LB performed between 2001 and 2018 in a tertiary hospital. All of the LBs were conducted under ultrasonography guidance with 18-gauge cutting needles. @*Results@#LBs were performed an average of approximately 108 times per year during the study period. Chronic hepatitis B (25.3%) and suspected malignancy (20.5%) were the two most common indications for LB. The use of LB for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease increased from 8.1% to 17.2% in the past 5 years compared to the last 10 years, while that for viral hepatitis decreased from 40.3% to 18.9%. Discordance rate between the suspected diagnosis and the final diagnosis was 2.6% (51 cases). The overall rate of major adverse events was 0.05% (one case), which involved delayed bleeding at the biopsy site. Liver cirrhosis was observed in 563 cases (28.9%), and the presence of cirrhosis did not affect the frequency of complications (P=0.289). @*Conclusions@#LB is widely used in clinical practice as an irreplaceable diagnostic tool, even in the era of noninvasiveness. Ultrasonography-guided LB can be performed safely in patients with liver cirrhosis.

14.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831901

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The controlled attenuation parameter (CAP), based on transient elastography, is widely used for noninvasive assessment of the degree of hepatic steatosis (HS). We investigated the correlation of the degree HS between CAP and ultrasound (US) in patients with HS. @*Methods@#In total, 986 patients with US-based HS who underwent transient elastography within 1 month were evaluated. The US-based grade of HS was categorized as mild (grade 1), moderate (grade 2), or severe (grade 3). @*Results@#The CAP was significantly correlated with the US-based grade of HS (r = 0.458, p < 0.001). The median CAP value of each US-based HS grade showed a positive correlation with grade (271.1, 303.7, and 326.7 dB/m for grades 1, 2, and 3). In a multivariate analysis, the US-based HS grade, body mass index, serum albumin, alanine aminotransferase, and total cholesterol, and liver stiffness were all significantly correlated with the CAP value (all p < 0.05). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for grade 2 to 3 and grade 3 HS were 0.749 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.714 to 0.784) and 0.738 (95% CI, 0.704 to 0.772). The optimal cut-off CAP values to maximize the sum of the sensitivity and specificity for grade 2 to 3 and grade 3 HS were 284.5 dB/m (sensitivity 78.6%, specificity 61.7%) and 298.5 dB/m (sensitivity 84.6%, specificity 55.6%). @*Conclusions@#The correlation of the degree of HS between CAP and US was significantly high in patients with HS, and the optimal cut-off CAP values for grade 2 to 3 and grade 3 HS were 284.5 and 298.5 dB/m.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919123

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS@#Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is performed for single hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that are not eligible for surgery or ablation therapy. We investigated the clinical outcomes of patients with a single HCC ≤ 5 cm treated with TACE.@*METHODS@#This study analyzed 175 consecutive patients who underwent TACE as an initial treatment for single HCC ≤ 5 cm. Predictive factors for complete response (CR), recurrence after CR, and overall survival (OS) were evaluated.@*RESULTS@#Total 119 patients (68%) achieved CR after TACE. Tumor size 65 years and absence of liver cirrhosis were predictive factors for non-recurrence after CR (p < 0.05). The OS for all patients was 80.7 ± 5.6 months, and the 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS rates were 88.1%, 64.8%, and 49.9%, respectively. In multivariate analysis for OS, CR (hazard ratio [HR], 0.467; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.292 to 0.747) and Child class A (HR, 0.390; 95% CI, 0.243 to 0.626) were significant factors. The OS for the CR and Child class A group were 92 and 93.6 months, respectively, and that of the non-CR and Child B, C group were 53.3 and 50.7 months, respectively (p < 0.001).@*CONCLUSIONS@#TACE can be a valid treatment in patients with a single HCC ≤ 5 cm not suitable for curative treatment, especially in patients with Child class A and CR after TACE.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918807

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome (FHCS) is characterized by perihepatitis in patients with pelvic inflammatory disease. Hepatic capsular enhancement in arterial phase of abdominal computed tomography (CT) is usually required for definite diagnosis. The objective of this study was to assess clinical significance of intensity of hepatic capsular enhancement in CT of patients with FHCS.@*METHODS@#A total of 86 patients who had hepatic capsular enhancement in CT due to FHCS were retrospectively enrolled. The hepatic capsular enhancement was divided into three patterns according to the intensity of enhancement by an expert radiologist: A, partial weak enhancement; B, partial strong or diffuse weak enhancement; and C, diffuse strong enhancement. Other clinical and laboratory parameters such as duration of admission were also evaluated.@*RESULTS@#Hepatic capsular enhancement in CT was classified into pattern A (n=28), pattern B (n=35), and pattern C (n=23). Hospital stay was significantly shorter in pattern A (6.1±2.4 days, P<0.001) than that in pattern B (7.2±2.9 days) or pattern C (7.7±2.2 days). Subjective perihepatic pain duration was well correlated with the degree of hepatic capsular enhancement (P<0.001). In multivariate analysis, the intensity of capsular enhancement was significantly associated with hospital stay after adjusting other factors. However, laboratory inflammation marker was not directly correlated with hepatic capsular enhancement.@*CONCLUSION@#Enhancement pattern of CT scan in patients with FHCS is closely related to its clinical severity and the course of this disease.

17.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 182-185, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763410

ABSTRACT

Balloon tamponade using Sengstaken–Blakemore (SB) tube is employed as a bridging therapy in cases in which endoscopic therapy fails to control esophageal variceal bleeding. Although SB tube insertion can lead to successful hemostasis, it is accompanied by numerous complications, with SB tube transection being one of the rarest complications. A 53-year-old man with liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma presented with massive esophageal variceal bleeding. Therapeutic endoscopic variceal ligation failed, and SB tube was inserted. The SB tube was unexpectedly disconnected because of the patient's irritability due to hepatic encephalopathy. The esophageal and gastric balloon of the SB tube remained inflated in the stomach. Whereas the use of other endoscopic instruments was ineffective, endoscopic removal was successfully accomplished using endoscopic scissors. In conclusion, we detected SB tube transection in a patient with hepatic encephalopathy and removed remnants of the inflated tube using endoscopic scissors.


Subject(s)
Balloon Occlusion , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Esophageal and Gastric Varices , Gastric Balloon , Hemostasis , Hepatic Encephalopathy , Humans , Ligation , Liver Cirrhosis , Middle Aged , Stomach
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763384

ABSTRACT

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), together with metabolic syndrome and obesity, has shown a rapid increase in prevalence worldwide and is emerging as a major cause of chronic liver disease and liver transplantation. Among the various phenotypes of NAFLD, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is highly likely to progress to development of end-stage liver disease and cardiometabolic disease, resulting in liver-related and non-liver–related mortality. Nonetheless, there is no standardized pharmacotherapy against NASH and many drugs are under development in ongoing clinical trials. To develop a successful anti-NASH drug, it is necessary to select an appropriate target population and treatment outcomes depending on whether the mode of action is anti-metabolic, anti-inflammatory or anti-fibrotic. Recently, innovative surrogate markers have been investigated to replace hard outcomes such as liver histology and mortality and reduce the clinical trial duration. Currently, several drugs with fast track designation are being tested in phase III clinical trials, and many other drugs have moved into phase II clinical trials. Both lean NAFLD and typical obese NAFLD have been extensively studied and genetic variants such as PNPLA3 and TM6SF2 have been identified as significant risk factors for lean NAFLD. In the near future, noninvasive biomarkers and effective targeted therapies for NASH and associated fibrosis are required to develop precision medicine and tailored therapy according to various phenotypes of NAFLD.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Drug Therapy , Fibrosis , Health Services Needs and Demand , Liver , Liver Diseases , Liver Transplantation , Mortality , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Obesity , Phenotype , Precision Medicine , Prevalence , Risk Factors
19.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 12-18, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765709

ABSTRACT

The most significant risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the presence of cirrhosis or advanced fibrosis of the liver. Liver biopsy was traditionally considered the gold standard for assessing the liver fibrosis burden. Recently, non-invasive methods, particularly transient elastography (TE), have proven effective at measuring fibrosis and determining cirrhosis. Clinical application of TE ranges from measuring fibrosis to predicting long-term prognosis and treatment response. Here, we focus on recent studies on the prognostic value of TE for predicting HCC.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Fibrosis , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver , Prognosis , Risk Factors
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765050

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mortality
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