Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 160
Filter
1.
Journal of Clinical Neurology ; : 429-437, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000865

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose The congestive heart failure, hypertension, age, diabetes, previous stroke/transient ischemic attack (CHA2DS2-VASc) and hypertension, abnormal renal/liver function, stroke, bleeding history or predisposition, labile international normalized ratio, elderly, drugs/alcohol (HAS-BLED) scores have been validated in estimating the risks of ischemic stroke and major bleeding, respectively, in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). This study investigated stroke-specific predictors of major bleeding in patients with stroke and AF who were taking oral anticoagulants (OACs). @*Methods@#Subjects were selected from patients enrolled in the Korean ATrial fibrillaTion EvaluatioN regisTry in Ischemic strOke patieNts (K-ATTENTION) nationwide multicenter registry between 2013 and 2015. Patients were excluded if they were not taking OACs, had no brain imaging data, or had intracranial bleeding directly related to the index stroke. Major bleeding was defined according to International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis criteria. Cox regression analyses were performed to assess the associations between clinical variables and major bleeding and Kaplan-Meier estimates were performed to analyze event-free survival. @*Results@#Of a total of 3,213 patients, 1,414 subjects (mean age of 72.6 years, 52.5% males) were enrolled in this study. Major bleeding was reported in 34 patients during the median follow-up period of 1.73 years. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores (hazard ratio [HR] 1.07, p=0.006), hypertension (HR 3.18, p=0.030), persistent AF type (HR 2.51, p=0.016), and initial hemoglobin level (HR 0.74, p=0.001) were independently associated with major bleeding risk. Except for hypertension, these associations remained significant after adjusting for the HAS-BLED score. Intracranial atherosclerosis presented a trend of association without statistical significance (HR 2.21, p=0.050). @*Conclusions@#This study found that major bleeding risk was independently associated with stroke-specific factors in anticoagulated patients with stroke and AF. This has the clinical implication that baseline characteristics of patients with stroke and AF should be considered in secondary prevention, which would bring the net clinical benefit of balancing recurrent stroke prevention with minimal bleeding complications.

2.
Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition ; : 224-229, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002683

ABSTRACT

Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a rare adverse event of dasatinib, which is known to be caused by dasatinib-induced colitis, severe thrombocytopenia, and platelet dysfunction.We present two cases of pediatric patients who developed hematochezia during treatment with dasatinib after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). A colonic tissue biopsy was performed to differentiate the cause of GI bleeding. Both patients were diagnosed with proven cytomegalovirus (CMV) colitis, but only one was treated with ganciclovir. The patient who did not receive antiviral therapy experienced recurrent GI bleeding during dasatinib administration, leading to multiple treatment interruptions. During dasatinib therapy after HSCT, patients with GI bleeding and confirmed CMV colitis may benefit from antiviral therapy to reduce interruptions in dasatinib therapy.

3.
Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives ; (6): 272-278, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002625

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been declared a global pandemic owingto the rapid spread of the causative agent, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.Its Delta and Omicron variants are more transmissible and pathogenic than other variants.Some debates have emerged on the mechanism of variants of concern. In the COVID-19 wave that began in December 2021, the Omicron variant, first reported in South Africa, became identifiable in most cases globally. The aim of this study was to provide data to inform effective responses to the transmission of the Omicron variant. @*Methods@#The Delta variant and the spike protein D614G mutant were compared with the Omicron variant. Viral loads from 5 days after symptom onset were compared usingepidemiological data collected at the time of diagnosis. @*Results@#The Omicron variant exhibited a higher viral load than other variants, resulting in greater transmissibility within 5 days of symptom onset. @*Conclusion@#Future research should focus on vaccine efficacy against the Omicron variant and compare trends in disease severity associated with its high viral load.

4.
Korean Journal of Clinical Pharmacy ; : 128-134, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002107

ABSTRACT

Background@#This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the efficacy and cardiovascular safety of romosozumab compared with placebo. @*Methods@#Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were searched from Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Central, and Web of Science until July 2022. Primary outcomes included the change in bone mineral density (BMD) from baseline at month 6. The secondary outcomes were the change of bone turnover markers (N-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen (P1NP); C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX)) from baseline at month 3, and the incidence of cardiovascular adverse events for the total follow-up period. @*Results@#A total of 7 RCTs on 8,370patients were included. Romosozumab showed better effects in improving BMD in both lumbar spine and femoral neck at month 6 (standardized mean difference, SMD 2.20 [95% CI: 1.89-2.52], SMD 0.63 [95% CI: 0.41-0.86]). In contrast to placebo, romosozumab significantly increased PINP levels and reduced CTX levels at month 3 (SMD 0.93 [95% CI: 0.65-1.22], SMD −1.03 [95% CI: −1.23~ −0.82]. However, there was no significant difference in the composite incidence of cardiovascular adverse events and major adverse cardiovascular events (OR 1.16 [95% CI: 0.82-1.65], OR 1.08 [95% CI: 0.75-1.56]). @*Conclusion@#This analysis showed that romosozumab significantly improved BMD compared to placebo and was beneficial for change in bone turnover markers. There is no significant difference in the incidence of cardiovascular adverse events compared to placebo.

5.
Journal of Clinical Neurology ; : 28-35, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967106

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose We investigated whether circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) is associated with arterial stiffness in patients with acute ischemic stroke. @*Methods@#We recruited patients with acute ischemic stroke who were admitted to a university hospital stroke center and underwent carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) measurement using SphygmoCor (AtCor Medical, Sydney, Australia) and brachial-ankle PWV using a volume-plethysmography device (VP-1000, Omron Colin, Komaki, Japan). Circulating miRNAs were measured in venous blood samples stored in EDTA. We selected five miRNAs (miR-17, miR-93, miR-450, miR-629, and let-7i) related to atherosclerosis based on a literature review. Pearson’s correlation analysis was applied to the correlations between miRNAs and arterial stiffness parameters. Finally, multivariable linear regression analysis was performed to identify the independent factors for cfPWV. @*Results@#This study included 70 patients (age=71.1±10.3 years [mean±SD], 29 females). The expression levels of miR-93 (r=-0.27, p=0.049) and let-7i ((r=-0.27, p=0.039) were inversely correlated with cfPWV. Multivariable linear regression analysis including age, hypertension, and estimated glomerular filtration rate showed that let-7i was independently related with cfPWV (standardized coefficient=-0.262, p=0.036). Correlation analysis indicated that let-7i was positively associated with visceral muscle Hounsfield units on computed tomography ((r=0.264, p=0.043). @*Conclusions@#The expression level of let-7i was independently related to arterial stiffness in patients with cerebral infarction, suggesting that it plays a pathophysiological role in atherosclerosis.

6.
Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives ; (6): 37-43, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875352

ABSTRACT

Since a novel beta-coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first reported in December 2019, there has been a rapid global spread of the virus. Genomic surveillance was conducted on samples isolated from infected individuals to monitor the spread of genetic variants of SARS-CoV-2 in Korea. The Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency performed whole genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 in Korea for 1 year (January 2020 to January 2021). A total of 2,488 SARSCoV-2 cases were sequenced (including 648 cases from abroad). Initially, the prevalent clades of SARSCoV-2 were the S and V clades, however, by March 2020, GH clade was the most dominant. Only international travelers were identified as having G or GR clades, and since the first variant 501Y.V1 was identified (from a traveler from the United Kingdom on December 22 nd , 2020), a total of 27 variants of 501Y.V1, 501Y.V2, and 484K.V2 have been classified (as of January 25 th , 2021). The results in this study indicated that quarantining of travelers entering Korea successfully prevented dissemination of the SARS-CoV-2 variants in Korea.

7.
Journal of Stroke ; : 113-123, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874951

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose To evaluate the outcome events and bleeding complications of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guideline-matched oral anticoagulant therapy for patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation (AF). @*Methods@#Patients with acute ischemic stroke and AF from a nationwide multicenter registry (Korean ATrial fibrillaTion EvaluatioN regisTry in Ischemic strOke patieNts [K-ATTENTION]) between January 2013 and December 2015 were included in the study. Patients were divided into the ESC guideline-matched and the non-matched groups. The primary outcome was recurrence of any stroke during the 90-day follow-up period. Secondary outcomes were major adverse cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events, ischemic stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, acute coronary syndrome, allcause mortality, and major hemorrhage. Propensity score matching and logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the effect of the treatments administered. @*Results@#Among 2,321 eligible patients, 1,126 patients were 1:1 matched to the ESC guidelinematched and the non-matched groups. As compared with the non-matched group, the ESC guideline-matched group had a lower risk of any recurrent stroke (1.4% vs. 3.4%; odds ratio [OR], 0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.18 to 0.95). The risk of recurrent ischemic stroke was lower in the ESC guideline-matched group than in the non-matched group (0.9% vs. 2.7%; OR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.11 to 0.88). There was no significant difference in the other secondary outcomes between the two groups. @*Conclusions@#ESC guideline-matched oral anticoagulant therapy was associated with reduced risks of any stroke and ischemic stroke as compared with the non-matched therapy.

8.
Journal of Clinical Neurology ; : 41-45, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874686

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose We investigated 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake levels in the lumbar vertebrae, liver, and spleen of stroke patients with carotid atherosclerosis. @*Methods@#This study analyzed acute ischemic stroke patients with carotid atherosclerosis who underwent whole-body FDG positron-emission tomography between October 2015 and January 2017. FDG uptake in the lumbar vertebrae, liver, and spleen was measured and compared between stroke patients and control subjects without stroke history. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to identify independent factors related to FDG uptake in the proximal internal carotid artery (ICA). @*Results@#Twenty stroke patients aged 75.1±9.0 years (mean±standard deviation; 10 females) and 20 control subjects aged 62.9±10.7 years (6 females) were included. In comparison with the control group, the stroke group showed significantly higher FDG uptake in the proximal ICA (1.16±0.26 vs. 0.87±0.19, p<0.01), but significantly lower FDG uptake in the lumbar vertebrae (1.09±0.26 vs. 1.38±0.38, p=0.007) and liver (1.71±0.30 vs. 2.01±0.34, p=0.005). Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that the lumbar FDG uptake was negatively correlated with FDG uptake in the proximal ICA (standardized coefficient=-0.367, p=0.013) after adjusting for age and hypertension. @*Conclusions@#Stroke patients showed decreased FDG uptake in the lumbar vertebrae. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the pathophysiological link between cerebral atherosclerosis and bone.

9.
Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives ; (6): 280-285, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835142

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has published “A Guideline for Unknown Disease Outbreaks (UDO).” The aim of this report was to introduce tabletop exercises (TTX) to prepare for UDO in the future. @*Methods@#The UDO Laboratory Analyses Task Force in Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in April 2018, assigned unknown diseases into 5 syndromes, designed an algorithm for diagnosis, and made a panel list for diagnosis by exclusion. Using the guidelines and laboratory analyses for UDO, TTX were introduced. @*Results@#Since September 9th , 2018, the UDO Laboratory Analyses Task Force has been preparing TTX based on a scenario of an outbreak caused by a novel coronavirus. In December 2019, through TTX, individual missions, epidemiological investigations, sample treatments, diagnosis by exclusions, and next generation sequencing analysis were discussed, and a novel coronavirus was identified as the causal pathogen. @*Conclusion@#Guideline and laboratory analyses for UDO successfully applied in TTX. Conclusions drawn from TTX could be applied effectively in the analyses for the initial response to COVID-19, an ongoing epidemic of 2019 - 2020. Therefore, TTX should continuously be conducted for the response and preparation against UDO.

10.
Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives ; (6): 3-7, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835136

ABSTRACT

ObjectivesFollowing reports of patients with unexplained pneumonia at the end of December 2019 in Wuhan, China, the causative agent was identified as coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), and the 2019 novel coronavirus disease was named COVID-19 by the World Health Organization. Putative patients with COVID-19 have been identified in South Korea, and attempts have been made to isolate the pathogen from these patients.MethodsUpper and lower respiratory tract secretion samples from putative patients with COVID-19 were inoculated onto cells to isolate the virus. Full genome sequencing and electron microscopy were used to identify the virus.ResultsThe virus replicated in Vero cells and cytopathic effects were observed. Full genome sequencing showed that the virus genome exhibited sequence homology of more than 99.9% with SARS-CoV-2 which was isolated from patients from other countries, for instance China. Sequence homology of SARS-CoV-2 with SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV was 77.5% and 50%, respectively. Coronavirus-specific morphology was observed by electron microscopy in virus-infected Vero cells.ConclusionSARS-CoV-2 was isolated from putative patients with unexplained pneumonia and intermittent coughing and fever. The isolated virus was named BetaCoV/Korea/KCDC03/2020.

11.
Journal of Clinical Neurology ; : 605-611, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833669

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose: The incidence of ischemic stroke (IS) in young adults is increasing, and the associated large socioeconomic impact makes understanding IS in young adults important. We investigated the causes of and risk factors for IS in young adults, and their impact on outcomes. @*Methods@#The Stroke in Korean Young Adults (SKY) study is a standardized multicenter prospective study involving eight medical centers of the Republic of Korea. First-ever IS patients aged 18 years to 44 years were prospectively included in this study within 7 days of stroke onset.Their outcomes at 3 months were analyzed. @*Results@#This study enrolled 270 patients from April 2014 to December 2018, most (67.8%) of whom were male. About 41.5% of the patients had one or more vascular risk factors from among hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia. However, only half of them had received regular treatment. Arterial dissection was more common in males, and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and Moyamoya disease were more common in females. The outcome was favorable (modified Rankin Scale score of 0 or 1) in 81.9% of the patients at 3 months after stroke onset. More severe initial symptoms, higher initial glucose level, and SLE as a comorbidity were associated with unfavorable outcomes. @*Conclusions@#Young adult IS patients in Korea exhibit low awareness and poor management of their risk factors. Although the short-term outcome was relatively favorable in those patients, having SLE was associated with unfavorable outcomes. More attention needs to be paid for improving awareness and controlling risk factors in this population.

12.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 86-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810954

ABSTRACT

As of February 2020, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak started in China in December 2019 has been spreading in many countries in the world. With the numbers of confirmed cases are increasing, information on the epidemiologic investigation and clinical manifestation have been accumulated. However, data on viral load kinetics in confirmed cases are lacking. Here, we present the viral load kinetics of the first two confirmed patients with mild to moderate illnesses in Korea in whom distinct viral load kinetics are shown. This report suggests that viral load kinetics of SARS-CoV-2 may be different from that of previously reported other coronavirus infections such as SARS-CoV.


Subject(s)
Humans , China , Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Kinetics , Korea , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Viral Load
13.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e86-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899771

ABSTRACT

As of February 2020, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak started in China in December 2019 has been spreading in many countries in the world. With the numbers of confirmed cases are increasing, information on the epidemiologic investigation and clinical manifestation have been accumulated. However, data on viral load kinetics in confirmed cases are lacking. Here, we present the viral load kinetics of the first two confirmed patients with mild to moderate illnesses in Korea in whom distinct viral load kinetics are shown. This report suggests that viral load kinetics of SARS-CoV-2 may be different from that of previously reported other coronavirus infections such as SARS-CoV.

14.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e86-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892067

ABSTRACT

As of February 2020, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak started in China in December 2019 has been spreading in many countries in the world. With the numbers of confirmed cases are increasing, information on the epidemiologic investigation and clinical manifestation have been accumulated. However, data on viral load kinetics in confirmed cases are lacking. Here, we present the viral load kinetics of the first two confirmed patients with mild to moderate illnesses in Korea in whom distinct viral load kinetics are shown. This report suggests that viral load kinetics of SARS-CoV-2 may be different from that of previously reported other coronavirus infections such as SARS-CoV.

15.
Journal of the Korean Neurological Association ; : 361-367, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766824

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) suffer from early onset atherosclerotic vascular disease due to high level of cholesterol and subsequent vascular inflammation, especially in the form of coronary artery disease. We investigated the clinical characteristics of FH associated cerebral infarction and its possible mechanism. METHODS: Between January 2014 and May 2017, acute cerebral infarction patients who admitted to Chung-Ang University Hospital were reviewed from stroke registry and the diagnosis of FH was made based on the Dutch Lipid Clinic Network Diagnostic Criteria for FH. We reviewed their initial laboratory and brain imaging information, prescribed medication and followed lipid profile after discharge. Stroke mechanism was determined based on Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment classification. RESULTS: Among 1,401 acute cerebral infarction or transient ischemic attack patients, one probable and three possible FH stroke patients were detected. All the patients denied of previous coronary artery disease history and initial lipid panel revealed high levels of total cholesterol (378±75 mg/dL) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (238±56 mg/dL). Stroke mechanisms were heterogeneous, including one atherosclerotic, two vertebral artery dissection cases and one coagulation disorder. All the patients were combined with noticeable degree of intracranial atherosclerosis and were maintained with statin treatment. CONCLUSIONS: This study illustrates diverse stroke mechanism among stroke patients with FH. Further research is required to disclose exact incidence of FH among stroke population and effective treatment strategy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atherosclerosis , Cerebral Infarction , Cholesterol , Classification , Coronary Artery Disease , Diagnosis , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II , Incidence , Inflammation , Intracranial Arteriosclerosis , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Neuroimaging , Stroke , Vascular Diseases , Vertebral Artery Dissection
16.
Journal of Clinical Neurology ; : 545-554, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764361

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The clinical implications of echocardiography findings for long-term outcomes in atrial fibrillation (AF)-related stroke patients are unknown. METHODS: This was a substudy of the Korean ATrial fibrillaTion EvaluatioN regisTry in Ischemic strOke patieNts (K-ATTENTION), which is a multicenter-based cohort comprising prospective stroke registries from 11 tertiary centers. Stroke survivors who underwent two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography during hospitalization were enrolled. Echocardiography markers included the left-ventricle (LV) ejection fraction (LVEF), the left atrium diameter, and the ratio of the peak transmitral filling velocity to the mean mitral annular velocity during early diastole (E/e′ ratio). LVEF was categorized into normal (≥55%), mildly decreased (>40% and <55%), and severely decreased (≤40%). The E/e′ ratio associated with the LV filling pressure was categorized into normal (<8), borderline (≥8 and <15), and elevated (≥15). Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were performed for recurrent stroke, major adverse cardiac events, and all-cause death. RESULTS: This study finally included 1,947 patients. Over a median follow-up of 1.65 years (interquartile range, 0.42–2.87 years), the rates of recurrent stroke, major adverse cardiac events, and all-cause death were 35.1, 10.8, and 69.6 cases per 1,000 person-years, respectively. Multivariable analyses demonstrated that severely decreased LVEF was associated with a higher risks of major adverse cardiac events [hazard ratio (HR), 3.91; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.58–9.69] and all-cause death (HR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.23–3.10). The multivariable fractional polynomial plot indicated that recurrent stroke might be associated with a lower LVEF. CONCLUSIONS: Severe LV systolic dysfunction could be a determinant of long-term outcomes in AF-related stroke.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atrial Fibrillation , Cohort Studies , Diastole , Echocardiography , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Atria , Hospitalization , Prospective Studies , Registries , Stroke , Survivors
17.
Journal of Lipid and Atherosclerosis ; : 232-241, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765662

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyze uptake patterns and intensity of ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and ¹⁸F-sodium fluoride (NaF) radioligands in carotid atheroma among stroke patients according to carotid atheroma characteristics. METHODS: Between September 2015 and January 2017, consecutive acute stroke or transient ischemic attack patients with 50% or more proximal internal carotid artery stenosis on brain computed tomography angiography were prospectively enrolled. All patients received FDG and NaF positron emission tomography (PET) evaluation when their neurological status was stabilized. Uptake values of FDG and NaF were compared by target to blood ratio (TBR) according to the calcification burden, atheroma volume and the presence of a necrotic core of carotid atheroma. RESULTS: A total of 18 patients with 36 carotid arteries were finally enrolled, with 10 patients diagnosed as acute cerebral infarction due to symptomatic carotid stenosis. FDG uptake at symptomatic carotid arteries was significantly more increased than that at asymptomatic arteries (TBR: 1.17±0.23 vs. 1.01±0.15, Mann-Whitney U-test, p=0.02), but NaF uptake was not different (TBR: 1.38±0.49 vs. 1.51±0.40, p=0.40). In terms of calcification degree, NaF uptake increased as calcification burden increased (none, 1.28±0.36; spotty, 1.29±0.29; linear, 1.74±0.44; analysis of variance, p=0.02). CONCLUSION: Carotid evaluation by FDG is superior to NaF PET in the detection of symptomatic carotid atherosclerosis among stroke patients. NaF PET uptake reflects the overall calcification burden.


Subject(s)
Humans , Angiography , Arteries , Atherosclerosis , Brain , Carotid Arteries , Carotid Artery Diseases , Carotid Stenosis , Cerebral Infarction , Electrons , Fluorides , Glucose , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , Positron-Emission Tomography , Prospective Studies , Stroke
18.
Journal of Stroke ; : 42-59, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740619

ABSTRACT

Despite the great socioeconomic burden of stroke, there have been few reports of stroke statistics in Korea. In this scenario, the Epidemiologic Research Council of the Korean Stroke Society launched the “Stroke Statistics in Korea” project, aimed at writing a contemporary, comprehensive, and representative report on stroke epidemiology in Korea. This report contains general statistics of stroke, prevalence of behavioral and vascular risk factors, stroke characteristics, pre-hospital system of care, hospital management, quality of stroke care, and outcomes. In this report, we analyzed the most up-to-date and nationally representative databases, rather than performing a systematic review of existing evidence. In summary, one in 40 adults are patients with stroke and 232 subjects per 100,000 experience a stroke event every year. Among the 100 patients with stroke in 2014, 76 had ischemic stroke, 15 had intracerebral hemorrhage, and nine had subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stroke mortality is gradually declining, but it remains as high as 30 deaths per 100,000 individuals, with regional disparities. As for stroke risk factors, the prevalence of smoking is decreasing in men but not in women, and the prevalence of alcohol drinking is increasing in women but not in men. Population-attributable risk factors vary with age. Smoking plays a role in young-aged individuals, hypertension and diabetes in middle-aged individuals, and atrial fibrillation in the elderly. About four out of 10 hospitalized patients with stroke are visiting an emergency room within 3 hours of symptom onset, and only half use an ambulance. Regarding acute management, the proportion of patients with ischemic stroke receiving intravenous thrombolysis and endovascular treatment was 10.7% and 3.6%, respectively. Decompressive surgery was performed in 1.4% of patients with ischemic stroke and in 28.1% of those with intracerebral hemorrhage. The cumulative incidence of bleeding and fracture at 1 year after stroke was 8.9% and 4.7%, respectively. The direct costs of stroke were about ₩1.68 trillion (KRW), of which ₩1.11 trillion were for ischemic stroke and ₩540 billion for hemorrhagic stroke. The great burden of stroke in Korea can be reduced through more concentrated efforts to control major attributable risk factors for age and sex, reorganize emergency medical service systems to give patients with stroke more opportunities for reperfusion therapy, disseminate stroke unit care, and reduce regional disparities. We hope that this report can contribute to achieving these tasks.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Alcohol Drinking , Ambulances , Atrial Fibrillation , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Emergency Medical Services , Emergency Service, Hospital , Epidemiology , Hemorrhage , Hope , Hypertension , Incidence , Korea , Mortality , Prevalence , Reperfusion , Risk Factors , Smoke , Smoking , Stroke , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Writing
19.
Journal of Clinical Neurology ; : 38-45, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719301

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We investigated whether the intracranial arterial calcification status reflects the overall cerebral atherosclerosis burden. METHODS: Patients with acute cerebral infarction who were admitted to a single university hospital stroke center and underwent brain computed tomography angiography (CTA) between May 2011 and December 2015 were included. We reviewed their demographic, clinical, and imaging data. Cerebral artery calcification was assessed from the cavernous portion of both internal carotid arteries, and patients were categorized into three groups according to the calcification status. The cerebral atherosclerosis score was calculated as the sum of the degree of stenosis of the major intracranial and extracranial arteries on brain CTA. RESULTS: In total, 1,161 patients were included (age=67±13 years, mean±standard deviation), of which 517 were female. Intracranial arterial calcification and atherosclerosis were detected in 921 patients. The cerebral atherosclerosis score tended to increase with the calcification status (no calcification=2.0±3.0, mild=3.8±3.8, severe=6.5±4.8; p < 0.001 in analysis of variance followed by the Bonferroni test). Multivariable logistic regression analysis including age, sex, vascular risk factors, body mass index, estimated glomerular filtration rate, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and calcification status showed that intracranial calcification was independently associated with an advanced cerebral atherosclerosis burden in a dose-dependent manner (compared to no calcification: odds ratio=2.0 and 95% confidence interval=1.1–3.4 for mild calcification, and odds ratio=4.7 and 95% confidence interval=2.7–8.3 for severe calcification). CONCLUSIONS: This study found that the calcification status of the cavernous portion of an internal carotid artery can reflect the overall cerebral atherosclerosis burden.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Angiography , Arteries , Atherosclerosis , Body Mass Index , Brain , C-Reactive Protein , Carotid Artery, Internal , Cerebral Arteries , Cerebral Infarction , Constriction, Pathologic , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Intracranial Arteriosclerosis , Logistic Models , Risk Factors , Stroke , Vascular Calcification
20.
Journal of Sleep Medicine ; : 88-94, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915916

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#This study investigated the prevalence and clinical characteristics of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in acute ischemic stroke patients and the effect of OSA on prognosis of acute ischemic stroke.@*METHODS@#Forty-nine acute ischemic stroke patients with portable polysomnography (PSG) examination from 2017 to 2018 were included. Demographic data, laboratory findings, and PSG variables were collected. The severity of initial neurologic deficit was assessed using National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and functional outcome was evaluated using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). An unfavorable prognosis three months after the onset of acute ischemic stroke was defined as an mRS ≥3. We assessed the association between with OSA severity and functional outcome using multivariate logistic regression.@*RESULTS@#Of 49 patients with acute ischemic stroke, 43 (87.8%) had OSA [apnea-hypopnea index (AHI)≥5/h]. Fourteen (28.6%) patients had mild OSA, 16 (32.7%) had moderate while 13 (26.5%) were having severe OSA. Univariate logistic regression showed that OSA related variables [AHI and oxygen desaturation index (ODI)] were associated with poor clinical outcome three months after stroke (mRS ≥3). Multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for age and initial NIHSS demonstrated that increase in AHI (adjusted odds ratio, 1.079; 95% confidence interval, 1.007–1.156, p=0.031) and ODI (adjusted odds ratio, 1.095; 95% confidence interval, 1.020–1.174, p=0.011) was associated with poor functional outcome three months after stroke.@*CONCLUSIONS@#OSA in patients with acute ischemic stroke is associated with poor functional outcomes.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL