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1.
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research ; : e10-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002455

ABSTRACT

A 6-month-old female Border Collie presented with a history of collapse after strenuous exercise. The dog was normal between episodes but experienced loss of focus and ataxia after exercise. This is particularly noticeable under hot weather conditions. No remarkable findings were observed in the diagnostic tests. Based on these results, the patient was tentatively diagnosed with Border Collie collapse (BCC). After exercise restriction, the dog had no episode of collapse and remained clinically well with no signs until the follow-up period of 8 months was complete. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of BCC in South Korea.

2.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 983-995, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002426

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To compare the diagnostic performance and interobserver agreement between contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) with magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) for evaluating the resectability in patients with extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (eCCA). @*Materials and Methods@#This retrospective study included treatment-naïve patients with pathologically confirmed eCCA, who underwent both CECT and CE-MRI with MRCP using extracellular contrast media between January 2015 and December 2020.Among the 214 patients (146 males; mean age ± standard deviation, 68 ± 9 years) included, 121 (56.5%) had perihilar cholangiocarcinoma. R0 resection was achieved in 108 of the 153 (70.6%) patients who underwent curative-intent surgery. Four fellowship-trained radiologists independently reviewed the findings of both CECT and CE-MRI with MRCP to assess the local tumor extent and distant metastasis for determining resectability. The pooled area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity of CECT and CE-MRI with MRCP were compared using clinical, surgical, and pathological findings as reference standards. The interobserver agreement of resectability was evaluated using Fleiss kappa (κ). @*Results@#No significant differences were observed between CECT and CE-MRI with MRCP in the pooled AUC (0.753 vs. 0.767), sensitivity (84.7% [366/432] vs. 90.3% [390/432]), and specificity (52.6% [223/424] vs. 51.4% [218/424]) (P > 0.05 for all).The AUC for determining resectability was higher when CECT and CE-MRI with MRCP were reviewed together than when CECT was reviewed alone in patients with discrepancies between the imaging modalities or with indeterminate resectability (0.798 [0.754–0.841] vs. 0.753 [0.697–0.808], P = 0.014). The interobserver agreement for overall resectability was fair for both CECT (κ = 0.323) and CE-MRI with MRCP (κ = 0.320), without a significant difference (P = 0.884). @*Conclusion@#CECT and CE-MRI with MRCP showed no significant differences in the diagnostic performance and interobserver agreement in determining the resectability in patients with eCCA.

3.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 719-728, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002397

ABSTRACT

Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has been widely used to manage hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) equal to or smaller than 3 cm. No-touch RFA has gained attention and has recently been implemented in local ablation therapy for HCCs, despite its technical complexity, as it provides improved local tumor control compared to conventional tumor-puncturing RFA. This article presents the practice guidelines for performing no-touch RFA for HCCs, which have been endorsed by the Korean Society of Image-Guided Tumor Ablation (KSITA). The guidelines are primarily designed to assist interventional oncologists and address the limitations of conventional tumor-puncturing RFA with describing the fundamental principles, various energy delivery methods, and clinical outcomes of no-touch RFA. The clinical outcomes include technical feasibility, local tumor progression rates, survival outcomes, and potential complications.

4.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 28-33, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-977282

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants exhibit immature thermoregulation and are easily exposed to hypothermia. We investigated the association between hypothermia on admission with short- and long-term outcomes. @*Methods@#Medical records of ELBW infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of a tertiary medical center between June 2012 and February 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. Upon admission, the axillary body temperature was measured. Moderate hypothermia was defined as admission temperature below 36 ℃. @*Results@#A total of 208 infants with gestational age of 26.4±2.3 weeks and birth weight of 746.7±154.9 g were included. Admission temperature ranged from 33.5 to 36.8 ℃ (median 36.1 ℃). Univariate analyses of maternal and infant characteristics were performed for moderately hypothermic and control (normothermic to mildly hypothermic) infants. Lower gestational age, lower birth weight, and vaginal delivery correlated with moderate hypothermia. Logistic regression analyses adjusted for confounders revealed that the incidence of hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (hsPDA) was associated with moderate hypothermia in ELBW infants. Moreover, abnormal mental developmental index scores on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II at a corrected age of 18 to 24 months were associated with moderate hypothermia, but not with the psychomotor developmental index, incidence of blindness, deafness, or cerebral palsy. @*Conclusion@#Moderate hypothermia at admission is not only correlated with short-term neonatal morbidities such as hsPDA, but may also be associated with long-term neurodevelopmental impairment in ELBW infants. Future large-scale studies are required to clarify the long-term consequences of hypothermia upon admission.

5.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 34-41, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-977281

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We investigated the effects of early postnatal administration of erythropoietin (EPO) on neurodevelopmental outcomes and morbidities in preterm infants with severe grades of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of preterm infants of gestational age 23+0 weeks to 31+6 weeks, who were diagnosed with severe grades of IVH and received EPO over at least 2 weeks. We compared clinical characteristics, major complications, and neurodevelopmental impairment between the two groups. The primary outcome was severe neurodevelopmental impairment at 18 to 26 months of corrected age. Severe neurodevelopmental impairment was defined as a mental developmental index or psychomotor developmental index of <70 on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II or diagnosis of cerebral palsy. @*Results@#The study included 33 preterm infants (mean gestational age 25.2±1.6 weeks and mean birth weight 775.1±224.5 g). EPO was administered at a dose of 400 or 1,000 IU/kg thrice weekly and was maintained over a mean period of 58.6± 25.9 days beginning from 10.7±6.9 days after birth. We observed no difference in perinatal characteristics between the EPO (n=14) and the control group (n=19). Similarly, severe neurodevelopmental impairment rates did not differ between the EPO (85.7%) and control groups (78.9%). The incidence of neonatal morbidities including bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotizing enterocolitis, and retinopathy of prematurity was also similar between the EPO and control groups. @*Conclusion@#Early administration of EPO did not reduce the risk of severe neurodevelopmental impairment in preterm infants with severe IVH.

6.
Ultrasonography ; : 265-274, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969229

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study compared two different two-dimensional shear wave elastography techniques—plane wave imaging (PWI) and multi-beam (MB) imaging—from the same vendor to evaluate liver fibrosis. @*Methods@#In this prospective study, 42 patients with chronic liver disease who had recently undergone magnetic resonance elastography (<3 months) were enrolled, and their liver stiffness (LS) values were measured using PWI or MB. The LS values (kPa) were compared using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Inter-technique reproducibility and intra-observer repeatability were assessed using Bland-Altman analysis with 95% limits of agreement (LOA) and coefficients of variation (CVs). The cutoff values for predicting severe fibrosis (≥F3) were estimated using receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis, with magnetic resonance elastography as the reference standard. @*Results@#PWI exhibited technical failure in four patients. Therefore, 38 patients underwent both examinations. The LS values showed moderate agreement between PWI and MB (CV, 22.5%) and 95% LOA of -3.71 to 7.44 kPa. The MB technique showed good intra-observer agreement (CV, 8.1%), while PWI showed moderate agreement (CV, 11.0%). The cutoff values of PWI and MB for diagnosing ≥F3 were 12.3 kPa and 13.8 kPa, respectively, with areas under the ROC curve of 0.89 and 0.95 (sensitivity, 100% and 100%; specificity, 65.6% and 85.7%). @*Conclusion@#The LS values significantly differed between PWI and MB, hindering their interchangeable use in longitudinal follow-up. Considering its low technical failure rate and better repeatability, the MB technique may be preferable for evaluating liver fibrosis in chronic liver disease patients.

7.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 86-94, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968263

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To compare Octopus multipurpose (MP) electrodes, which are capable of saline instillation and direct tissue temperature measurement, and conventional electrodes for radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in porcine livers in vivo. @*Materials and Methods@#Sixteen pigs were used in this study. In the first experiment, RFA was performed in the liver for 6 minutes using Octopus MP electrodes (n = 15 ablation zones) and conventional electrodes (n = 12 ablation zones) to investigate the effect of saline instillation. The ablation energy, electrical impedance, and ablation volume of the two electrodes were compared. In the second experiment, RFA was performed near the gallbladder (GB) and colon using Octopus MP electrodes (n = 12 ablation zones for each) with direct tissue temperature monitoring and conventional electrodes (n = 11 ablation zones for each). RFA was discontinued when the temperature increased to > 60°C in the Octopus MP electrode group, whereas RFA was performed for a total of 6 minutes in the conventional electrode group. Thermal injury was assessed and compared between the two groups by pathological examination. @*Results@#In the first experiment, the ablation volume and total energy delivered in the Octopus MP electrode group were significantly larger than those in the conventional electrode group (15.7 ± 4.26 cm3 vs. 12.5 ± 2.14 cm3 , p = 0.027; 5.48 ± 0.49 Kcal vs. 5.04 ± 0.49 Kcal, p = 0.029). In the second experiment, thermal injury to the GB and colon was less frequently noted in the Octopus MP electrode group than that in the conventional electrode group (16.7% [2/12] vs. 90.9% [10/11] for GB and 8.3% [1/12] vs. 90.9% [10/11] for colon, p < 0.001 for all). The total energy delivered around the GB (2.65 ± 1.07 Kcal vs. 5.04 ± 0.66 Kcal) and colon (2.58 ± 0.57 Kcal vs. 5.17 ± 0.90 Kcal) were significantly lower in the Octopus MP electrode group than that in the conventional electrode group (p < 0.001 for all). @*Conclusion@#RFA using the Octopus MP electrodes induced a larger ablation volume and resulted in less thermal injury to the adjacent organs compared with conventional electrodes.

8.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 13-29, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918242

ABSTRACT

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, characterized by excessive accumulation of fat in the liver, is the most common chronic liver disease worldwide. The current standard for the detection of hepatic steatosis is liver biopsy; however, it is limited by invasiveness and sampling errors. Accordingly, MR spectroscopy and proton density fat fraction obtained with MRI have been accepted as non-invasive modalities for quantifying hepatic steatosis. Recently, various quantitative ultrasonography techniques have been developed and validated for the quantification of hepatic steatosis. These techniques measure various acoustic parameters, including attenuation coefficient, backscatter coefficient and speckle statistics, speed of sound, and shear wave elastography metrics. In this article, we introduce several representative quantitative ultrasonography techniques and their diagnostic value for the detection of hepatic steatosis.

9.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 180-188, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918226

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To validate the performance of 3T spin-echo echo-planar imaging (SE-EPI) magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) for staging hepatic fibrosis in a large population, using surgical specimens as the reference standard. @*Materials and Methods@#This retrospective study initially included 310 adults (155 undergoing hepatic resection and 155 undergoing donor hepatectomy) with histopathologic results from surgical liver specimens. They underwent 3T SE-EPI MRE ≤ 3 months prior to surgery. Demographic findings, underlying liver disease, and hepatic fibrosis pathologic stage according to METAVIR were recorded. Liver stiffness (LS) was measured by two radiologists, and inter-reader reproducibility was evaluated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The mean LS of each fibrosis stage (F0–F4) was calculated in total and for each etiologic subgroup. Comparisons among subgroups were performed using the Kruskal–Wallis test and Conover post-hoc test. The cutoff values for fibrosis staging were estimated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. @*Results@#Inter-reader reproducibility was excellent (ICC, 0.98; 95% confidence interval, 0.97–0.99). The mean LS values were 1.91, 2.41, 3.24, and 5.41 kPa in F0–F1 (n = 171), F2 (n = 26), F3 (n = 38), and F4 (n = 72), respectively. The discriminating cutoff values for diagnosing ≥ F2, ≥ F3, and F4 were 2.18, 2.71, and 3.15 kPa, respectively, with the ROC curve areas of 0.97–0.98 (sensitivity 91.2%–95.9%, specificity 90.7%–99.0%). The mean LS was significantly higher in patients with cirrhosis (F4) of nonviral causes, such as primary biliary cirrhosis (9.56 kPa) and alcoholic liver disease (7.17 kPa) than in those with hepatitis B or C cirrhosis (4.28 and 4.92 kPa, respectively). There were no statistically significant differences in LS among the different etiologic subgroups in the F0–F3 stages. @*Conclusion@#The 3T SE-EPI MRE demonstrated high interobserver reproducibility, and our criteria for staging hepatic fibrosis showed high diagnostic performance. LS was significantly higher in patients with non-viral cirrhosis than in those with viral cirrhosis.

10.
Journal of the Korean Radiological Society ; : 876-886, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938393

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To evaluate the performance of MicroPure US imaging to detect and characterize microcalcifications. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 171 lesions with suspicious microcalcifications seen on mammography and B-mode US were included and simultaneously evaluated using MicroPure US imaging. The size of microcalcifications was divided into small (punctate, amorphous, fine pleomorphic, and fine linear) and large (coarse heterogeneous), and the extent was divided into narrow (grouped) and wide (others). MicroPure US imaging visibility was divided into four types based on the number of microcalcifications on the two images: B > M (more on B-mode), B = M (similar), B < M (more on MicroPure), and negative. Triple pairwise comparison was used to evaluate the imaging features according to the MicroPure US imaging visibility. @*Results@#Among the 171 lesions examined, 157 lesions (91.8%) were detected by MicroPure US imaging. The proportion of Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) category 4A was significantly higher in the MicroPure positive group, and that of category 4B was significantly higher in the MicroPure negative group (p = 0.035). The other imaging features did not differ. Among the positive MicroPure subgroups, all features showed no significant difference. @*Conclusion@#MicroPure US imaging demonstrated 91.8% positivity in detecting microcalcifications on B-mode US. MicroPure US imaging visibility correlated with the BI-RADS category of microcalcifications.

11.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 362-379, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937343

ABSTRACT

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a unique cancer entity that can be noninvasively diagnosed using imaging modalities without pathologic confirmation. In 2018, several major guidelines for HCC were updated to include hepatobiliary contrast agent magnetic resonance imaging (HBA-MRI) and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) as major imaging modalities for HCC diagnosis. HBA-MRI enables the achievement of high sensitivity in HCC detection using the hepatobiliary phase (HBP). CEUS is another imaging modality with real-time imaging capability, and it is reported to be useful as a second-line modality to increase sensitivity without losing specificity for HCC diagnosis. However, until now, there is an unsolved discrepancy among guidelines on whether to accept “HBP hypointensity” as a definite diagnostic criterion for HCC or include CEUS in the diagnostic algorithm for HCC diagnosis. Furthermore, there is variability in terminology and inconsistencies in the definition of imaging findings among guidelines; therefore, there is an unmet need for the development of a standardized lexicon. In this article, we review the performance and limitations of HBA-MRI and CEUS after guideline updates in 2018 and briefly introduce some future aspects of imaging-based HCC diagnosis.

12.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 714-724, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902470

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the value of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/MRI added to contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) in initial staging, assessment of resectability, and postoperative follow-up of biliary tract cancer. @*Materials and Methods@#This retrospective study included 100 patients (initial workup [n = 65] and postoperative follow-up [n = 35]) who had undergone PET/MRI and CECT for bile duct or gallbladder lesions between January 2013 and March 2020.Two radiologists independently reviewed the CECT imaging set and CECT plus PET/MRI set to determine the likelihood of malignancy, local and overall resectability, and distant metastasis in the initial workup group, and local recurrence and distant metastasis in the follow-up group. Diagnostic performances of the two imaging sets were compared using clinical-surgicalpathologic findings as standards of reference. @*Results@#The diagnostic performance of CECT significantly improved after the addition of PET/MRI for liver metastasis (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [A z]: 0.77 vs. 0.91 [p = 0.027] for reviewer 1; 0.76 vs. 0.92 [p = 0.021] for reviewer 2), lymph node metastasis (0.73 vs. 0.92 [p = 0.004]; 0.81 vs. 0.92 [p = 0.023]), and overall resectability (0.79 vs.0.92 [p = 0.007]; 0.82 vs. 0.94 [p = 0.021]) in the initial workup group. In the follow-up group, the diagnostic performance of CECT plus PET/MRI was significantly higher than that of CECT imaging for local recurrence (0.81 vs. 1.00 [p = 0.029]; 0.82 vs. 0.94 [p = 0.045]). @*Conclusion@#PET/MRI may add value to CECT in patients with biliary tract cancer both in the initial workup for staging and determination of overall resectability and in follow-up for local recurrence.

13.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1066-1076, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902449

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the performance of the 2018 Korean Liver Cancer Association-National Cancer Center (KLCA-NCC) Practice Guidelines (hereafter, PG) for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI, compared to the Liver Imaging-Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) version 2018 (hereafter, v2018). @*Materials and Methods@#From January 2013 to October 2015, treatment-naïve hepatic lesions (≥ 1 cm) on gadoxetic acidenhanced MRI in consecutive patients with chronic hepatitis B or cirrhosis were retrospectively evaluated. For each lesion, three radiologists independently analyzed the imaging features and classified the lesions into categories according to the 2018 KLCA-NCC PG and LI-RADS v2018. The imaging features and categories were determined by consensus. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used to compare the per-lesion diagnostic performance of the 2018 KLCA-NCC PG and LI-RADS v2018 using the consensus data. @*Results@#In total, 422 lesions (234 HCCs, 45 non-HCC malignancies, and 143 benign lesions) from 387 patients (79% male; mean age, 59 years) were included. In all lesions, the definite HCC (2018 KLCA-NCC PG) had a higher sensitivity and lower specificity than LR-5 (LI-RADS v2018) (87.2% [204/234] vs. 80.8% [189/234], p < 0.001; 86.2% [162/188] vs. 91.0% [171/188], p = 0.002). However, in lesions of size ≥ 2 cm, the definite HCC had a higher sensitivity than the LR-5 (86.8% [164/189] vs. 82.0 (155/189), p = 0.002) without a reduction in the specificity (80.0% [48/60] vs. 83.3% [50/60], p = 0.15).In all lesions, the sensitivity and specificity of the definite/probable HCC (2018 KLCA-NCC PG) and LR-5/4 did not differ significantly (89.7% [210/234] vs. 91.5% [214/234], p = 0.204; 83.5% [157/188] vs. 79.3% [149/188], p = 0.071). @*Conclusion@#For the diagnosis of HCC of size ≥ 2 cm, the definite HCC (2018 KLCA-NCC PG) had a higher sensitivity than LR-5, without a reduction in specificity. The definite/probable HCC (2018 KLCA-NCC PG) had a similar sensitivity and specificity to that those of the LR-5/4.

14.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1077-1086, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902448

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the diagnostic performance of quantitative ultrasound (US) parameters for the assessment of hepatic steatosis in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) using magnetic resonance imaging proton density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF) as the reference standard. @*Materials and Methods@#In this single-center prospective study, 120 patients with clinically suspected NAFLD were enrolled between March 2019 and January 2020. The participants underwent US examination for radiofrequency (RF) data acquisition and chemical shift-encoded liver MRI for PDFF measurement. Using the RF data analysis, the attenuation coefficient (AC) based on tissue attenuation imaging (TAI) (AC-TAI) and scatter-distribution coefficient (SC) based on tissue scatterdistribution imaging (TSI) (SC-TSI) were measured. The correlations between the quantitative US parameters (AC and SC) and MRI-PDFF were evaluated using Pearson correlation coefficients. The diagnostic performance of AC-TAI and SC-TSI for detecting hepatic fat contents of ≥ 5% (MRI-PDFF ≥ 5%) and ≥ 10% (MRI-PDFF ≥ 10%) were assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The significant clinical or imaging factors associated with AC and SC were analyzed using linear regression analysis. @*Results@#The participants were classified based on MRI-PDFF: < 5% (n = 38), 5–10% (n = 23), and ≥ 10% (n = 59). AC-TAI and SC-TSI were significantly correlated with MRI-PDFF (r = 0.659 and 0.727, p < 0.001 for both). For detecting hepatic fat contents of ≥ 5% and ≥ 10%, the areas under the ROC curves of AC-TAI were 0.861 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.786– 0.918) and 0.835 (95% CI: 0.757–0.897), and those of SC-TSI were 0.964 (95% CI: 0.913–0.989) and 0.935 (95% CI: 0.875–0.972), respectively. Multivariable linear regression analysis showed that MRI-PDFF was an independent determinant of AC-TAI and SC-TSI. @*Conclusion@#AC-TAI and SC-TSI derived from quantitative US RF data analysis yielded a good correlation with MRI-PDFF and provided good performance for detecting hepatic steatosis and assessing its severity in NAFLD.

15.
Korean Journal of Ophthalmology ; : 349-354, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902353

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to analyze the common causes of epiphora in Korean patients and their response to subsequent management. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 180 patients who visited Kim’s Eye Hospital for epiphora between December 2017 and January 2019. This study included 320 eyes of 180 patients. @*Results@#In the 320 eyes of 180 patients, the most common etiology of epiphora was reflex tearing due to dry eye syndrome, which occurred in 167 eyes (52.19%). The other etiologies of epiphora included anatomical abnormality (68 eyes, 21.25%), multifactorial (60 eyes, 18.75%), functional epiphora (14 eyes, 4.38%), ocular surface disease (seven eyes, 2.19%), and eyelid abnormality (four eyes, 1.25%). @*Conclusions@#The most common etiology of epiphora in Korean patients was reflex tearing due to dry eye syndrome, followed by lacrimal passage abnormality, multifactorial, functional epiphora, anterior segment disease, and eyelid malposition. Most patients with reflex tearing reported improvement in their symptoms after lubrication.

16.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 354-365, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875286

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the diagnostic performance of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and its role as a second-line imaging modality after gadoxetate-enhanced MRI (Gd-EOB-MRI) in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) among at risk observations. @*Materials and Methods@#We prospectively enrolled participants at risk of HCC with treatment-naïve solid hepatic observations (≥ 1 cm) of Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LR)-3/4/5/M during surveillance and performed Gd-EOB-MRI. A total of one hundred and three participants with 103 hepatic observations (mean size, 28.2 ± 24.5 mm; HCCs [n = 79], non-HCC malignancies [n = 15], benign [n = 9]; diagnosed by pathology [n = 57], or noninvasive method [n = 46]) were included in this study. The participants underwent CEUS with sulfur hexafluoride. Arterial phase hyperenhancement (APHE) and washout on Gd-EOB-MRI and CEUS were evaluated. The distinctive washout in CEUS was defined as mild washout 60 seconds after contrast injection. The diagnostic ability of Gd-EOB-MRI and of CEUS as a second-line modality for HCC were determined according to the European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) and the Korean Liver Cancer Association and National Cancer Center (KLCA-NCC) guidelines. The diagnostic abilities of both imaging modalities were compared using the McNemar’s test. @*Results@#The sensitivity of CEUS (60.8%) was lower than that of Gd-EOB-MRI (72.2%, p = 0.06 by EASL; 86.1%, p < 0.01 by KLCA-NCC); however, the specificity was 100%. By performing CEUS on the inconclusive observations in Gd-EOB-MRI, HCCs without APHE (n = 10) or washout (n = 12) on Gd-EOB-MRI further presented APHE (80.0%, 8/10) or distinctive washout (66.7%, 8/12) on CEUS, and more HCCs were diagnosed than with Gd-EOB-MRI alone (sensitivity: 72.2% vs. 83.5% by EASL, p < 0.01; 86.1% vs. 91.1% by KCLA-NCC, p = 0.04). There were no false-positive cases for HCC on CEUS. @*Conclusion@#The addition of CEUS to Gd-EOB-MRI as a second-line diagnostic modality increases the frequency of HCC diagnosis without changing the specificities.

17.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 41-62, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875271

ABSTRACT

Radiologic imaging is important for evaluating extrahepatic bile duct (EHD) cancers; it is used for staging tumors and evaluating the suitability of surgical resection, as surgery may be contraindicated in some cases regardless of tumor stage. However, the published general recommendations for EHD cancer and recommendations guided by the perspectives of radiologists are limited.The Korean Society of Abdominal Radiology (KSAR) study group for EHD cancer developed key questions and corresponding recommendations for the radiologic evaluation of EHD cancer and organized them into 4 sections: nomenclature and definition, imaging technique, cancer evaluation, and tumor response. A structured reporting form was also developed to allow the progressive accumulation of standardized data, which will facilitate multicenter studies and contribute more evidence for the development of recommendations.

18.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 179-188, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875265

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to prospectively compare the efficacy, safety, and mid-term outcomes of dual-switching monopolar (DSM) radiofrequency ablation (RFA) to those of conventional single-switching monopolar (SSM) RFA in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). @*Materials and Methods@#This single-center, two-arm, parallel-group, randomized controlled study was approved by the Institutional Review Board. Written informed consent was obtained from all patients upon enrollment. A total of 80 patients with 94 HCC nodules were randomized into either the DSM-RFA group or SSM-RFA group in a 1:1 ratio, using a blocked randomization method (block size 2). The primary endpoint was the minimum diameter of the ablation zone per unit time.The secondary endpoints included other technical parameters, complication rate, technique efficacy, and 2-year clinical outcomes. @*Results@#Significantly higher ablation energy per unit time was delivered to the DSM-RFA group than to the SSM-RFA group (1.7 ± 0.2 kcal/min vs. 1.2 ± 0.3 kcal/min; p< 0.001). However, no significant differences were observed between the two groups for the analyzed variables, including primary endpoint, regarding size of the ablation zone and ablation time. Major complication rates were 4.9% in the DSM-RFA group and 2.6% in the SSM-RFA group (p = 1.000). The 2-year local tumor progression (LTP) rates of the HCC nodules treated using DSM-RFA and SSM-RFA were 8.5% and 4.7%, respectively (p = 0.316).The 2-year LTP-free survival rates of patients in the DSM-RFA and SSM-RFA groups were 90.0% and 94.4%, respectively (p = 0.331), and the 2-year recurrence-free survival rates were 54.9% and 75.7%, respectively (p = 0.265). @*Conclusion@#Although DSM-RFA using a separable clustered electrode delivers higher ablation energy than SSM-RFA, its effectiveness failed to show superiority over SSM-RFA in the treatment of HCC.

19.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 714-724, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894766

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the value of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/MRI added to contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) in initial staging, assessment of resectability, and postoperative follow-up of biliary tract cancer. @*Materials and Methods@#This retrospective study included 100 patients (initial workup [n = 65] and postoperative follow-up [n = 35]) who had undergone PET/MRI and CECT for bile duct or gallbladder lesions between January 2013 and March 2020.Two radiologists independently reviewed the CECT imaging set and CECT plus PET/MRI set to determine the likelihood of malignancy, local and overall resectability, and distant metastasis in the initial workup group, and local recurrence and distant metastasis in the follow-up group. Diagnostic performances of the two imaging sets were compared using clinical-surgicalpathologic findings as standards of reference. @*Results@#The diagnostic performance of CECT significantly improved after the addition of PET/MRI for liver metastasis (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [A z]: 0.77 vs. 0.91 [p = 0.027] for reviewer 1; 0.76 vs. 0.92 [p = 0.021] for reviewer 2), lymph node metastasis (0.73 vs. 0.92 [p = 0.004]; 0.81 vs. 0.92 [p = 0.023]), and overall resectability (0.79 vs.0.92 [p = 0.007]; 0.82 vs. 0.94 [p = 0.021]) in the initial workup group. In the follow-up group, the diagnostic performance of CECT plus PET/MRI was significantly higher than that of CECT imaging for local recurrence (0.81 vs. 1.00 [p = 0.029]; 0.82 vs. 0.94 [p = 0.045]). @*Conclusion@#PET/MRI may add value to CECT in patients with biliary tract cancer both in the initial workup for staging and determination of overall resectability and in follow-up for local recurrence.

20.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1066-1076, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894745

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the performance of the 2018 Korean Liver Cancer Association-National Cancer Center (KLCA-NCC) Practice Guidelines (hereafter, PG) for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI, compared to the Liver Imaging-Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) version 2018 (hereafter, v2018). @*Materials and Methods@#From January 2013 to October 2015, treatment-naïve hepatic lesions (≥ 1 cm) on gadoxetic acidenhanced MRI in consecutive patients with chronic hepatitis B or cirrhosis were retrospectively evaluated. For each lesion, three radiologists independently analyzed the imaging features and classified the lesions into categories according to the 2018 KLCA-NCC PG and LI-RADS v2018. The imaging features and categories were determined by consensus. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used to compare the per-lesion diagnostic performance of the 2018 KLCA-NCC PG and LI-RADS v2018 using the consensus data. @*Results@#In total, 422 lesions (234 HCCs, 45 non-HCC malignancies, and 143 benign lesions) from 387 patients (79% male; mean age, 59 years) were included. In all lesions, the definite HCC (2018 KLCA-NCC PG) had a higher sensitivity and lower specificity than LR-5 (LI-RADS v2018) (87.2% [204/234] vs. 80.8% [189/234], p < 0.001; 86.2% [162/188] vs. 91.0% [171/188], p = 0.002). However, in lesions of size ≥ 2 cm, the definite HCC had a higher sensitivity than the LR-5 (86.8% [164/189] vs. 82.0 (155/189), p = 0.002) without a reduction in the specificity (80.0% [48/60] vs. 83.3% [50/60], p = 0.15).In all lesions, the sensitivity and specificity of the definite/probable HCC (2018 KLCA-NCC PG) and LR-5/4 did not differ significantly (89.7% [210/234] vs. 91.5% [214/234], p = 0.204; 83.5% [157/188] vs. 79.3% [149/188], p = 0.071). @*Conclusion@#For the diagnosis of HCC of size ≥ 2 cm, the definite HCC (2018 KLCA-NCC PG) had a higher sensitivity than LR-5, without a reduction in specificity. The definite/probable HCC (2018 KLCA-NCC PG) had a similar sensitivity and specificity to that those of the LR-5/4.

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