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1.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e156-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976978

ABSTRACT

Background@#Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is transmitted through tick bites. Ticks are potential vectors for the bacterium Coxiella burnetii that causes Query fever. Here, we analyzed SFTSV and C. burnetii co-infection rates in ticks in rural areas of Jeju Island, South Korea. @*Methods@#Free ticks were collected from the natural environment of the island between 2016 and 2019, and SFTSV RNA was extracted. Additionally, ribosomal RNA gene sequencing was used to identify Coxiella species. @*Results@#Haemaphysalis longicornis was the most common tick species followed by H. flava. Tick number gradually increased from April, peaked in August, and was lowest in March. Of all the collected ticks, 82.6% (2,851/3,458) were nymphs, 17.9% (639/3,458) adults, and 0.1% (4/3,458) larvae. SFTSV-infected ticks comprised 12.6% of all ticks; their numbers were the lowest in November–December, increased from January, and were mostly identified in the adult stage during June–August. C. burnetii infections were detected in 4.4% of the SFTSVinfected H. longicornis ticks. C. burnetii co-infection was mainly observed in the nymph stage of H. longicornis, with the highest infection rate in January, followed by December and November. @*Conclusion@#Our findings suggest that Jeju Island has a high SFTSV and potential C. burnetii infection in ticks. This study provides important insights regarding SFTS and Q fever risk to humans in South Korea.

2.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 470-482, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-946172

ABSTRACT

Background@#There is a correlation between the severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) viral load and disease severity; however, measurement of viral load is difficult in general laboratory and it takes time to obtain a viral load value. Here, the laboratory parameters for predicting the dynamic changes in SFTS viral load were identified.In addition, we tried to evaluate a specific time point for the early determination of clinical deterioration using dynamic change of laboratory parameters. @*Materials and Methods@#This observational study included SFTS patients in Korea (2013 - 2020). Cross-correlation analysis at lagged values was used to determine the temporal correlation between the SFTS viral loads and time-series variables. Fifty-eight SFTS patients were included in the non-severe group (NSG) and 11 in the severe group (SG). @*Results@#In the cross-sectional analyses, 10 parameters -white blood cell, absolute neutrophil cell, lymphocyte, platelet, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), C-reactive protein, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and creatine phosphokinase (CPK)- were assessed within 30 days from the onset of symptoms; they exhibited three different correlation patterns: (1) positive, (2) positive with a time lag, and (3) negative. A prediction score system was developed for predicting SFTS fatality based on age and six laboratory variables -platelet, aPTT, AST, ALT, LDH, and CPKin 5 days after the onset of symptoms; this scoring system had 87.5% sensitivity and 86.0% specificity (95% confidence interval: 0.831 - 1.00, P <0.001). @*Conclusion@#Three types of correlation patterns between the dynamic changes in SFTS viral load and laboratory parameters were identified. The dynamic changes in the viral load could be predicted using the dynamic changes in these variables, which can be particularly helpful in clinical settings where viral load tests cannot be performed. Also, the proposed scoring system could provide timely treatment to critical patients by rapidly assessing their clinical course.

3.
Journal of Acute Care Surgery ; (2): 77-81, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937729

ABSTRACT

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) may be required in patients with corona virus disease-19 (COVID-19) and respiratory failure. Anticoagulation is the standard treatment to prevent complications of ECMO and COVID-19 coagulopathy, however, there is a risk of bleeding. Some patients with retroperitoneal hemorrhage (RPH) have been treated with angiography-embolization. We report on a patient with COVID-19 on ECMO who underwent multiple operations (×5) for recurrent RPH. A 46-year-old man was admitted with COVID-19 pneumonia. ECMO with anticoagulation therapy was initiated. The patient developed RPH, caused by external compression of the inferior vena cava interrupting the ECMO inflow, and surgical hematoma evacuation was performed, with no obvious bleeding focus during the multiple surgeries. Following the patient’s recovery, a follow-up computed tomography scan showed the hematoma had been resolved, but there was a dilemma regarding anticoagulation. Lowering the threshold for surgical treatment, enabled treatment of a patient with serious RPH.

4.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e134-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925969

ABSTRACT

Background@#Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is often accompanied by secondary infections, such as invasive aspergillosis. In this study, risk factors for developing COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) and their clinical outcomes were evaluated. @*Methods@#This multicenter retrospective cohort study included critically ill COVID-19 patients from July 2020 through March 2021. Critically ill patients were defined as patients requiring high-flow respiratory support or mechanical ventilation. CAPA was defined based on the 2020 European Confederation of Medical Mycology and the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology consensus criteria. Factors associated with CAPA were analyzed, and their clinical outcomes were adjusted by a propensity score-matched model. @*Results@#Among 187 eligible patients, 17 (9.1%) developed CAPA, which is equal to 33.10 per 10,000 patient-days. Sixteen patients received voriconazole-based antifungal treatment. In addition, 82.4% and 53.5% of patients with CAPA and without CAPA, respectively, received early high-dose corticosteroids (P = 0.022). In multivariable analysis, initial 10-day cumulative steroid dose > 60 mg of dexamethasone or dexamethasone equivalent dose) (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 3.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03–13.79) and chronic pulmonary disease (adjusted OR, 4.20; 95% CI, 1.26–14.02) were independently associated with CAPA. Tendencies of higher 90-day overall mortality (54.3% vs. 35.2%, P= 0.346) and lower respiratory support-free rate were observed in patients with CAPA (76.3% vs. 54.9%, P = 0.089). @*Conclusion@#Our study showed that the dose of corticosteroid use might be a risk factor for CAPA development and the possibility of CAPA contributing to adverse outcomes in critically ill COVID-19 patients.

6.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 699-705, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903708

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We introduced the Early Fluconazole Treatment in Candidemia (EFTC) protocol in August 2015 to improve the outcomes of patients with candidemia. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the EFTC protocol. @*Methods@#We conducted a retrospective before-and-after study among patients in the intensive care units and Hemato-Oncology and General Surgery wards of our hospital between January 2013 and December 2018. The EFTC protocol entailed sending an automatic notification by short message service, feedback to the responsible healthcare worker, and regular standardized education of medical staff. On receiving a notification, physicians prescribed empirical fluconazole immediately. The effectiveness of the EFTC protocol was evaluated by multivariate analysis of risk factors for 30-day mortality. @*Results@#Of 103 patients with candidemia, 50 were admitted before (pre-EFTC group) and 53 were admitted after (post-EFTC group) the introduction of the EFTC protocol. Patients’ mean age ± SD was 67.1 ± 18.6 years, and 55 (53.4%) were male. The mean ± SD time from Candida isolation to antifungal drug administration in the pre-EFTC and post-EFTC groups was 89.1 ± 73.6 and −9.8 ± 63.9 minutes, respectively (p = 0.01). The 30-day mortality in the pre-EFTC and post-EFTC groups was 54.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 42.3 to 66.7), and 37.6% (95% CI, 26.1 to 49.1), respectively (p = 0.05). In the multivariate analysis, implementation of the EFTC protocol was independently associated with a reduction in 30-day mortality (odds ratio, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.12 to 0.63; p = 0.01). @*Conclusions@#The early f luconazole treatment, monitoring, and education were effective in reducing mortality in patients with candidemia.

7.
Safety and Health at Work ; : 102-107, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903362

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study was conducted to identify the association between sleep duration and suicidal ideation among farmers in Korea. @*Methods@#We used Safety for Agricultural Injuries of Farmers cohort data collected from September 2015 to June 2018, which was an agricultural survey on the health and behaviors of adult farmers in Jeju island, Korea. @*Results@#A total of 964 participants were included in the analysis, and 3.7% of them were identified with having suicidal ideation. The frequencies of average daily sleep duration of 8 h (long sleep) were 24.4%, 70%, and 5.6%, respectively. Multivariate analyses revealed that short sleep duration was significantly associated with suicidal ideation compared with normal sleep duration (odds ratio = 2.49, 95% confidence interval = 1.07–5.77). @*Conclusion@#Our findings suggest that short sleep duration in farmers result in higher suicidal ideation. Because individuals who have suicidal ideation often commit suicide, careful monitoring is required to prevent suicide in farmers with short sleep duration.

8.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 718-729, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914613

ABSTRACT

Background@#Jeju island had the seventh highest incidence rate of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) but showed the lowest case fatality rate among 17 provinces of Korea, which may be associated with comorbidities and geographic differences. This study aimed to analyze the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 and evaluate the risk factors for severe COVID-19 in Jeju island, Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#All patients with COVID-19 admitted between February 20, 2020, and June 19, 2021, at a single center were retrospectively enrolled in this study. The severity of illness was defined using five categories (asymptomatic, mild, moderate, severe, and critical) according to the National Institute of Health criteria. Then, patients with severe and critical illness were grouped into a severe group, whereas patients with asymptomatic, mild, and moderate illness were grouped into a non-severe group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed using risk factors that were found to be significantly associated with the severe group. @*Results@#This study included 348 patients with a median age was 57 years, and 37.5% were aged 60 or older. Among them, 43.4% were male and 10.9% were asymptomatic, whereas 41.4%, 33.9%, 12.9%, and 1.1% had mild, moderate, severe, and critical illness. The all-cause mortality of patients with COVID-19 was 0.28% (1/348). Among confirmed patients with COVID-19, exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was mainly within Jeju island (75.9%). The mean body mass index was 24.09 ± 4.04 kg/m 2 , the median comorbidity index score was low in each group (0 in asymptomatic; 1 in mild; 1 in moderate; 1 in severe; and 2 in critical group, P <0.548). In the multivariable analysis, male sex [odds ratio (OR), 6.37; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.69 – 15.13; P <0.001], ≥65 years of age (OR, 2.68; 95% CI, 1.18 – 6.10; P <0.019), chronic pulmonary disease (OR, 6.10; 95% CI, 1.40 – 26.61; P = 0.016), and length of fever duration (OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.19 – 1.49; P <0.001) were independently associated with severe COVID-19. @*Conclusion@#The most relevant risk factors of COVID-19 severity were male sex, older age, underlying chronic lung diseases, and duration of fever during hospitalization. The risk factors for severe COVID-19 were not significantly different from those reported in other studies. However, a lower proportion of the older population among confirmed SARS-CoV-2 cases might contribute to the lower fatality rate than the national rate.

9.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 699-705, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896004

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We introduced the Early Fluconazole Treatment in Candidemia (EFTC) protocol in August 2015 to improve the outcomes of patients with candidemia. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the EFTC protocol. @*Methods@#We conducted a retrospective before-and-after study among patients in the intensive care units and Hemato-Oncology and General Surgery wards of our hospital between January 2013 and December 2018. The EFTC protocol entailed sending an automatic notification by short message service, feedback to the responsible healthcare worker, and regular standardized education of medical staff. On receiving a notification, physicians prescribed empirical fluconazole immediately. The effectiveness of the EFTC protocol was evaluated by multivariate analysis of risk factors for 30-day mortality. @*Results@#Of 103 patients with candidemia, 50 were admitted before (pre-EFTC group) and 53 were admitted after (post-EFTC group) the introduction of the EFTC protocol. Patients’ mean age ± SD was 67.1 ± 18.6 years, and 55 (53.4%) were male. The mean ± SD time from Candida isolation to antifungal drug administration in the pre-EFTC and post-EFTC groups was 89.1 ± 73.6 and −9.8 ± 63.9 minutes, respectively (p = 0.01). The 30-day mortality in the pre-EFTC and post-EFTC groups was 54.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 42.3 to 66.7), and 37.6% (95% CI, 26.1 to 49.1), respectively (p = 0.05). In the multivariate analysis, implementation of the EFTC protocol was independently associated with a reduction in 30-day mortality (odds ratio, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.12 to 0.63; p = 0.01). @*Conclusions@#The early f luconazole treatment, monitoring, and education were effective in reducing mortality in patients with candidemia.

10.
Safety and Health at Work ; : 102-107, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895658

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study was conducted to identify the association between sleep duration and suicidal ideation among farmers in Korea. @*Methods@#We used Safety for Agricultural Injuries of Farmers cohort data collected from September 2015 to June 2018, which was an agricultural survey on the health and behaviors of adult farmers in Jeju island, Korea. @*Results@#A total of 964 participants were included in the analysis, and 3.7% of them were identified with having suicidal ideation. The frequencies of average daily sleep duration of 8 h (long sleep) were 24.4%, 70%, and 5.6%, respectively. Multivariate analyses revealed that short sleep duration was significantly associated with suicidal ideation compared with normal sleep duration (odds ratio = 2.49, 95% confidence interval = 1.07–5.77). @*Conclusion@#Our findings suggest that short sleep duration in farmers result in higher suicidal ideation. Because individuals who have suicidal ideation often commit suicide, careful monitoring is required to prevent suicide in farmers with short sleep duration.

11.
Safety and Health at Work ; : 432-438, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918779

ABSTRACT

Background@#We aimed to investigate the prevalence of low back pain (LBP) and its associated agricultural work-related, biomechanical factors among this population. @*Methods@#We analyzed initial survey data from the Safety for Agricultural Injury of Farmers cohort study involving adult farmers in Jeju Island. The prevalence of LBP was calculated with associated factors. @*Results@#In total, 1,209 participants were included in the analysis. The overall prevalence of LBP was 23.7%. Significant associations for LBP were the type of farming activity, length of farming career, prior agricultural injury within 1 year, and stress levels. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed three biomechanical factors significantly related to LBP: repetitive use of particular body parts; the inappropriate posture of the lower back and neck. @*Conclusions@#Some occupational, and biomechanical risk factors contribute to LBP. Therefore, postural education, injury prevention education, and psychological support will be needed to prevent LBP.

12.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 306-314, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875582

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) causes respiratory tract infections. Its non-vaccine serotypes and multidrug-resistant pneumococcal diseases have increased during the post-pneumococcal vaccination era. Therefore, it is important to understand the regional and age-related antimicrobial susceptibility of S. pneumoniae to select appropriate empirical antimicrobials. @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively studied trends in the antimicrobial resistance of S. pneumoniae to commonly prescribed antibiotics in patient groups of various ages at a single teaching hospital in Jeju Island from 2009 to 2018. @*Results@#In total, 1460 S. pneumoniae isolates were obtained during the study period. The overall antimicrobial resistance rates of S. pneumoniae to penicillin, erythromycin, ceftriaxone, levofloxacin, and vancomycin were 16.2%, 84.7%, 25.9%, 3.3%, and 0.0%, respectively, and the MDR rate was 6.7%. Erythromycin and ceftriaxone resistance rates increased by years; however, they were significantly reduced in adult groups. Levofloxacin resistance and MDR rates were also higher in adult groups. Overall, the MDR rate significantly increased during the recent 10 years, as well as in patients with a history of hospitalization within 90 days [odds ratio (OR)=3.58, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.91–6.71] and sinusitis (OR=4.98, 95% CI=2.07–11.96). @*Conclusion@#Erythromycin and ceftriaxone resistance rates and the MDR rate of S. pneumoniae significantly increased during the recent 10 years; the trends in individual antimicrobial resistance rates significantly differed between the age groups. This study indicates the need for caution when using ceftriaxone as an empirical antimicrobial against pneumococcal infections.

13.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 621-625, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898598

ABSTRACT

Scrub typhus present with a variety clinical manifestations caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, it is sometimes accompanied by severe complications. The clinical course of this complication is not well clear. Herein, we first report a case with acute cholangitis and acalculous cholecystitis caused by the Boryong genotype of O. tsutsugamushi. A 82-year-old woman presented with fever and acute abdominal pain on the right upper quadrant. Initially, the patient showed an abnormality of liver enzymes of cholestatic pattern. An acute cholangitis and cholecystitis were suspected on the enhanced computed tomography (CT), and emergent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) performed. However, neither ERCP nor CT detected common bile duct stones or sludge. The patient's illness progressed despite bile drainage and antibiotic therapy. On the fifth day in hospital, an immunofluorescence IgG assay for O. tsutsugamushi was positive, and the patient newly developed a skin rash and an eschar lesion on the right abdomen. The polymerase chain reaction amplification of Orientia genes from blood and bile was positive, genotype of both samples was identified the Boryong type. The presentation of scrub typhus as an acute cholangitis is not reported till now. In endemic areas, scrub typhus would be considered a rare etiology of acute cholangitis.

14.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 211-215, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836664

ABSTRACT

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) caused by the SFTS virus (SFTSV), a novel Phlebovirus, is endemic to South Korea, central and northeastern China, and western Japan. SFTS poses a threat to public health because of its high mortality and secondary transmission. Ticks and domestic animals are hosts for SFTSV in endemic areas. There is no specific treatment for SFTS, and avoiding tick bites is the best way to prevent infection. Early therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is a rescue therapy in patients with rapidly progressive SFTS. Here, we present a patient with SFTS who was improving on TPE but died suddenly due to acute lung injury after TPE.

15.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 276-280, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836645

ABSTRACT

Mycobacterium massiliense (M. massiliense) is a novel nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) and an opportunistic pathogen that lives in the water, soil, food, and air. It is a subspecies of the rapidly growing mycobacteria Mycobacterium abscessus. This atypical pathogen has been reported mainly in patients with lung disease or those undergoing cosmetic or surgical procedures. A 62-year-old woman presented with productive otorrhea for 10 months, no history of surgery, and chronic otitis media. M. massiliense was identified from a tissue specimen using real-time polymerase chain reaction for NTM (Biosewoom, Seoul, Korea), and NTM was identified by acid-fast bacilli culture. Successful treatment consisted of clarithromycin for 4 months. No other case of chronic otitis media related to M. massiliense has been reported. This is the first confirmed case of chronic otitis media caused by M. massiliense in a healthy adult in South Korea.

16.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 421-426, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834286

ABSTRACT

In June 2017, on Jeju Island, six patients were diagnosed with typhoid fever. All six patients were admitted to our hospital with fever, all of them had been working at the same hotel.The gyrA and gyrB genes of four out of six Salmonella typhi cases were amplified by polymerase chain reaction. The phylogenetic tree of the genes showed that the S. Typhi isolates from Jeju Island in 2017 had the same genotype and were similar to isolates from the United Kingdom.The origin of the isolates of the outbreak was the same, and the disease strain may have been imported from outside of Korea.

17.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 621-625, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890894

ABSTRACT

Scrub typhus present with a variety clinical manifestations caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, it is sometimes accompanied by severe complications. The clinical course of this complication is not well clear. Herein, we first report a case with acute cholangitis and acalculous cholecystitis caused by the Boryong genotype of O. tsutsugamushi. A 82-year-old woman presented with fever and acute abdominal pain on the right upper quadrant. Initially, the patient showed an abnormality of liver enzymes of cholestatic pattern. An acute cholangitis and cholecystitis were suspected on the enhanced computed tomography (CT), and emergent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) performed. However, neither ERCP nor CT detected common bile duct stones or sludge. The patient's illness progressed despite bile drainage and antibiotic therapy. On the fifth day in hospital, an immunofluorescence IgG assay for O. tsutsugamushi was positive, and the patient newly developed a skin rash and an eschar lesion on the right abdomen. The polymerase chain reaction amplification of Orientia genes from blood and bile was positive, genotype of both samples was identified the Boryong type. The presentation of scrub typhus as an acute cholangitis is not reported till now. In endemic areas, scrub typhus would be considered a rare etiology of acute cholangitis.

18.
Annals of Laboratory Medicine ; : 184-186, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762465

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Korea , Mycobacterium , Tenosynovitis
19.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 67-72, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914586

ABSTRACT

We compared the serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae between the pre-pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV)13 era and post-PCV13 era among homogenous inhabitants of an isolated South Korean island. A total of 325 S. pneumoniae strains were isolated. In the pre-PCV13 era, 19A/F, 15A/F, 19B, and 23A serotypes were identified. In the post-PCV13 era, 15 serotypes were identified. The 19F and 23A serotypes showed the highest prevalence in the pre- and post-PCV13 era, respectively. After PCV13 introduction, the PCV 13 serotype coverage rate was decreased (80.0% and 30.5% in the pre- and post-PCV13 eras, respectively), while the proportion of non-PCV 13 serotypes increased.

20.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 337-344, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914568

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is a tick-borne zoonotic disease that is caused by the SFTS virus (SFTSV), and exhibits an overall mortality rate of approximately 20.0% in Korea. Most cases of this disease have been reported in Korea, East China, and Japan, and it mostly affects outdoor workers and farmers. This study aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of SFTSV among healthy farmers on Jeju Island, Korea.@*MATERIALS AND METHODS@#In this prospective cross-sectional study, we analyzed 421 blood samples obtained from 254 farmers (mean age, 59.9 years; 68.9% male) to determine the seroprevalence of SFTSV in 16 rural areas of the Jeju Special Self-Governing Province over a period of 3 years (January 2015–December 2017). We used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies against SFTSV in the collected samples.@*RESULTS@#The seroprevalence of the SFTSV IgG among farmers on Jeju Island was observed to be 2.4%. One subject showed seropositivity over the entire 3-year study period. The areas with the highest SFTSV IgG seropositivity rates were Seonheul-ri in Jocheon-eup, followed by Namwon-eup. Fruit farmers were at a higher risk of exposure to SFTSV than other farmers.@*CONCLUSION@#The seroprevalence of SFTSV in the healthy agricultural population of Jeju Island was not high. However, personal hygiene management should be implemented for the agricultural population in the endemic areas. Surveillance of mild or asymptomatic infections is required in the endemic regions.

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