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1.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 18-26, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968554

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Menopause symptoms can vary in type, duration, and severity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the key factors predicting severe symptoms among Korean perimenopausal women with various demographic data, obstetric and psychiatric histories, and menopausal symptoms screening scale scores. @*Methods@#Data were collected from 1,060 women, and 4 latent classes were identified using latent profile analysis, with 6 major categories of menopausal complaints. Among the 4 classes, we selectively used data from the “all unimpaired” and “all impaired” groups. Menopause rating scale (MRS), sociodemographic, obstetric, and psychiatric factors were assessed, and hierarchical logistic regression analyses were conducted with the “all impaired” group as a dependent variable. @*Results@#Marital status and scores on the psychological and somatic subscales of the MRS were statistically related to being in the “all impaired” group. Otherwise, family history of menopausal symptoms, menarche age, and history of other psychiatric disorders were not statistically significant predictors of being in the “all impaired” group. @*Conclusion@#The psychological and somatic subscales of the MRS predict the severity of perimenopausal syndrome better than obstetric and psychiatric history do among Korean perimenopausal women. Psychological and somatic symptoms as well as genitourinary symptoms in menopausal patients should be closely evaluated.

2.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 32-48, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966698

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to compare recommendations of the Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Bipolar Disorder 2022 (KMAP-BP 2022) with other recently published guidelines for treating bipolar disorder. We reviewed a total of six recently published global treatment guidelines and compared treatment recommendation of the KMAP-BP 2022 with those of other guidelines. For initial treatment of mania, there were no significant differences across treatment guidelines. All guidelines recommended mood stabilizer (MS) or atypical antipsychotic (AAP) monotherapy or a combination of an MS with an AAP as a first-line treatment strategy in a same degree for mania. However, the KMAP-BP 2022 recommended MS + AAP combination therapy for psychotic mania, mixed mania and psychotic depression as treatment of choice. Aripiprazole, quetiapine and olanzapine were the first-line AAPs for nearly all phases of bipolar disorder across guidelines. Some guideline suggested olanzapine is a second-line options during maintenance treatment, related to concern about long-term tolerability. Most guidelines advocated newer AAPs (asenapine, cariprazine, long-acting injectable risperidone, and aripiprazole once monthly) as first-line treatment options for all phases while lamotrigine was recommended for depressive and maintenance phases. Lithium and valproic acid were commonly used as MSs in all phases of bipolar disorder. KMAP-BP 2022 guidelines were similar to other guidelines, reflecting current changes in prescription patterns for bipolar disorder based on accumulated research data. Strong preference for combination therapy was characteristic of KMAP-BP 2022, predominantly in the treatment of psychotic mania, mixed mania and psychotic depression.

3.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 74-79, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926008

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#There has been increased use of medications in treating depressive disorders.Nowadays, patient value is an important part of prescribing medications. This study examines depressive patients’ perspectives on the side effects of medications. @*Methods@#We administered questionnaires nationwide to 364 patients with depressive disorders. Intent or willingness to endure 21 side effects from the Antidepressant Side-Effect Checklist (ASEC) were examined and compared in patients who are less than mildly ill and who are more than moderately ill. @*Results@#In the population, decreased appetite, yawning, increased body temperature, dry mouth, sweating, and constipation are regarded as generally endurable side effects. In contrast, dizziness, light-headedness, nausea or vomiting, headaches, disorientation, problems with urination, and difficulty sleeping are hard to endure. There were differences between patients who are less than mildly ill and those who are more than moderately ill regarding the willingness to endure drowsiness, decreased appetite, sexual dysfunction, palpitations, and weight gain. @*Conclusion@#This nationwide study revealed a general willingness in depressed patients to endure side effects. Sensitive and premeditative discussions of patient value with regard to medications might contribute to finding successful treatments.

4.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 98-109, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926005

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The pharmacotherapy of bipolar disorder is complex. A treatment guideline or algorithm can help clinicians implement better practices and clinical decisions. Therefore, the Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Bipolar Disorder (KMAP-BP) was revised through expert consensus on pharmacotherapy for bipolar disorder. @*Methods@#We revised the KMAP-BP 2018 questionnaire and conducted a survey of expert clinicians. Out of ninety-three members of the review committee, eighty-seven completed the survey. We analyzed the answers, discussed the data, and held a clinician hearing. Here, we report the results from KMAP-BP 2022. @*Results@#The preferred first-step strategies for acute euphoric mania are a combination of a mood stabilizer (MS) and an atypical antipsychotic (AAP), MS monotherapy, and AAP monotherapy. For psychotic mania, an MS and AAP combination, and AAP monotherapy are preferred. For hypomania, MS monotherapy and AAP monotherapy are preferred. The first-step strategies for mild to moderate bipolar depression are MS monotherapy, lamotrigine (LMT) monotherapy, AAP monotherapy, an MS+AAP combination, and an AAP+LMT combination. For non-psychotic severe depression, the MS+AAP combination, the AAP+LMT combination, and the MS+LMT combination are preferred. For psychotic severe depression, MS+AAP and AAP+LMT are preferred. @*Conclusion@#We obtained expert consensus and developed KMAP-BP 2022. Compared with KMAP-BP 2018, we can figure out clinicians’ preferences and decisions in real clinical situations more clearly. The preference for AAP increased, and that of MS and an antidepressant decreased. We hope KMAP-BP 2022 is helpful for clinicians who treat patients with bipolar disorder.

5.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 110-122, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926004

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Bipolar Disorder (KMAP-BP) is a consensus-based medication guideline. To reflect advances in pharmacotherapy for bipolar disorders, we updated KMAP-BP to provide more timely information for clinicians. @*Methods@#We conducted a survey using a questionnaire on treatments formanic/hypomanic episodes. Eighty-seven members among ninety-three members of the review committee (93.5%) completed the survey. Each treatment strategy or treatment option for manic/hypomanic episodes was evaluated with an overall score of 9, and the resulting 95% confidence interval treatment options were categorized into three recommendation levels (primary, secondary, and tertiary). The executive committee analyzed the results and discussed the final production of an algorithm by considering the scientific evidence. @*Results@#The combination of a mood stabilizer and an atypical antipsychotic, monotherapy with a mood stabilizer, or monotherapy with an atypical antipsychotic were recommended as the firstline pharmacotherapeutic strategy for the initial treatment of mania without psychotic features. The mood stabilizer and atypical antipsychotic combination was the treatment of choice, and atypical antipsychotic monotherapy was the first-line treatment for mania with psychotic features. When initial treatment fails, a combination of mood stabilizer+atypical antipsychotic and switching to another first-line agent is recommended. For hypomania, monotherapy with either mood stabilizer or atypical antipsychotic is the recommended first-line treatment, but the mood stabilizer+atypical antipsychotic combination is recommended as well. @*Conclusion@#It is notable that there were changes in the preferences for the use of individual atypical antipsychotics, and the preference for the use of mood stabilizer increased for treatment-resistant mania.

6.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 123-132, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926003

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#After the Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Bipolar Disorder (KMAP-BP) was developed in 2002, its fifth revision was completed in 2022 to reflect the recent rapid developments and research into bipolar disorder and its psychopharmacology. @*Methods@#According to the methodology for previous versions, the depressive episode section of KMAP-BP 2022 was revised based on a survey consisting of 11 questions. Among ninetythree experts, eighty-seven members of the review committee (93.5%) completed the survey.The executive committee analyzed the results and discussed the final production of an algorithm by considering the scientific evidence. @*Results@#Overall, the results from this study showed little change in comparison with previous versions of KMAP-BP. However, there have been significant changes in recommendations over the span of about 20 years. The preferences for lamotrigine and atypical antipsychotics, especially aripiprazole, quetiapine, and olanzapine, have shown a tendency to continuously increase, but the preferences for risperidone and ziprasidone have not increased, but have decreased. Moreover, the preference for typical antipsychotics has significantly decreased. Additionally, concerns over the use of antidepressants in bipolar depression have been raised, and their use is not recommended in KMAP-BP 2022 as a first-line treatment. @*Conclusion@#Pharmacotherapy for acute depressive episodes with various clinical progressions and various subtypes still shows diversity, compared to pharmacotherapy for mania. We look forward to the development of bipolar depressive, episode-specific therapeutic drugs in the future, and hope the fifth update of KMAP-BP will be a complementary option for clinicians and their patients with bipolar disorder.

7.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 133-142, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926002

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Treatment guidelines or an algorithm can help clinicians implement better practices and clinical decisions. Therefore, the Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Bipolar Disorder 2022 (KMAP-BP 2022) was revised again through a consensus of expert opinion. The diagnosis and treatment of mixed features are not simple, and there are many things to discuss. We describe the preferences and recommendations from KMAP-BP 2022 for the treatment of mood episodes with mixed features. @*Methods@#We revised the KMAP-BP 2018 questionnaire and conducted the survey with expert clinicians. Out of ninety-three members of the review committee, eighty-seven completed the survey. We analyzed the answers, discussed the data, and held a clinician hearing. @*Results@#In first-step strategies for mixed features with more manic symptoms, a combination of a mood stabilizer and an atypical antipsychotic is the treatment of choice. Mood stabilizer monotherapy and atypical antipsychotic monotherapy are preferred strategies. For mixed features with more depressive symptoms, a combination of mood stabilizer and atypical antipsychotic, a combination of atypical antipsychotic and lamotrigine (LMT), atypical antipsychotic monotherapy, a combination of mood stabilizer and LMT, and mood stabilizer monotherapy are preferred. For mixed features with similar manic symptoms and depressive symptoms, a combination of mood stabilizer and atypical antipsychotic, atypical antipsychotic monotherapy, and mood stabilizer monotherapy are preferred. @*Conclusion@#For mixed features, a combination of mood stabilizer and atypical antipsychotic is generally preferred, and LMT is preferred for depressive symptoms. Compared with KMAP-BP 2018, more diverse strategies and drugs are being attempted for the treatment of mixed features.

8.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 37-50, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924836

ABSTRACT

The Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Depressive Disorder (KMAP-DD) first was published in 2002, and has been revised four times, in 2006, 2012, 2017, and 2021. In this review, we compared recommendations from the recently revised KMAP-DD 2021 to four global clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for depression published after 2010. The recommendations from the KMAP-DD 2021 were similar to those from other CPGs, although there were some differences. The KMAP-DD 2021 reflected social culture and the healthcare system in Korea and recent evidence about pharmacotherapy for depression, as did other recently published evidence-based guidelines. Despite some intrinsic limitations as an expert consensus-based guideline, the KMAP-DD 2021 can be helpful for Korean psychiatrists making decisions in clinical settings by complementing previously published evidence-based guidelines, especially for some clinical situations lacking evidence from rigorously designed clinical trials.

9.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 126-134, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924828

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study investigated the prevalence and comorbidities of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among adults and children/adolescents in Korea. @*Methods@#This study used data from the Korea Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service collected from 2008 to 2018. Study participants comprised patients with at least one diagnosis of ADHD (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Provisions, 10th revision code F90.0). Prevalence rates and psychiatric comorbidities were also analyzed. @*Results@#We identified 878,996 patients diagnosed with ADHD between 2008 and 2018. The overall prevalence rate of diagnosed ADHD increased steeply from 127.1/100,000 in 2008 to 192.9/100,000 in 2018; it increased 1.47 times in children/adolescents (≤ 18 years) and 10.1 times in adults (> 18 years) during this period. Among adult and children/adolescent ADHD patients, 61.84% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 61.74−61.93) and 78.72% (95% CI 78.53− 78.91) had at least one psychiatric comorbidity, respectively. @*Conclusion@#Our results showed that the prevalence rate of diagnosed ADHD has increased in Korea; however, it is lower than the global average. Further studies are required to identify and treat vulnerable populations appropriately.

10.
Korean Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine ; : 196-202, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968226

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#:The purpose of this study was to quantitatively assess the degree of Graves’ Disease affecting mental health through the results of multiphasic military personality inventory (MPI) in 19-year-old men. @*Methods@#:We collected and analyzed the results of the MPI for 592 healthy subjects and 148 Graves’ disease patients among the 19-year-old men who visited the Military Manpower Administration from February 2008 to January 2010. @*Results@#:Among demographic characteristics, both Graves’ disease and control group are 19-year-old men. Educational level, socioeconomic status, parental relationship, and BMI were not statistically different between the two groups (χ2 =0.089, p=0.766; χ2 =5.090, p=0.278; χ 2 =5.988, p=0.112 ; t=-0.635, p=0.526). In the MPI, among validity scales, the score of the faking-good subscale was significantly lower in the Graves’ group (t=3.507, p<0.001), but in the faking-bad and infrequency subscales scores were not significantly different between two groups (t=-1.700, p=0.090; t=-0.519, p=0.604). Among the neurosis scale, anxiety, depression, somatization, and personality disor-der subscale scores were all significantly higher in Graves’ disease group (t=-3.323, p<0.001; t=-4.210, p<0.001; t=-6.202, p<0.001; t=-2.872, p<0.01). Among the psychopath scale, each score of schizophrenia and paranoia subscales were not statistically different between the two groups (t=-0.158, p=0.874; t=-0.846, p=0.398). @*Conclusions@#:According to MPI result, we can confirm that Graves’ disease patients in 19-year-old-men may appear features such as anxiety, depression, somatization and personality tendency (introversion or impulsivity) than the control group.

11.
Mood and Emotion ; (2): 11-16, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918517

ABSTRACT

Background@#Studies on prevalence and social variables affecting postpartum depression appear to be inconsistent. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of postpartum depression, as well as the correlation between education, offspring, age, and risk of the postpartum depression. @*Methods@#This study included 144 mothers living in Chungju who appeared to experience postpartum depression based on a score of >10 marks on the Korean version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Correlation and logistic regression analyses were used to calculate correlation coefficients and odds ratios (OR) for postpartum depression based on the education level of mothers and number of offspring. @*Results@#Prevalence of postpartum depression was found to be 29.17%. Age was not significantly correlated with EPDS score. EPDS scores tended to decrease with the increase in the number of education years (OR, 0.66); however, EPDS scores tended to increase with the increase in the number of offspring increased (OR, 1.65). @*Conclusion@#The result of this study demonstrates that education acts as a protective factor and number of offspring acts as a risk factor for postpartum depression. It also suggests that proper intervention in the mothers’ educational level and number of offspring is necessary.

13.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 320-328, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915579

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a condition characterized by inattention or hyperactivity and impulsivity that hinders function and development. The purpose of this study was twofold, that is, to check the diagnostic rate of ADHD, which is first diagnosed in adulthood as well as in childhood, and to compare drugs prescribed to children and adult patients. @*Methods@#This study utilized Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service data from 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2018. Only first entered International Classification of Diseases diagnostic codes were collected. We set the first year as a clearance period, checked changes in drug prescriptions over the years, and investigated differences found between pediatric and adult patients. @*Results@#The overall diagnostic rate of ADHD decreased from 71.9 to 69.7 per 100000 people between 2009 and 2012. This reducing trend was noticeable from 2012 and decreased to 43.7 by 2015, and then rose again to 65.4 in 2018. Extended-release formulation of the methylphenidate (ER-MPH) was found to be the most frequently used first drug. @*Conclusion@#Overall diagnostic rate decreased from 2009 to 2018, and the incidence of adult ADHD showed a steady increase. For children, ER-MPH was the most prescribed drug at all ages, while osmotic-release oral system formulation of the methylphenidate was most prescribed for adults.

14.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 258-266, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915569

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#An expert consensus guideline for the treatment of depressive disorder, the Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Depressive Disorder (KMAP-DD), was first established in 2002 and updated in 2017. To provide an up-to-date treatment guideline, KMAP-DD 2021 was recently completed. This study was undertaken to provide a guideline for the treatment of depressive disorder in a selected population that included females and elderly. @*Methods@#The survey conducted consisted of 7 questionnaires for each population, females and elderly, with depressive disorder. A total of 65 of 97 experienced psychiatrists answered the survey. @*Results@#For the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, venlafaxine, and desvenlafaxine were recommended as first-line therapies. For major depressive disorder (MDD) during pregnancy, antidepressant (AD) monotherapy was recommended as a first-line therapy for mild to moderate and severe depression, and combined electroconvulsive therapy and AD with atypical antipsychotics (AAP) were recommended as a first-line therapy for severe depression with psychotic features. AD plus AAP was generally recommended for post-partum depression. In elderly with depression, AD monotherapy was recommended as the treatment of choice for mild to moderate episodes, and AD monotherapy and AD plus AAP were recommended as a first-line therapy for severe depression without psychotic features. Lastly, AD plus AAP was chosen as the treatment of choice for psychotic depression. @*Conclusion@#Present study provides an updated algorithm for the treatment of females and elderly with depressive disorders. This algorithm provides a practical aid to clinicians for the treatment of females and elderly with MDD.

15.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 267-274, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915568

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#To revise Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Depressive Disorder 2017 (KMAPDD 2017) guidelines by revising antidepressant choices based on their safety, adverse effects, comorbid physical illnesses, and the clinical definition of treatment-resistant depression (TRD). @*Methods@#A 33-item questionnaire comprised of six parts was developed. A 65-expert consensus (65/97, 67.0%) was obtained on pharmacological treatment strategies regarding antidepressant choice with respect to safety, adverse effects, and comorbid physical illnesses. Multiple response sets were subjected to statistical analysis. @*Results@#The results obtained showed that first-line pharmacotherapeutic strategies based on various clinical considerations were as follows: mirtazapine (for patients with increased suicidality, Gastrointestinal discomfort, and insomnia), bupropion (for patients with orthostatic hypotension, history of a safety accident, serotonin syndrome, sedation, sexual dysfunction, and weight gain), and escitalopram (for patients with anticholinergic side effects). For patients exhibiting comorbid conditions, duloxetine was the first line pharmacotherapeutic strategy for chronic pain, escitalopram was the first-line pharmacotherapeutic strategy for diabetes, hypertension, liver disease, Parkinson’s disease, renal disease, epilepsy, and thyroid disease, and sertraline was a first-line pharmacotherapeutic strategy for arrhythmia and cardiovascular disease. @*Conclusion@#Pharmacological treatment strategy of KMAP-DD 2021 is similar to that of KMAPDD 2017. Additional study is required to determine antidepressant choices for TRD and cancer patients with depression.

16.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 275-283, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915567

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Depressive Disorder 2021 (KMAP-DD 2021) was made to update new researches and data. This study focused on non-pharmacological biological treatments. @*Methods@#Ninety-seven psychiatrists with extensive clinical experience in the non-pharmacological biological treatment of depressive disorder were primary selected and a questionnaire was sent to each of them by mail, 65 of the 97 replied. @*Results@#Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) was recommended as an initial strategy for major depressive disorder, severe depressive disorder with/without psychotic features with urgent suicidal risk, or a severe depressive episode with psychotic features in pregnant patients, for non-responders on pharmacotherapy for a moderate depressive episode, and as a second strategy for non-responders on antidepressant monotherapy or combination therapy combined with physical illness. For pregnant women with a severe episode of major depressive disorder, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) was preferred as a first-line strategy, and as a second strategy for non-responders on combined antipsychotic and antidepressant therapy and non-responders with comorbidity and physical illness. Complementary or novel treatment was not recommended as the first-line treatment strategy for depressive disorder, but transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), deep brain stimulation (DBS), light therapy, and omega-3 fatty acid nutritional therapy were second-line treatment strategies. @*Conclusion@#ECT and rTMS are initial strategies in specific clinical situations. Preferences for complementary or novel treatments such as tDCS, light therapy, and omega-3 fatty acid nutritional therapy have increased gradually, but in practice, their usages are still limited.

17.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e324-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915420

ABSTRACT

Background@#Frontline healthcare workers responding to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) inevitably face tremendous psychological burden. Thus, the present study aimed to identify the psychological impact and the factors contributing to the likely increase in emotional distress of healthcare workers. @*Methods@#The participants include a total of 99 healthcare workers at Bugok National Hospital. Psychometric scales were used to assess emotional distress (12-item General Health Questionnaire; GHQ-12), depression symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9; PHQ-9), and post-traumatic stress disorder-related symptoms (Impact of Events Scale-Revised; IES-R). A supplementary questionnaire was administered to investigate the experience of healthcare workers exposed to COVID-19-infected patients. Based on the results of GHQ-12 survey, participants were categorized into two groups: distress and non-distress. All the assessed scores were compared between the two groups. A logistic regression model was constructed to identify factors associated with emotional distress. @*Results@#Emotional distress was reported by 45.3% (n = 45) of all participants. The emotionally distressed group was more likely to be female, manage close contacts, have higher scores on PHQ-9 and IES-R, feel increased professional risk, and report that proper infection control training was not provided. Female gender, managing close contacts, higher scores on PHQ-9, and a feeling that proper infection control training was not provided were associated with emotional distress in logistic regression. @*Conclusion@#Frontline healthcare workers face tremendous psychological burden during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, appropriate psychological interventions should be provided to the HCWs engaged in the management of COVID-19-infected patients.

18.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 751-772, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914067

ABSTRACT

Objective@#In the 19 years since the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology and the Korean Society for Affective Disorders developed the Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Depressive Disorder (KMAP-DD) in 2002, four revisions have been conducted. @*Methods@#To increase survey efficiency in this revision, to cover the general clinical practice, and to compare the results with previous KMAP-DD series, the overall structure of the questionnaire was maintained. The six sections of the questionnaire were as follows: 1) pharmacological treatment strategies for major depressive disorder (MDD) with/without psychotic features; 2) pharmacological treatment strategies for persistent depressive disorder and other depressive disorder subtypes; 3) consensus for treatment-resistant depression; 4) the choice of an antidepressant in the context of safety, adverse effects, and comorbid physical illnesses; 5) treatment strategies for special populations (children/adolescents, elderly, and women); and 6) non-pharmacological biological therapies. Recommended first-, second-, and third-line strategies were derived statistically. @*Results@#There has been little change in the four years since KMAP-DD 2017 due to the lack of newly introduced drug or treatment strategies. However, shortened waiting time between the initial and subsequent treatments, increased preference for atypical antipsychotics (AAPs), especially aripiprazole, and combination strategies with AAPs yield an active and somewhat aggressive treatment trend in Korea. @*Conclusion@#We expect KMAP-DD to provide clinicians with useful information about the specific strategies and medications appropriate for treating patients with MDD by bridging the gap between clinical real practice and the evidence-based world.

19.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 174-185, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900084

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Depressive Disorder (KMAP-DD) is a consensus-based medication guideline. To reflect advances in pharmacotherapy for depressive disorders, we have undertaken a fourth revision of the KMAP-DD. @*Methods@#The review committee for the new version of the KMAP-DD (KMAP-DD 2021) included 143 Korean psychiatrists with clinical experience in the field of depressive disorders. Each treatment strategy or treatment option was evaluated with an overall score of nine, and the treatment option was categorized into the three levels of recommendation of primary, secondary, and tertiary. @*Results@#The first-line pharmacotherapeutic strategy for mild to moderate major depressive episodes (MDE) was antidepressant (AD) monotherapy. For severe MDE without psychotic features, AD monotherapy or the combination of AD and atypical antipsychotics (AAP) was the first-line strategy. The combination of AD and AAP was recommended as the first-line for the MDE with psychotic features as well. When treatment response to initial AD monotherapy was insufficient, a combination of AAP or another AD was recommended. In the case of unsatisfactory response to initial treatment with an AD and AAP combination, switching to another AAP or adding another AD was recommended. @*Conclusion@#Generally, there were no significant changes in the recommendations for MDE management in the KMAP-DD 2021 compared to previous versions. However, it was notable that the preference for the use of AAP and AD with the novel mechanism of action including vortioxetine and agomelatine increased.

20.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 186-192, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900083

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Depressive Disorder (KMAP-DD) was developed in 2002 and revised in 2006, 2012, 2017. In 2021, the fifth edition was published.This edition reflected new findings and the latest trends in the areas of pharmacological treatment. The aim of this study is to present strategies and treatment options according to the subtype of depression using data from the KMAP-DD-2021. @*Methods@#Ninety-seven psychiatrists with clinical experience in depressive disorder were selected. The questionnaires for KMAP-DD 2021 were sent to participants via mail. KMAP-DD 2021 consists of overall treatment strategies and treatment options under specific circumstances.Each treatment strategy or treatment option was evaluated with an overall score of nine and was divided into the three phases of recommendation that include primary, secondary, and tertiary. @*Results@#For persisting depressive disorder, antidepressant monotherapy including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) (escitalopram, fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine), serotoninnorepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) (desvenlafaxine, venlafaxine, duloxetine, milnacipran), vortioxetine, and mirtazapine, was recommended as first-line medications. For melancholia of major depressive disorder, SSRI, SNRI, vortioxetine, and mirtazapine also were recommended as first-line medications. For mixed features, SSRI, bupropion, mirtazapine, SNRI, except for duloxetine, and milnacipran were recommended as first-line medications. For anxious distress, SSRI, mirtazapine, and SNRI, except milnacipran, were recommended as first-line medications. @*Conclusion@#The preferences of antidepressants by experts differed according to the subtype of depression. These findings suggest that experts treat patients with a major depressive disorder after considering the subtype of depression involved.

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